Author Topic: HISTORY of MEDICAL and WELLNESS TOURISM IN INDIAN SUBCONTINENT , SOUTHEAST ASIA  (Read 6893 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita with reference to Medical Tourism
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History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Charaka Samhita, Kushana Period (185-73 BCE) -26
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 117
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)

 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
 Charaka Samhita directly does not refer medical tourism as word medical tourism is newly word coined by markers and marketing personnel. However, Charaka Samhita offer the medical tourism marketing students that there existed medical tourism around 1000 BCE and late third century too.
 Global Health Care Resources published a data 2016-2017 Global Buyers Survey Briefs (2017) in partnership with International Healthcare Research Centre   and provided the survey about accompanying persons with patients for medical treatment abroad and offered following data on page 14  –
86 % patients do bring their family members for medical treatment trips. 74.4 % patients bring one family member, 23.3% bring two family members and 2.3% bring three family members with them for medical treatments in foreign countries .
    Many hundred years back, the Anushilan part of Charaka Samhita described the characteristics of accompanying persons with patients as follows (1)-
The person accompanying patient should be experts on many arts; having money; adaptable, same nature as of patients, amicable with others or hard life, trustworthy, humble, away from worries of trouble, focused ones.
The above citation from Charaka Samhita by Atrideva clearly suggest well developed medical tourism concept in India long back .
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References –   
1- Vidyalankar , Atrideva , 1960 , Ayurved ka Vrihad Itihas , Bhargava Prkashan , Hindi Samiti, Varansi , page 173

 Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2019 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical Tourism, health Tourism and Wellness Tourism and History of Medicines in India will be continued in next chapter –
Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medical Tourism  , Health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medicines in India  , North India , South Asia; Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medical Tourism  , Health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medicines in India  , South India; South Asia,  Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medical Tourism  , Health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medicines in India , East India, , Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medical Tourism  , Health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medicines in India  , West India, South Asia; Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medical Tourism  , Health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medicines in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medical Tourism  , Health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medicines in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medical Tourism  , Health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medicines in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medical Tourism  , Health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medicines in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medical Tourism  , Health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medicines in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medical Tourism  , Health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medicines in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medical Tourism  , Health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Characteristics of Accompanying Persons with Patients in Charaka Samhita ,History of Medicines in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia, 




Bhishma Kukreti

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Medical Tourism History in Nagavansha Period in India

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Nagavansha Period (176-340 AD) -1
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 119
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)

 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
 Naga Period is important creation or editing of Sushruta Samhita and Kashyapa Samhita. 
 The Maurya Empire started disintegration just after the death of Great Asoka.  There were main four new empires replacing Maurya Empire.
  One of strong kingdom replacing Maurya Empire was Naga Kingdom of Vidisha or Vidarbha . Dr.K.P Jaiswal offered following chronology of Nagas of Vidisha based on Puranas and last coins and inscriptions of last Naga kings (1)-
 Sesha  Naga ( 110-90BC)
  Bhogi  ( 90-80BC )
Ramachandra (80-50BC)
Dharma varman ( 50-40 BC)
.
.Bhavdatta
Siva Nandi
 According to Jaiswal the founder of Nava Naga was Bharashiva (ruled 140-170 AD)  and was contemporary of Vasudeva of Kushan kingdom . There were other Naga Kings as Virasena ( (175-180),  Haya Naga ( 210-245),  Traya Naga ( 245-250 ), Barhina Naga ( 350-260AD) , Charaja Naga ( 260-290) , Bhava Naga (290-315).
The real contribution of Naga king Bharshiva and his heirs is to re-establish Hindu culture and religion.
In next chapter, the author will discuss Sushruta Samhita and Kashyapa Samhita in context proof of medical tourism in India.
 
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References –   
1-Jaiswal K.P., History of India (150- 350 AD)
 Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2019 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical Tourism, health Tourism and Wellness Tourism and History of Medicines in India will be continued in next chapter –
History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , North India , South Asia; History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , South India; South Asia,  History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India , East India, , History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , Central India, South Asia;    History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , North East India , South Asia;   History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia, 





Bhishma Kukreti

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Medical Tourism History in Nagavansha and Vakatakas Period in India

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Nagavansha Period (176-450 A.D.) -1
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 119
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)

 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)

-
 Naga Period is important creation or editing of Sushruta Samhita and Kashyapa Samhita. 
 The Maurya Empire started disintegration just after the death of Great Asoka.  There were main four new empires replacing Maurya Empire.
  One of strong kingdom replacing Maurya Empire was Naga Kingdom of Vidisha or Vidarbha . Dr.K.P Jaiswal offered following chronology of Nagas of Vidisha based on Puranas and last coins and inscriptions of last Naga kings (1)-
 Sesha  Naga ( 110-90BC)
  Bhogi  ( 90-80BC )
Ramachandra (80-50BC)
Dharma varman ( 50-40 BC)
.
.Bhavdatta
Siva Nandi
 According to Jaiswal the founder of Nava Naga was Bharashiva (ruled 140-170 A.D.)  and was contemporary of Vasudeva of Kushan kingdom . There were other Naga Kings as Virasena ( (175-180),  Haya Naga ( 210-245),  Traya Naga ( 245-250 ), Barhina Naga ( 350-260A.D.) , Charaja Naga ( 260-290) , Bhava Naga (290-315).
The real contribution of Naga king Bharshiva and his heirs is to re-establish Hindu culture and religion. The contribution of Nagas for reviving Sanatana or Hindu religion became bases for reared d by Gupta emperors and Vakataka rulers . That means those Kings revived Sanskrit language.
             Vakatakas Rulers of Deccan

   Prof J. Dubreuil states that the most glorious kings /rulers of Deccan those reined in Deccan were Vakataka rulers. (2)

In next chapter, the author will discuss Sushruta Samhita and Kashyapa Samhita in context proof of medical tourism in India. 
  There is still lot of uncertainty of ruling period of Vakatakas.
  Historians started paying attention on Vakatakas when they found Copper plates of Vakatakas from Wasim (formerly Akola district) of Vidarbha , Maharashtra.
 Dr. K.P Jaiswal argued that Vakatas Kings ruled from 150-350 A.D. (1). However, mahajan offer chronological period of Vakatakas as follows (3)
                     Home of Vakatakas Rulers
      Vakataaks ruled in Vidarbha , Maratha WA.D.a and  Andhra  (3)
  Mahajan offers details of following Vakatakas Kings –
             Rulers of Main Vakatakas branch
  Vindhyashakti (? )
Pravaarasena  I (270A.D.-330A.D.)
Rudrasena ( 330-350A.D.)
Prithvisena I (350-400A.D.)
Pravarasena II (420-450A.D.)
Narendrasena (450-470A.D.)
Prithvisena II (-- 490A.D.)
   Rulers of Second Branch of Vakatakas  (3)
Servsena 9the son of Pravarasena (330-350A.D.)
Vindhyasena (355-400 A.D.)
Pravarsena II (400-415A.D.)
…? ( 450-475)
Devasena (450-470 A.D.)
Harisena (475-500 A.D.)
Vakatakas dynasty ceased to exist from 500Ad as Kalchuris of Mahasamiti defeated Vakatakas King.
 In next chapter, the author will discuss Sushruta Samhita and Kashyapa Samhita in context proof of medical tourism in India. 

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References –   
1-Jaiswal K.P.,1934  History of India (150- 350 A.D.) , Lahore
2- Dubreuil .J. , 1920, Ancient History of the Deccan , Pondicherry
 Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2019 bjkukreti@gmail.com
Mahajan .V.D. 19998, S Chand & Company , Delhi pages 586-593
  History of Medical Tourism, health Tourism and Wellness Tourism and History of Medicines in India will be continued in next chapter –
History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , North India , South Asia; History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , South India; South Asia,  History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India , East India, , History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , Central India, South Asia;    History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , North East India , South Asia;   History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India , BanglA.D.esh , South Asia;  History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; History of Medical  Tourism in Nagavansha  , Health  Tourism in Nagavansha and Wellness  Tourism in Nagavansha  and History of Medicines in India  , Baluchistan, South

Bhishma Kukreti

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Sushruta the Great Surgeon: An Introduction

Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Sushruta Samhita -1
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Nagavansha Period (176-340 A.D.) -2
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 120
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)

 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)

-
  Sushruta is called ‘Father of Medicines Surgery’ and ‘Father of Plastic Surgery in India’.  There are differences among historians about time of Sushruta. Atrideva shows (1) his period at the Nagavansha period (176-340 AD) and Suhas states based on many sources that the Great Surgeon ever born in India Sushruta lived in 6 century B.C. Mahabharata states that Sushruta was son of Vishwamitra. But the popular Brahmarshi Vishwamitra does not have any relation with father of Sushruta.
 It seems that Sushruta took primary education under his father. (2). Later on in his childhood days, Sushruta saw pain of people. Pain of people affected Sushruta for taking medicine education. Sushruta went to King Kashi, Dhanvantri Divodasa the popular surgeon and physician of his time.  (2)
   Once , when King Divodasa (Dhanvantri) was sitting in his hermitage along with other sages. At that time, Sushruta came with other sages and requested to Sushruta, “O Lord! We are felling very unhappy many people suffering from diseases related to body and mind. We have come to you for studying Ayurveda for curing people.”
 The King Divodasa Dhanvantri taught his students Ayurveda and  Surgery . In Sushruta Samhita, King Divodasa offer lectures to sage of Sushruta and it is clear that King Divodas Dhanvantri did not roam along with his disciple for teaching as Charaka and his Gurus  used to do .
That means that in Sushruta period a few or all Medical Teachers used to live in their Ashrams or medical researches centre  and students used to visit their schools (Hospitals) .
The reference of Sushruta and other students or sages visiting hermitage of Divodasa for taking medical education offer us the direction that there were medical schools at Sushruta period and students used to come to the medical schools. This was nothing but creating infrastructure for medicals services and creating medical services infrastructure is part and partial of medical tourism
Sushruta studied surgery under his Guru King Divodas and later created famous Grantha ‘Sushruta Samhita’. Writing book or Grantha is also part and partial of promoting medical tourism.
 Above article written with the help of both books by  Atrideva Vidyalankar and Dr. Suhas
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References –   
1-Vidyalankar Atrideva   , 1960 ka Vrihat Itihas , Hindi Sahitya Samiti, Banaras pages 188-
2- Suhas, B.R.  2011, Sushruta, Sapana Book House Bengaluru 1-10
3- Atrideva   , 1960 ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Samiti, Banaras pages 192

 Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2021 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical Tourism, health Tourism and Wellness Tourism and History of Medicines in India will be continued in next chapter –

Bhishma Kukreti

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Sushruta Samhita: An Introduction

Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Sushruta Samhita -2
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Nagavansha Period (176-340 A.D.) -3
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 121
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)

 By: Bhishma Kukreti
(Medical Tourism Historian)
-
   Sushruta Samhita deals with medicines and mainly surgery (1).
The preacher/preceptor of Sushruta Samhita is Guru King Dhanvantari of Sushruta and the disciples/listeners were Sushruta, Aushdhenava, Vaitarani, Aurabhra, Paipkalavata, Karvirya, Gopurarakshita etc . (1)
  In the whole Sushruta Samhita, King Dhanvantari vocative to Sushruta only and calls as Vatsa (son) .Sushruta wished to know about Surgery and Dhanvantri taught more of Surgery in Sushruta Samhita than general medical practices. (1)
 There are following books or Books-
1-Sutrasthan – 46 chapters
2-Nidan Sthan – 16 chapters
3-Shareer Sthan -10 Chapters
4-Chikitsa Sthan – 40 chapters
5-Kalpa Sthan – 8 chapters
6- Uttara  Tantra – 66 chapters
Barring Uttara Tantra, other books narrate about Surgery.


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References –   
1-Vidyalankar Atrideva   , 1960 ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Samiti, Banaras pages 188-
2- Suhas, B.R.  2011, Sushruta, Sapana Book House Bengaluru 1-10
3- VAtrideva   , 1960 ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Samiti, Banaras pages 192

 Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2021 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical Tourism, health Tourism and Wellness Tourism and History of Medicines in India will be continued in next chapter –



Bhishma Kukreti

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Medical Education and Training factor in Sushruta Samhita and Medical Tourism development

Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Sushruta Samhita -3
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Nagavansha Period (176-340 A.D.) -4
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 122 
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)

 By: Bhishma Kukreti
(Medical Tourism Historian)
-
 Medical tourism starts or develops by a couple of important factors. First there must be availability of Vaidya or physicians or curing man or doctor, second there must be a patient to travel to the doctor and for becoming doctors , there must be arrangement for medical education or training for doctors (medical training or education school or centres) .
   Sushruta Samhita indicates that there was satisfactory arrangement for producing doctors by medical teaching and training.
  Sushruta Samhita itself state directly about medical training for producing doctors as King Dhvantri preaches /teaches medical science to his disciples-Sushruta, Vaitarani,  Aurabhra, Paushpkalavata, Karavirya, Gopurrakshit and others (1)
  Vidyalankar Atrideva states that in Sushruta period, the medical teacher used to stay at his hermitage and students used to come there for medical studies and not as Charaka time when medical teachers used to roam with the students. There is preaching or teaching of medical science by Kashi King to his students at one place.(2)  It clearly indicates that students used to travel to medical schools or Guru for getting medicines or surgery  knowledge. The Students visiting to medical schools for medical knowledge is part of medical tourism at Sushruta period or at the present time too.
   Sushruta Samhita or preaching of king Kashiraj to his students is more for surgery and surgery is more of action and cutting, dissection, sewing, binding injuries etc. The chapter ‘Yogyasutriya’ of Sushruta Samhita deals with training for surgery and advices for students to learn piercing or  by piercing the  gourds -as bottle guards,  water melons, cucumber etc.  (3) .Cutting should be practiced by cutting vertically , horizontally , diatonically by cutting the above vegetables. (3)
  Sushruta Samhita states that penetration or bhedan should be learnt by needle penetrating the leather bags, water or muddy substances. (3). Same way, bendan or drilling should be learnt by drilling dead veins of animals and lotus roots.
The ‘aipan’ works should be practiced on insect infected wood, dry bottle guard, While Aharya or surgery should be learnt on jackfruits, bel fruit and dead animal teeth,. The sewing should be learnt on sewing clothes. The pasting and dressing should be learnt through pitcher or wood model and should learn using bases /acids and fire on soft flesh (Sushruta Samhita Yogyasutra 9-4) Translated by Vidyalankar (3) There is complete guidelines for learning surgery in Sharir Adhyaya 5/47-49 of Sushruta Samhita (3)
 The above details are enough for getting indication that there was clear custom of learning surgery and medicines in Sushruta period and those factors are proof of medical tourism in Sushruta period
References –   
1-Vidyalankar Atrideva   , 1960 ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Samiti, Banaras pages -188
2- Vidyalankar Atrideva   , 1960 ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Samiti, Banaras pages 192
3- Vidyalankar Atrideva   , 1960 ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Samiti, Banaras pages 193

 Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2020 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical Tourism, health Tourism and Wellness Tourism and History of Medicines in India will be continued in next chapter –

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Medical Education and Training the Indicating Factors of developing Medical Tourism in Sushruta Samhita  -2

Indicators of Medical Tourism Development in Sushruta Samhita -4
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Nagavansha Period (176-340 A.D.) -5
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 123 
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)

 By: Bhishma Kukreti
(Medical Tourism Historian)
-
    Sushruta Samhita is all more about treatments by surgery.  Medical tourism development requires trained doctors and training to medical students is one of essential factors for developing medical tourism at any period.
     There are training advices for medical students as procedures for learning about human bodies in Sushruta Samhita. In Sharir Adhyaya of Sushruta Samhita ( 5/47-49) there is teaching of following processes to learn human bodies from dead bodies (1)-
“The students should learn dissection of dead bodies for know all about human bodies. The student should take dead body of that human that is below 100 years and would not died serious diseases , with complete body parts to a lonely place. There in lonely place, the student should take out the intestine and dirt (sludge) from dead body and then should take the body to flowing water, the dead body should be filled by fibres, grasses  and should soften the dead body. When the dead body becomes soft , the students should watch the body parts after rubbing the dead body by   bamboo brush or other hard brushes. “
   Sushruta Samhita teaches the medical students for learning the complete details of body parts by studying dead bodies. That teaching in Sushruta Samhita indicates that there was development of infrastructures those develop medical tourism. Definitely, the medical tourism was not for the way medical tourism developed today. In Sushruta times and even in early British time, medical profession was less for earning and more for serving human beings.
  Teaching or training the medical science has been always part of medical tourism and that  also applies with Sushruta Samhita.
References –   
1-Vidyalankar Atrideva   , 1960 ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Samiti, Banaras pages -193
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2020 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical Tourism, health Tourism and Wellness Tourism and History of Medicines in India will be continued in next chapter –


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Characteristics of Good Hospital and Treatments in Hospital described by Sushruta Samhita

Indicators of Medical Tourism Development in Sushruta Samhita -5
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Nagavansha Period (176-340 A.D.) -6
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 124 
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)

 By: Bhishma Kukreti
(Medical Tourism Historian)
-
 Bagde A.B.  ET all rightly called Sushruta the creator of Sushruta Samhita as ‘The father of surgery in this world (1).
Sushruta Samhita deals with many subjects of medical sciences those are indicators of medical tourism in that period.
If there are doctors or hospitals, those two factors automatically attract patients from other places and even those two important medical services factors attract patients from far places too. In Sushruta period, the medical services were not for earning only but offering services to the society. The aim or medical services was mainly service to the society and hence, there was no such concept of earning by medical tourism.
 Hospital is major factors of creating medical tourism and Sushruta described the characteristics of good hospitals (main  aim is surgery)  and the process of treatments in the hospitals as follows {Sushruta Samhita , Sutra Sthan  Chapter 19, 14.15 explained by  Atrideva Vidyalankar (2) - .
  There should be a room for the a patients
“ There must be a bed comfortable bed (long and quite wide) for the patient with comfortable bedding arrangement. The bed should be kept at delightful l place. The bed head should be towards east. Near pillow or under the pillow, there must be a small weapon as knife (This practice still persist in India as accustom). The friends of Patient should tell pleasant stories to the patients and increase will power of patients for curing ulcers of injuries.
 Sushruta Samhita suggested that nursing women  should not visit near the patient bed and the women as prostitute (agamya stree) should never visits the patients. Perhaps the suggestion is that there should not be semen flow at any cost and women site might create semen flow and that might increase the injury. 
 The above characteristics suggest that there hospitals in Sushruta period and wherever there is hospital it attracts patients from places far away to or hospital creates medical tourism without advertisement too. Those above factors indicate that there was developed medical tourism concept in Sushruta period  in India (including today’s Pakistan, Afghanistan, Myanmar )   

References –   
1-Bagde , A.B. et all, 2017, Sushruta Samhita: a Unique Encyclopaedia of Ayurvedic Surgery ,   World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol.6, Issue 4. 750-767
2-Vidyalankar Atrideva   , 1960 ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Samiti, Banaras pages -193-194
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2020 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical Tourism, health Tourism and Wellness Tourism and History of Medicines in India will be continued in next chapter –

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Mentions of Geographical places  in Sushruta Samhita: The Tourism Development Indicators

Indicators of Medical Tourism Development in Sushruta Samhita -6
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Nagavansha Period (176-340 A.D.) -7
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 125 
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)

 By: Bhishma Kukreti
(Medical Tourism Historian)
-
  In past, Historians never paid any attention on historical aspects of medical tourism. As such, the term medical tourism came in existence in last century only. Medical tourism is there from the time ma kind came in this earth.
  In Sushruta Samhita there is no mention of word, Chikitsa Paryatan (Medical tourism)  and even not Paryatan (tourism). Therefore, the medical tourism historians have to find the factors of each period those are responsible for indicating medical tourism development.
One of the important factors for indicating tourism is the description of geographies. Sushruta Samhita discusses various aspects of Indian geography that means there was tourism or people were touring and discussing the different geographical matter among them. People were also informing geographies to scholars as Sushruta or Sushruta type of scholars were visiting various places.
   Charaka Samhita deals about North West India only from geographical point of views (1). However, Sushruta Samhita discusses the matter of all India geography (1). The Chikitsa Sthan book of Sushruta Samhita (30.32) mentions the names of Kalinga in east  and Kashmir on north. The Chikitsa Sthan book of Sushruta Samhita (29/17) mentions name as Uuttar Kuru. Same way, the Chikitsa Sthan book of Sushruta Samhita 29/27-30 ) mentions that Sahyadri, Mahendra, Malayachal, Shriparvata, Devgiri and Sindhu River are in Himalaya.
    Commercial Tours in Sushruta Samhita period
After thorough analysis , Vidyalankar states (2)that There was well  connection/introduction  between South and North India thorough commerce and commerce was well developed at that time. That is there reason there is mentions of articles famous in particular place (2)
The mentions of geographical places in Sushruta Samhita indicate that there was well developed tourism (for commerce etc.) and tourism development means there would be medical facilities for tourists .
 
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1-Vidyalankar Atrideva   , 1960 ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Samiti, Banaras pages -190
2-Vidyalankar Atrideva   , 1960 ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Samiti, Banaras pages -191
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2020 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical Tourism, health Tourism and Wellness Tourism and History of Medicines in India will be continued in next chapter –

Bhishma Kukreti

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Kashyap Samhita or Bridhajeewaktantra : An introduction and Medical tourism indicators

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Nagavansha Period (176-340 A.D.) – 8
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 126 
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)

 By: Bhishma Kukreti
(Medical Tourism Historian)
-
Nepal Rajguru Hemeraj Sharma first published the Kashyap Samhita. That Samhita was partially published but now complete Samhita is available (1). Yadva ji Vikram Ji Acharya edited the classic Samhita (1). Kashyap Samhita /Bridhajeewaktantra has relation with Kaumar Bhritya Tantra (Child disease cure or Paediatric Science)
According to Dr Ajay Kumar (2) the scholars created Kashyap Samhita in 600 BCE. While Satyapal Bhishgacharya concludes that Kashyap Samhita written on Tada Patra (Palm leaves) seems to be   700 -800years back (3).  Ayurveda Historian Vidyalankar wrote about Kashyap Samhita or Bridhajeewak Tantra   in Nagvansha Chapter 176-340 A.D (1). 
  Kashyap Samhita is as the custom of Charaka Samhita. Marich Kashyap is the narrator or preacher of Kashyap Samhita. There is three times mention of Marich Kashyap in Charaka Samhita (1) . There was downfall in the interest among scholars for Kashyap Samhita and then Jeewak the son of Richik summerized or abridged for scholars  . The five year old child Jeewak presented the short version of Kashyap Samhita (reworked by Jeewak) before scholars in a medical conference in Kankhal /Haridwar at Ganga bank in Uttarakhand. The scholars did not accept the short version as they did not believe a child could do shorten the huge volume of Kashyap Samhita. Scholars just refused to hear Child Jeewak. Jeewak dipped into gang and came out as old aged Jeewak or Bridha Jeewak. Scholars named him Bridha Jeewak and accepted the shorten version of Kashyap Samhita (2). In later stages, Vatsya the heir of Jeewak promoted by editing further copies or bringing new editions for Kahsyap Samhita and there is name of Kankhal in the late stage edition too (1). Vidyalankar analysed and concluded that Vatsya should be around Kalidas period that is 4th century AD.
   - Medical conference in Kashyap Samhita (edited by Vatsya) the indicator of medical tourism -
  Dr. Ajay Kumar offers the story of Jeewak and his becoming Bridha Jeewak (2) that there was medical scholar conference in Kankhal (Today’s Haridwar, Uttarakhand) where medical scholars attended and Jeewak presented the short edition of Kashyap Samhita. It clearly shows that around 4th century AD, there was custom of medical scholars attending medical conferences. The holdings   of medical conferences clearly indicate the sign of the development of tourism and medical tourism.
References
1-Vidyalankar Atrideva,   Ayurveda ka Vrihat Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Samiti, Banaras pages -960, page 204-205
2- Kumar Dr. Ajay, Dr. Ttina Singhal, Kashyap Samhita: Kewal Mool Shloka , published by Dr. Ajay Kumar , 2001 , page 1 of Grantha Parichay
3-Rai Deepshikha, Kashyap Samhita, Kashyap Samhita: A review of History and its contribution to Kumarbhritya, International Jounral of Ayurveda and Herbal medicines 4.5 (2014) 1569-1578

 Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2020 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical Tourism, health Tourism and Wellness Tourism and History of Medicines in Nagavansha / Kashyap Samhita India will be continued in next chapter – 127

 

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