Author Topic: HISTORY of MEDICAL and WELLNESS TOURISM IN INDIAN SUBCONTINENT , SOUTHEAST ASIA  (Read 7284 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Transportation facilities in Patanjali Period (tourism style) in India 
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Panini   Period, India -6
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia (Special Reference to History of Medicines in India   -30
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  Patanjali was the chief priest of Pushyamitra of Shung Empire  (185 C-149  BCE) . Patanjali performed a Ashwamedha Yagya of Pushyamitra.
 Patanjali wrote commentary on a few sholkas of Ashtadhyayi of Panini as Mahabhashyaa. On the basis of Mahabhashya , Agnihotri wrote a book Ptanjalikalin Bharatwarsha (Dabral)
   On the basis of Agnihotri , Dabral offered commentary on the city of Shrughana (today’s in Saharanpur District)   the capital of Kulind Kingdom and transportation system in Kulind Kingdom (Old Uttarakhand.
 Transportation facilities, houses etc are the bases for medical tourism and general tourism too. Ptanjali offered details of types of houses in Shrughana and road system of the said city.
 Dabral ( UK ka Itihas (page 187) wrote about Transportation facilities in Kulinda Kingdom as follows –
 The chief transportation mediums were animals in Kulinda Kingdom. There were two types of roads – Kupath  (hurdle some roads )and Supath (smooth road).  People used to load loads on sheep , goats, horses, bulls on Kupath roads.  In Plains , the bull cart or horse carts were transportation medium. People used bull carts for short distance but used horse carts for long distance .
  The rich people used preferring horse carts than bull carts.  Trained and well capable horses were required for wide roads.  The horse cart  roofs were decorate by attractive clothing. People used leather bags for crossing rivers. People used Dongi for crossing wider rivers as Ganga and Jamuna. 
               Brahman as medical Practitioners
 There was system that Brahmins use to practice medical practices along with performing rituals. Perhaps, the tradition would have started that father or Guru used to educate Brahmin disciples Karmakand and Ayurveda together.
  The place of each Vaidya or Brahmin practicing medical practice was the medical tourist centers for ill people.
                     Medium of Entertainment in Patanjali Period
       Entertainment is important medium for a healthy society. Entertainment creates a type of tourism too. Entertainment is a must for ill men too.
    Dabral detailed entertainment medium by offering references from of Mahabhashya (Agrnihotri’s Patanajali Kalin Bharatavarsha page 118and Mahabhashya 4/339, 6/3/42)-
     Hunting was main cooperative entertainment in rural regions. There were entertainment based on social  cooperative basis too.
   In Night, People used to play drums (damru and bronze dishes  )and used to sing old stories related to religion and history. or folklores. (Jagar, Ghdiyala)  Villagers from nearby villages used to visit the place for listening songs, stories and enjoyment.
 Ghandela or Jagar were also performed for relieving various body illnesses too.
    In day time preaches used to preach Ramayana and Mahabharata stories in Sanskrit and used to interpret in local languages. People from nearby area used to visit the preaching places in numbers.
    In Mahabharata ( adiparva 213/1-3) many preachers reached to meet Arjun in Gangadwar /Haridwar.

 


Reference ,
Shiv Prasad Dabral, uttrakhand ka Itihas bahg -3, pages 186- 189)


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Bhishma Kukreti

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 Medical Tourism in Kulinda Kingdom (400-300BC) in India 
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Panini   Period, India -7
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia: Special Reference to History of Medicines in India    -31
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
               Brahman as medical Practitioners
   Kulinda Kingdom was there in north India from Mahabharata till start of Gupta (Samudragupta) empire. The boundaries of Kulinda  Kingdom were  from Tibet, Yamuna till Saharanpur  and  Bijnor district of present Uttar Pradesh..
 The historians had to offer historical details in part as per time or period. In this chapter, this author will discuss about signs of medical tourism in Kulinda Kingdom of 400- 300 BC.
        Antimony uses and love for Antimony by tourists
 The east of Yamuna valley (west of Garhwal ) had been famous from Vedic period  for producing antimony and was famous in Asoka period too. (1 )  The bhikshuk (the Buddhist or Vedic Students or monks )  were found of using Surma (antimony on their eyes by stick. Those Bhikshuk used to keep antimony and stick in a box or pocket with care (3).
 The supply of medicinal product is one of important factors for medical tourism and other types of tourism. Bhikshuk were tourists and used to use Antimony as medicinal use.
 In Asoka period, antimony was exported from Kulinda kingdom /Uttarakhand . Medicine export creates medical tourism too.
                          Medicinal product Smoking in Kulinda or Uttarakhand
    Agrawal states that in Kulinda kingdom, people used to smoke medicinal herbs by drying and crushing and putting into Chilam. (Vasudeva Sharan Agarwal). Bhikshuk were very much found of smoking such herbs ( Ashtadhyayi 8/4/6)
  Disease and Medicines in Kulinda Kingdom (400- 300 BC)
     Vinaya patt offers the diseases of Kulinda as – Atisar, Arsha, Bahumutra, Prameh, Saungrahani, leprosery, Pamna, Cough, Fever heart diseases. Skin diseases, diarrhea, hart attack, bhagandar/fistures were fatal diseases .(Agrawal) 
    Asgtadhyaayi states that people used herbs  for curing the diseases (Dabral, UK Itihas -3rd ,  page 32)
     Dabral informs interesting signs of Medical tourism.  Collection for herbs was done from hills (Uttarakhand)  People alos grew herbs nearby villages of Uttarakhand. Vinay Pitak and Panini stated that Various shill shrines of Uttarakhand were famous for specific or rare medicinal herbs (Dabral Ibid) . That means there was export of such herbs or medicines to plains and export of medicines or raw materials create medical tourism.
 Vinay Pitak offers information of surgery in fissure etc. (Dabral , ibid)

 
 The above points are symbols that there was medical tourism in Kulinda or Uttarakhand

Reference ,
1-Agarwal Vasudeva Sharan , 1969, Chaukhambha Sanskriti series Banaras 138
2- Shiv Prasad Dabral, uttrakhand ka Itihas bahg -3, pages 31-32, 33
3- Vinayapitak page 219


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Bhishma Kukreti

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Introduction of Medical Tourism in Buddhist Literature

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhist Literature   India – 1
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   -32 
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
   The concept of medical tourism has been there in Human history from the beginning. Wherever there was medical facility it started medical tourism. Today, marketing professional added various vocabularies in the medical tourism that was not there in past .The Historians rarely paid attention on medical tourism. Even the Medicine historians of India id not pay much attention on medical tourism.  Therefore, from today’s point of view the medical tourism historians have to find out for the subjects by proofs of following –
1-Medicines availability of a specific period or place
2- Medical practitioners in specific period, region or place
3- The general practice of medical facilities from the state or Kingdoms
4- Medicines literature created in the specific period and place
5- The education system for studying medical science
6- Production or availability of Medicinal plants and herbs
7- Trade of medicines, medicinal herbs and other raw materials  and processes for producing medicines
8- Food practices using medicinal herbs for healthy body
9- Yoga practices and yoga teachers
10- Concept of hospitality in the particular period or place
11- Modes of Transport for people and upper class
 12- Spirituality and history aspects of spirituality the period and place
13- Medical literature created in the period and place 
   In India, apart from uses of herbal medicines or medicines from animal parts and naturopathy, there were /are concepts of Tantra and Mantra for reliving patients for body or mental disorders. Therefore, medical tourism historians should find the Tantra –Mantra system of the period and place. Therefore, the medical tourism historians should pay attention on Tantra –Mantra system of the period or place.
 In Buddhist literature study for point of view of medical tourism; this  author will discuss above points in details








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Healing by Buddha and His Travels after Enlightenment 
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhist Literature and Buddhist Period, India -3
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 34
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  There many stories related to Buddha himself for medical treatments and thereafter healing stories by Buddhist Monks all over world (Salguero) and there are stories of healing by Buddha after enlightenment in various Pali and Sanskrit Buddhist literatures.
       The teachings of Buddha or for doctrine are nothing but psychological treatments from medical tourism point of view.
 After his enlightenment, Buddha traveled various places where he preached for happy livings and living stress free life.  People used to visit the places where Buddha came for curing thee psychological problems.
   Visits by Buddha to various places and people visiting Buddha for treatments or satisfying their confusion about happiness or pain is best example of Medical Tourism.
  After getting Enlightenment, Buddha visited following places for preaching (Psychological healing) and people from various places visited those places for hearing Buddha (html www /hindi.webduniya.com/Buddhism-religion/lord buddha –buddhism )
Lumbani- Buddha returned to his palace / birth place for converting his family members as Buddha after enlightenment.
Bodhgaya (Gaya, Bihar) – Buddha got enlightenment here uner the religious fig tree.
Sarnath (Banaras district) – Buddha preached first time after Enlightenment.
Kushinagar (Gorakhpur district UP) – Buddha got Mahanirvan (expired) in Kushinagar.
Shravasti (Sohath, UP) – It is said that Buddha resided here for long. Buddha showed his miracles in Shravasti

Sanchi- Buddha visited  Sanchi
Kaushambi (Allahabad district UP )  It is said that Buddha visited the place  and resided in cave here many times.
Vaishali- Vaishali is in border of Bihar and Bengal. Buddha visited Vaishali many times and liked the region. Buddha resided in Kutgarshal (out ide of Vaishali) many times in his visits. The last Tirthankar of Jainism was born in Vaishali.
 
Nalanda – Buddha visited many times to Nalanda (university)
Patliputra (toady’s Patna –On that Time, it was village called Patali covered by Dhak tress.





References
C .Pierce Salguero, 1893, Buddhism and Medicines :n Anthology of Premodern Sources , Columbia University Press


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Bhishma Kukreti

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   Atreya Punarvasu: Founder of early Six Schools of Ayurveda
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhist Literature and Buddhist Period, India – 4
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 35
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
    Medical teachers, Medical students and medical literature are part and partial of Medical tourism because all the cited subjects are must for medical tourism.
        There is no direct relation of Atreya Punarvasu with Buddhism.  Due to his teaching medical science to Jivika Komrabhacca the personal physician of King Bimbsar and Buddha; Buddhist scholars cite references of  Atreya Punarvasu (Rishi) regularly. 
     Rishi Atreya was dissident of great Rishi Atri (Puran and Mahabharata). Atreya Punarvasu was native of Taxila Gandhar.
    It is said that Atreya Punarvasu worked as personal physician of Nagjita of Gandhar Kingdom found in Mahabharata (Mohammad Ali Z., 1988, languages and cultures, p 116).
  Atreya Punarvasu had six devoted disciples Agnivesa, Bhela, Jatukarna, Parashar, Harita and Kasharpani , all those founded separate Ayurveda school by creating a Samhita.
   It said that Atreya Punarvasu created Bhel Samhita (Ayurveda classic, 600 BCE).  Surendra Nath  Dasgupta states that Atreya Punarvasu created  original Charaksamhita that later Agnivesha and Charaka codified, edited. Dasgupta states that the old Ayurveda Atreya-Charak school has its root on now, extinct Charanvaidya a branch of Atharvaveda.  Charak created Charaka Samhita in 300 BCE taking clues from Agnivesha schools of Ayurveda .
     The medical science teaching by Atreya and then disciples going different places offers us the direction for strong concept of medical tourism in 600 – 300 BCE.
References –
Surendra Nath Dasgupta, 1922, History of Indian Philosophy page 288


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Jivaka Life: One of the finest Examples of medical Tourism in Past  age
 Jivaka Komarabhacca: Example of Visiting doctor and Medical Education Tourism
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhist Literature and Buddhist Period, India – 5
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 36
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  Jivaka Komarabhacca was the personal physician of Magadha King Bimbisara and Buddha. Jivaka Komarabhacca was celebrity of his time. There are many versions about life of Jivaka Komarabhacca – Chinese, Thai and Indian. Jivaka Komarabhacca lived in Rajgruha (Rajgir Bihar) around end of 5th century BCE. It seems that a prince raised Jivaka in his childhood.
     Young   Jivaka Komarabhacca went to Takksila University for studying medical science.  Students visiting University outside of native place for studying medical science is example of medical Education Tourism an essential part of medical tourism.
     In Takksila University, Jivaka Komarabhacca studied medical science under great or founding stone of six Ayurveda schools Atreya Punarvasu.  Atreya encouraged Jivaka for studying and observations.  Atreya offered same money to Jivaka after finishing medical science study for future medical practice. (Gunapala)
     Jivaka came to Magadha and cured fistula of King Bimbisara. Bimbisara offered all the jewelry and ornaments of his all queens to   Jivaka Komarabhacca as reward to   Jivaka Komarabhacca became famous and became doctors of premium customers.  No doubt, Jivaka Komarabhacca healed  poor people without fees too. King Bimbisara appointed Jivaka Komarabhacca as court physician and physician for Buddha. (Gunapala) 
    Once, Bimbisara lent Jivaka Komarabhacca to King Chandppajoti of Ujjaini. Jivaka Komarabhacca cured the Ujjain King and got praise and monetary rewards . A doctor visiting long distance also part of Medical tourism (Gunapala)
  Jivaka Komarabhacca visited Buddha various times and stayed with him too. From the place where Buddha used to stay Jivaka Komarabhacca used to travel patients and used to heal there too. Many times, Jivaka Komarabhacca cured Buddha too. Jivaka Komarabhacca visited Buddha twice a week.
  Jivaka Komarabhacca is called patriarch of Healing.   Thai people regard Jivaka Komarabhacca as the original creator of tradition of Thai massage (Thomas Gale) and creator of and Thai medicines too (Pierce). Thai people call Jivaka Komarabhacca as ‘Father Doctor’ ‘ or ‘King of Doctors’.  Thai perceiving Jivaka Komarabhacca as father Doctor means his followers (Buddhists preachers’ expert in medical science) visited Thailand and taught Thienes the medical science.  Visit and teaching medical expertise is part of medical tourism.
 Tibetan literature suggest that Buddha sent Jivaka Komarabhacca for finding medicines or medical plants (Jivaksutta by Buswell and Lope, 2013)
 In Japan, traditionally is believed that Jivaka Komarabhacca was teacher for bathing and its benefits to clerics ( Peter Grilli 1985 Furo , The Japanese Bat page 55 )
     The life and works suggest that at the time of Buddha , Bimbisara , there was medical tourism of its own type and was very much developed too.
 References
1-Gunapala P. Malalasekera , 1907,  Dictionary of Pali Proper names , Vol 1,  Motilalal Banarasidas Publishers, Delhi India, pages 957-58
2- Thomas Gale, 2005, Thai Massages , Gale encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine (web site )
3- Peierce Salguero , Jivaka Across Culture  (www.piercesalguero.com)


 






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Medicines (Ayurveda) in Saddharma Pundarika a Buddhist Literature and Sign of  Medical Tourism
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhist Literature and Buddhist Period, India - 6
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 37
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
         As such Buddhist literature did not mention ‘Ayurveda’ word but Buddhist literature do discuss about medicines and diseases (Great Meidcines was Lord Buddha).
 Saddharma Pundarika (Lotus Sutra) is one of the important Sutra book for Mahayanists (China, Japan and South East Asia).  That book is earliest Sanskrit literature of Buddhism. Saddharma Pundarika Sutra is scared book for Mahayanist Buddhists.
  Buddhist Literature analyst Kogaku Fuse concluded that Lotus Sutra (Saddharma Pundarika) was composed in four stages –
1-9 and 17 Parivart (Chapters) – 1st century CE
Prose section was added later in 1st century
10, 11, 13-16, 18-20 and 27 – 100 CE
Others sutras – 150 CE
Stephen Teiser, Tamura argues with some differences about date of creation. However, all concluded the date of creation is before 150 CE) Atidev in Ayurveda ka Itihas (1960, page 93) mentions that there are 27 chapters (Parivart) in the said Sanskrit book. Atidev states that the Saddharma Pundarika was found in Central Asia. 
  There are three Chinese translations of Saddharma Pundarika and are extant .Dharma Raksha translated Sanskrit versions into Chinese around 286CE, Kumarjiva translated inti Chinese around 406 CE (Burton)
 There is mention of medicines in Aushadhi Parivart or Medicine Chapter 5th Parivart but very least. trina, gulm, Vanaspati and Aushadhi (Atideva).
 The book was found in Central Asia that means that the religious tourists visiting India and taking literature including medicinal literature, Chinese Scholars translating literature including medicinal parts originated in India , scholars spreading the text into society and society absorbing the same and using the text for medicinal purpose .All the above facts suggest there was some sorts of medical tourism from 1st to 406 CE between Chinese and India or Central Asia and India.
   References-

Watson Burton, 1993, tr. The Lotus Sutra, Cambridge Press

 
   

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  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Medicines (Ayurveda) in Saddharma Pundarika a Buddhist Literature and Sign of  Medical Tourism
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhist Literature and Buddhist Period, India - 6
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 37
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
         As such Buddhist literature did not mention ‘Ayurveda’ word but Buddhist literature do discuss about medicines and diseases (Great Meidcines was Lord Buddha).
 Saddharma Pundarika (Lotus Sutra) is one of the important Sutra book for Mahayanists (China, Japan and South East Asia).  That book is earliest Sanskrit literature of Buddhism. Saddharma Pundarika Sutra is scared book for Mahayanist Buddhists.
  Buddhist Literature analyst Kogaku Fuse concluded that Lotus Sutra (Saddharma Pundarika) was composed in four stages –
1-9 and 17 Parivart (Chapters) – 1st century CE
Prose section was added later in 1st century
10, 11, 13-16, 18-20 and 27 – 100 CE
Others sutras – 150 CE
Stephen Teiser, Tamura argues with some differences about date of creation. However, all concluded the date of creation is before 150 CE) Atidev in Ayurveda ka Itihas (1960, page 93) mentions that there are 27 chapters (Parivart) in the said Sanskrit book. Atidev states that the Saddharma Pundarika was found in Central Asia. 
  There are three Chinese translations of Saddharma Pundarika and are extant .Dharma Raksha translated Sanskrit versions into Chinese around 286CE, Kumarjiva translated inti Chinese around 406 CE (Burton)
 There is mention of medicines in Aushadhi Parivart or Medicine Chapter 5th Parivart but very least. trina, gulm, Vanaspati and Aushadhi (Atideva).
 The book was found in Central Asia that means that the religious tourists visiting India and taking literature including medicinal literature, Chinese Scholars translating literature including medicinal parts originated in India , scholars spreading the text into society and society absorbing the same and using the text for medicinal purpose .All the above facts suggest there was some sorts of medical tourism from 1st to 406 CE between Chinese and India or Central Asia and India.
   References-

Watson Burton, 1993, tr. The Lotus Sutra, Cambridge Press

 
   

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –
 Buddhist literature Saddharma Pundarika and  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Buddhist literature Saddharma Pundarika , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia, Buddhist literature Saddharma Pundarika , Buddhist literature Saddharma Pundarika ,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Buddhist literature Saddharma Pundarika ,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia; Buddhist literature Saddharma Pundarika ,    History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;  Buddhist literature Saddharma Pundarika ,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia; Buddhist literature Saddharma Pundarika ,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia; Buddhist literature Saddharma Pundarika ,   History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia; Buddhist literature Saddharma Pundarika ,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Buddhist literature Saddharma Pundarika ,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 







Bhishma Kukreti

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Jantaghar / Sweat generating houses of  Vinay Pittak a Buddhist Literature  an example of  Medical Tourism Infrastructure
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhist Literature and Buddhist Period, India -7
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 38
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
   The medical literature is important aspects of creating foundation for Medical Tourism. Medical Literature becomes the source of medical knowledge for producing doctors and assistants to doctors.
    Vinay Pittak is one of the major oldest Buddhist Literature. Vinay Pittak means the basket of disciplines or Code of Conducts.  By studying Vinay Pittak, we may find the medical assistance atmosphere in Charaka Samhita period.
 Vinay Pittak is teachings for code of conducts for Bhikshus or Buddhist religion canvassers. There are main two Skandha in Vinay Pittak.
          Medical Treatment in Vinay Pittak
  Treatment by Sweating/perspiring (Sweda) –
   There was musculoskeletal disorder in the body of Ayushman Pilindavacch. Disciples told about disease to Buddha.  Buddha suggested for sweating treatment (getting sweat from body).
There are four types of getting sweat (Vinay Pittak 6/2/1, by Rahul Sakrityayan)-
Sambhar Sweda-  In that process, the patient sleeps on the bed sheet on which the sweetening articles -leaves  or materials is put and the patient is covered by blanket or thick bed sheets.
Mahasweda- In this process, a ditch about the length of body is dug and ditch is filled by burning coal. Then the burning coal is covered by sand or mud or soil. Then the sweatening leaves are put on sand or soil or mud and patient lied on such mud /sand covered by leaves for sweetening.   Mahasweda process is equal to Koopswed of Charak Samhita ( 14/59060)
Udakkoshtak- In that process, pitchers are filled by hot water are put into a small room and patient sits in that room for perspiration   Udakkoshtak is similar to Kumbhiswed of Sangrah Sutra of Atreya (Sangrah Sutra Atreya 26/11.
Bhagodak-  The decoct of various medicinal leaves are rubbed on body for sweatening or perspiring.
Jantaghar- The wood burning place is either in center of the room or in side place. Room gets hot by burning wood or dry grass and patient sits in the hot room for getting sweat.
     The Jantaghar was nothing but a public house where people used to come for getting sweat or get perspired (Atideva, Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas page 96). Jantaghar were built on a high chair or platform and were built by bricks, mud,  stone mixed mud or wood. There was arrangement for fire and smoke outlet. The fire mouth was covered by mud and there used to be chair in the Jantaghar inside   (Vinay Pittak 5/2/2(Jantaghar were similar to Ayurveda;s Jentak (Atideva) . In Chullbag, Buddha suggested his disciple for getting seat by Chakram or Jantaghar
 The above descriptions suggest that –
People used to come for treatment to great healer Buddha. Buddha suggested Ayushman Pillindavacch for getting sweat for vat rog. Ayushman Pillindavacch was a visitor or his roaming disciple. This example clearly suggests for medical tourism at Buddha time.
  It was difficult for common men for building the seat generating houses (Jantaghar or Chakram) or ditch for curing Vat Roga or musculoskeletal disorder. That means those houses (Udkoshtak ,  Sambhar Sweda and  Jantaghar  and  ditches creating sweat generators ) were public houses (Atideva suggest too the same) and patients used to come for getting seated there. This was a kind of medical tourism only.  Might be , that those sweat generating houses would be at Buddhist Mathas.  There is no knowledge offered whether those sweat generating house were given on rent or patients were getting free treatments. 
   
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –
Vinay    Pittak  a Buddhist Literature and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Vinay    Pittak  a Buddhist Literature and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Vinay    Pittak  a Buddhist Literature and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Vinay    Pittak  a Buddhist Literature and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Vinay    Pittak  a Buddhist Literature and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Vinay    Pittak  a Buddhist Literature and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Vinay    Pittak  a Buddhist Literature and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Vinay    Pittak  a Buddhist Literature and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Vinay    Pittak  a Buddhist Literature and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Vinay    Pittak  a Buddhist Literature and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Vinay    Pittak  a Buddhist Literature and History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 








Bhishma Kukreti

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Indications of Medical tourism in Vinay Pittak a Buddhist Literature
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Buddhist Literature and Buddhist Period, India – 8
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 39
By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
There are indications of medical Tourism in Vinay Pittak (Buddhist Literature).
Rakatmokshana – Ayushman Pilindabacch was suffering Arthritis and he either was disciple of Buddha or visited Buddha. Buddha permitted him for taking out blood from animal horn for treating arthritis. That treatment is called Raktmokshak or solution by blood.
A few Treatments
There are instances or permissions for treating boils in Vinay Pittak - surgery, taking decocts, putting bandage around boil or ulcer; cutting excess flesh by using saline or salt; and filling oil into injury or boil.
 Buddha or Associates permitted taking latrine, urine, ash, mud for snake bite treatment. In case of jaundice, it was allowed for taking cow urine. For skin disease treatment Sulphur was rubbed.
Those treatments were allowed by Buddha to his associates (Bhikshu) (V,P,6/2/5) . Bhikshus not only at the time of Buddha but later on too used to roam here and there and use to treat patients or themselves by above mentioned methods. That way it was a kind of Medical Tourism only.



Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –
, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued







 

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