Author Topic: HISTORY of MEDICAL and WELLNESS TOURISM IN INDIAN SUBCONTINENT , SOUTHEAST ASIA  (Read 7346 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Reasons, Symptoms and Remedies of diseases in Garuda Purana
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Purana Literature -6
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 50
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  The medicines   medical practices medical vocabularies mentioned in Garuda Purana are not original but compile from old Samhitas /texts. However, following medicinal words are new first tie used in Garuda Purana –
Sinjiniwat (117/49)
Naghatwat (147/48)
 The first Chapter about Ayurveda is about remedies for all diseases one by one .
 The beginning of first chapter of Garuda Purana starts from Dhanvantari calling Sushruta. There are names of diseases and remedies. The chapter starts by Shloka of Ashtanghridaya (Gupta Era Ayurveda text). Therefore, it is sure that the compliers added first chapter in Garuda Purana after Gupta era.   In this chapter , there is description of common diseases and their remedies.
     After the above there is fever and remedies in Garuda Purana. The descriptions are based on old Ayurveda Sangraha (Collections) as -Vat, Pitta and Kafa. Garuda Purana describes that the is death /Moksha on 12th day of fever. The statement is based on Harit (Atideva)
  There are descriptions of reasons of illnesses, diseases, symptoms  remedies of diseases  etc. narrate by Narayan to Garuda – Raktapita (mixture of blood and biles , Kas (cough), Swas (respiration) , hiccoughs,  reasons and symptoms of deadly disease tuberculosis;  ,  reasons and symptoms of Sangrahani (dysentery); ,  reasons and symptoms of disinterestness , ,  reasons and symptoms of  thrust; ,  reasons and symptoms of heart diseases; ,  reasons and symptoms of urine disorder ; ,  reasons and symptoms , remedies of gonorrhea ; reasons and symptoms , remedies of mental disorder ; reasons and symptoms , remedies of localized abdominal tumor ; reasons and symptoms , remedies of worms problem in intestines; reasons and symptoms , remedies of stomachache etc. (Chaturvedi and Atideva )
Garuda Purna deals with common remedies (Atideva) .
 Reference
Atideva (1960), Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas, Banaras  page-115 
Chaturvedi, B.K. (2002). Garuda Purana, Diamond Pocket books Delhi .chapter 15


Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Diseases and Remedies in  Garuda Purana of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Diseases and Remedies in  Garuda Purana of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Diseases and Remedies in  Garuda Purana of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Diseases and Remedies in  Garuda Purana of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Diseases and Remedies in  Garuda Purana of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Diseases and Remedies in  Garuda Purana of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Diseases and Remedies in  Garuda Purana of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Diseases and Remedies in  Garuda Purana of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Diseases and Remedies in  Garuda Purana of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Diseases and Remedies in  Garuda Purana of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Diseases and Remedies in  Garuda Purana of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Nutrition Science in Garuda Purana
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Purana Literature – 7
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia -51 
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  Garuda Purna depicts uses of iron dusts with butter milk for jaundice.

Haritaal Yavakshar Patrang raktachadanam , Jati Hingulak laksha paktwadantan pralepyet.
(GP 179 1-2)
 Garuda Purana depicts many common sayings or beliefs  as washing eyes after arising  for eye health, (GP 117/13) not to take curd in night (That suggest the creator of Garuda Purna was from north India )
              Diets in Garuda Purana
  Garuda Purana also deals with diets an food for healthy body in a separate chapters. Garuda Purana models the chapters as per Sushruta Samhita and with names them as Sushruta Samhita as – annapanavidhi and anupanavvdhi (Susita Pande )
 Garuda Purana classifies the edible products with their properties but names them by their prominent tastes.
 Garuda Purana names (nomenclature) the therapeutic products as per Dravya properties (Susmita Pande). Garuda Purana also depicts cereals as per their nutritional values. 
   Susmita Pande offers details of agriculture products, diet science and medicinal plants depicted in Garuda Purana.
 Purana offers many remedies for illness by intake of different foods for different problems. Ayurveda is not the principles of curing but not to get illness. Therefore, All Puranas that way or this way suggests intakes of nutritious food and juices and in time.

References
Atideva (1960) Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Sammelan,  Banaras Garuda Purana suggests Heeng asafetida in case of toothache
Susmita Pande (2008) , ‘Therapeutic value of Agriculture Products and the science of Nutrition in Puranas ‘  History of Agriculture in India (up to 1200, , Edited by  Lallan ji Gopal and Vinod Srivastava, )  , Concept Publishing company pages 834 onwards


Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –

Illness in Garuda  Purana,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Illness in Garuda  Purana,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Illness in Garuda  Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Illness in Garuda  Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Illness in Garuda  Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Illness in Garuda  Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Illness in Garuda  Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Illness in Garuda  Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Illness in Garuda  Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Illness in Garuda  Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Illness in Garuda  Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 





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Hospitals and Construction process of Hospitals in Skanda Purana 
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Purana Literature – 8
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 52
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)

  Atideva states that many Purana describe Arogyashala (Hospitals or Sanatoriums ) . Skanda Purana (7th century AD) admires that an establishment of Arogyashala (hospitals or Sanatoriums ) Skanda Purana describes that one who erects  Arogyashala (Hospitals or Sanatoriums ) equipped with qualified physicians and suitable accessories gets the fruits of pious deeds. There is no  limit for fruits of pious deeds. Skanda Purana put Arogyadan on top of all donations.  Skanda Purana illustrates –
आरोग्यशाला य: कुर्यात म्हावैद्यपुरुस्कृताम
सर्वोपकरवणओपेताम तस्य पुण्यफल शृणु
(Example by Atideva)
 Skanda Purana also describes the Hospital construction process and essentials in hospitals (Ayurveda ke Prerarna Srotra ).
  Skanda Purana describing building hospitals suggests that there must be sufficient medicines and beds. There must be wise and  learned doctor in hospitals .There must be sufficient quantity of food articles in hospitals. Charak Samhita and Kalidasa also described in the same tone or Purana took references from Charaka Samhita about characteristics of hospitals and importance of arranging medical facilities for patients (Atideva)  .
    It is evident that hospitals were attracting ill tourists from other regions too thus creating medical tourism if not modern way of medical tourism but medical tourism of the respective period.
 
 References –
Atideva, (1960) Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Sammelan , Banaras pages 117-18
Viadyaraj Pundit  Jagish Prsad Shrma bhinandan Samiti 1977

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –

Hospitals in Skanda Purana  Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Hospitals in Skanda Purana  Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Hospitals in Skanda Purana  Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Hospitals in Skanda Purana  Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Hospitals in Skanda Purana  Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Hospitals in Skanda Purana  Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Hospitals in Skanda Purana  Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Hospitals in Skanda Purana  Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Hospitals in Skanda Purana  Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Hospitals in Skanda Purana  Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Hospitals in Skanda Purana  Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 





Bhishma Kukreti

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Characteristics of Physicians, Vaidya in Puranas
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Purana Literature -9
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 53
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  Most of Puranas of later stages describe medical subjects based on Charak Samhita or Sushruta Samhita or other medical science collections.
 Atideva (1960) summarized the characteristics of physicians (Vaidya) described in Puranas especially Skanda Purana (approx. 1300 AD) –
 Vaidya /Physicians should have knowledge of Shastra/ medical science.
Vaidya /Physicians should understand well the Shastra.
Vaidya /Physicians should be wise and with strong reflex actions.
Vaidya /Physicians should have already examined the medicines and their strength or characteristics.
Vaidya /Physicians should have the knowledge of medicines, their raw materials, how the medicines being manufactured etc.
Vaidya /Physicians should have te knowledge of time of taking medicines of patients and effectivities of each medicine.
Vaidya /Physicians should know the strength and effects of cereals and other food items (pulses, vegetables, spices etc.)
Vaidya /Physicians should be amicable, kind soft spoken and helpful.
Vaidya /Physicians at hospitals get all the benefits of Punya kary (pious deeds) .
   As Charak Samhita depicts, Puranas also depict that physician deeds are acts of donation (life donation). Therefore those build hospitals and work for hospitals are real pious humans.
 It is true that Brahmanism stood with al odds and times because of Brahmins indulging in medical profession (as physicians and as Tantrik and Mantrik for mental disorder reliefs) . Christianity spread not because of its preaching but offering medical helps to the poor.
Reference -
 Atideva, (1960), Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Sammelan , Banaras
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Characteristics of Physicians in Purana,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Characteristics of Physicians s in Purana,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Characteristics of Physicians s in Purana,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Characteristics of Physicians s in Purana,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Characteristics of Physicians s in Purana,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Characteristics of Physicians s in Purana,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Characteristics of Physicians s in Purana,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Characteristics of Physicians s in Purana,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Characteristics of Physicians s in Purana,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Characteristics of Physicians s in Purana,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Characteristics of Physicians s in Purana,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purna
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Purana Literature -10
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 54
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
Skanda Purana is one of the largest Puranas and is an encyclopedia of that time.  Gyanendra Pandey states that Before Skanda epic creation (600- 1300 BCE) there was no formal hospital concept as such.  The great physicians and their disciples used to visit to patients in person as medical attendants.
 There are many references in any texts including Skanda Purna that Kings, dignities and common people used to call physicians and in response physicians were required to visit the patients and shown their miraculous skills for recovering the patients. Skanda Purana stressed on building formal hospitals though, in past including Maurya and Gupta era, there were hospitals sponsored by the states and dignities. Therefore it might be said that in past the medical tourism was of two types – physicians visiting patients and 2nd, patients visiting physicians and hospitals if any there.
  Skanda Purna also depicts twelve Adityas situated in Kashi (Banaras)  They  are forms of Sun deity. (Skanda Purana Kashi Khand 46 -51 ( Hertel )
 According to Skanda Mythology, Aditya has power of get ridding of diseases and pilgrims were advised to visit and take bath/visits in those Adityas in Kashi as follows (3) -
Lolrka – removes skin diseases
Uttarrka (Bakri Kund) for contentment and long life
Sambaditya- Complete freedom from diseases
Draupadaditya – abolishes hunger and thirst
Arunaditya – grants removal of grief, illness, difficulties
Buddhaadity- offers youth, fitness and mental agility
Keshvaditya- abolishes sins, insanity and paves the way for living in present ( Welness)
Vimaladitya  – Diseases demolisher (Rog Nashak)
Gagaditya – offers grit and confidence.
 


Kakoladitya – grants good health (wellness) and fulfil human wants.
Yamaditya – saves from sever difficulties in Yamloka or after death
Mayukhaditya – devotion to Shiva and Parvati
   The above descriptions about Adityas and their powers for removing diseases create Psych –medical tourism for Banaras.  Still Skanda Purana influences millions of Hindus and they come to Banaras visit Adityas in Banaras and hope for getting rid of illness.
                 
References-
Gyanendra Pandey, (1997), Traditional Medicines in South East Asia and Indian medical Science, Sri  Satguru Publications, page 179
2- Bradley R . Hertal   Cynthia A Humes , et all, Living Banaras : Hindu religion in Culture context , State University of New York Press , NY, page 241 
3- ( Taken from essence of Skanda Purana , ( seen on 14/11/2018) (www.kamakoti.org/details/kamakoti/skandapurana38.html)

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



Bhishma Kukreti

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Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purna
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Purana Literature -10
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 54
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
Skanda Purana is one of the largest Puranas and is an encyclopedia of that time.  Gyanendra Pandey states that Before Skanda epic creation (600- 1300 BCE) there was no formal hospital concept as such.  The great physicians and their disciples used to visit to patients in person as medical attendants.
 There are many references in any texts including Skanda Purna that Kings, dignities and common people used to call physicians and in response physicians were required to visit the patients and shown their miraculous skills for recovering the patients. Skanda Purana stressed on building formal hospitals though, in past including Maurya and Gupta era, there were hospitals sponsored by the states and dignities. Therefore it might be said that in past the medical tourism was of two types – physicians visiting patients and 2nd, patients visiting physicians and hospitals if any there.
  Skanda Purna also depicts twelve Adityas situated in Kashi (Banaras)  They  are forms of Sun deity. (Skanda Purana Kashi Khand 46 -51 ( Hertel )
 According to Skanda Mythology, Aditya has power of get ridding of diseases and pilgrims were advised to visit and take bath/visits in those Adityas in Kashi as follows (3) -
Lolrka – removes skin diseases
Uttarrka (Bakri Kund) for contentment and long life
Sambaditya- Complete freedom from diseases
Draupadaditya – abolishes hunger and thirst
Arunaditya – grants removal of grief, illness, difficulties
Buddhaadity- offers youth, fitness and mental agility
Keshvaditya- abolishes sins, insanity and paves the way for living in present ( Welness)
Vimaladitya  – Diseases demolisher (Rog Nashak)
Gagaditya – offers grit and confidence.
 


Kakoladitya – grants good health (wellness) and fulfil human wants.
Yamaditya – saves from sever difficulties in Yamloka or after death
Mayukhaditya – devotion to Shiva and Parvati
   The above descriptions about Adityas and their powers for removing diseases create Psych –medical tourism for Banaras.  Still Skanda Purana influences millions of Hindus and they come to Banaras visit Adityas in Banaras and hope for getting rid of illness.
                 
References-
Gyanendra Pandey, (1997), Traditional Medicines in South East Asia and Indian medical Science, Sri  Satguru Publications, page 179
2- Bradley R . Hertal   Cynthia A Humes , et all, Living Banaras : Hindu religion in Culture context , State University of New York Press , NY, page 241 
3- ( Taken from essence of Skanda Purana , ( seen on 14/11/2018) (www.kamakoti.org/details/kamakoti/skandapurana38.html)

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Glimpses of Medical Tourism in Skanda Purana, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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 Introduction of Smritis in context Medical Tourism History in India
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Smriti Literature -1
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   - 55
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
   The literary meaning of Smriti (स्मृति) is that is remembered. Smritis are many and attributed to the author as Manu Smriti, Shukraneeti, and Vishnu Smriti etc. 
   As Mahabharata and a couple of Purana were revised with time, Smritis were also revised with time.  Smritis are usually Hindu laws.
 Earlier Smritis are Dharma laws and later ones are customs extension of Vedas as explained in Manusmriti –
वेदोअखिलो धर्ममूलं स्मृतिशीले च तद्विदाम . आचारश्चैव साधूनामात्मनसंतुष्टिरेव च ..
(मनुस्मृति 2.6 )
Means , “Veda is the root of religion (Dharma) and the custom and traditions of those who know (the Vedas) and conduct of the virtuous people, and what is satisfactory to oneself”
 The bases of Smritis are Shrutis
Shruterivarth smritaranvagacchatah (Raghivansh  )
  Smritis are in two forms based on Sutras (formulas) and metrical.
 Smritis seek wrong and right and suggest the living standard (materials too), are guide for fixing goals and achievement methods too. Smritis are basically code of conducts. 
There are eighteen smritis as –
Manusmriti Yagyavalkyasmriti, Vishnu Smriti, Vashishtha Smriti, Daksha Smriti , Parashar Smriti Yma Smriti, Shankha –Likhita Smriti are more famous.
However, this writer stresses that ShukraNeeti and Kamsutra are also nearer to Smritis only. Both depict the code of conducts for attaining Dharma, Artha,  Kama. and Moksha
Mostly, Smritis were compiled edited in Gupta Eras and later on (3rd CE to 1200CE) 

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Medicines and Medical Tourism in Smritis , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Medicines and Medical Tourism in Smritis , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Medicines and Medical Tourism in Smritis , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Medicines and Medical Tourism in Smritis , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Medicines and Medical Tourism in Smritis , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Medicines and Medical Tourism in Smritis , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Medicines and Medical Tourism in Smritis , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Medicines and Medical Tourism in Smritis , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Medicines and Medical Tourism in Smritis , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Medicines and Medical Tourism in Smritis , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Medicines and Medical Tourism in Smritis , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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Descriptions of Herbs and Laws for Physicians in Manusmriti

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Smriti Literature -2
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia - 56
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
      Manusmriti is one of the important codes of conducts text for Hindus still today. Ritual Pundits still refer Manusmriti for many rituals and religious performances.
             Plants Human Relationship in Manusmriti
 Manu states that plants have same consciousness as the human being has and are sensitive to pain and touch. Manusmriti show the awareness about the importance of forests and plants in maintaining conducive environment for the growth and development for living world. Manu terms the plants as sacred living organisms and named many plants as ‘Abodes of God. (Ashish Tewari et al)
     Tax on Medicinal Plants Cultivation
 Kautilya’s Arthashastra and Manusmriti show examples of state’s concern for public health as Arthashastra discussed fines for selling rotten fleshes (Arthashastra 2.26.13). Manusmriti fix 6/16th tax on medicinal plants cultivation (7.131)
        Importance of Hygiene in Manusmriti
   Manusmriti pays attention on public health and criticize those throwing dirt on roads or public places (4.56).
Manusmriti suggest strictly barring diseased witnesses going to court for offering witness.(8.64)
                   Rules for Physicians in Manusmriti
  Manusmriti suggest ever fines for physicians were not alert while dealing with patients (9.284). Manusmriti suggests or makes rule for physicians not to take meal while dealing with ill patients.
  Supporting Sick people in Manusmriti
 Manusmriti suggests that the state should support materially to ick people (2.138)

                   Medical Tourism in Manusmriti
 There was medical tourism was developed in Manusmriti time and before. Manusmriti instructs that there should be special concession for pregnant woman travelling by boats without any payment.



Tewari Ashis  Supriya Tiwari  , (2018 )  Synthesis of Medicinal Agents from Plants  Elsevier Publications  page 10

   

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Herbs, Rules for Physicians in Manusmriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Herbs, Rules for Physicians in Manusmriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Herbs, Rules for Physicians in Manusmriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Herbs, Rules for Physicians in Manusmriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Herbs, Rules for Physicians in Manusmriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Herbs, Rules for Physicians in Manusmriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Herbs, Rules for Physicians in Manusmriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Herbs, Rules for Physicians in Manusmriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Herbs, Rules for Physicians in Manusmriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Herbs, Rules for Physicians in Manusmriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Herbs, Rules for Physicians in Manusmriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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Cow Produces and Health related Instructions in Vishnu Smriti
Health related Instructions in Vishnu Smriti 1
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Smriti Literature -3
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia - 57
(Special mentions of History of Medical science in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  Smritis are Dharma Shastra texts of Hinduism. Vishnu Smriti is the latest Smriti. Patrick Olivelle states that a Banaras Pundit wrote commentary on Vishnu Smriti in 1622 and Julius Jolly translated Vishnu Smriti first time in English in 1880. The text is Bhakti text about Vishnu. Vishnu Smriti relied on old Smriti for many code of conducts and medical science instructions.
 The chapters related to health instructions from 60-64 are based on Ashtang Sangraha (Atideva)
      Medical values of Cow Products
  Vishnu Smriti offers the values of cow produces for medical and psychological purposes that till date, Hindus worship cow as god and use cow urine as medicines.
  In Vishnu Smriti 23, from 57-61, there is discussion on importance of cow produces.
The  urine of cow and dung clarified butter milk, milk , sour milk and gorokanna clarify sins.   
गवां हि तीर्थे वसतीहगंगा पुष्टिस्तथासां रजसि प्रवृता .
लक्ष्मी करीसे प्रणतौ च धर्म स्तासां प्रणामं सततं च कुर्यात (23. 61)
   Mother Ganga dwells in Cow Urine. Prosperity dwells in the dust rising from their couch, good fortune in cow dung and virtue in saluting them.

References
1-Patrick Olivelle (2007), ‘The Date and Provenance of Vishnu Smriti ‘Indologica Taurinensia, 149-163
2- Atideva, Ibid, page 119-20
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Health Instructions about Cow Produces in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;  Health Instructions about Cow Produces in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,   Health Instructions about Cow Produces in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, ,  Health Instructions about Cow Produces in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia;  Health Instructions about Cow Produces in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;     Health Instructions about Cow Produces in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;    Health Instructions about Cow Produces in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;   Health Instructions about Cow Produces in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;    Health Instructions about Cow Produces in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;   Health Instructions about Cow Produces in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ;  Health Instructions about Cow Produces in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 


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Types and Characteristics of Herbal Tooth Brushes in Vishnu Smriti
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Smriti Literature – 4
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 58
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  There are instructions for types of herbal tooth brushes to be used for tooth brushing and herbal tooth brushes not to be used in Vishnu Smriti. All those instructions are already in Sngrah Surta  (Atideva ) .
 Vishnu Smriti suggests not to use following herbal tooth brushes –
Lasura
Wash nut or soapberry
Bahera or * myrobalan
Dhava
Dhanvana
Bandhuka
Sahajan /Moringa
Tendul
  Vishnu Smriti suggests following herb twigs for using tooth brushing-
Banyan
Neem
Acacia catechu Khadir
Arka 
Sarja
Golden rain tree (sarja )
Apamarg
Malti


References –
Atideva, 1960 Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Sammelan Bnaras   page -119

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Types of Herbal Tooth Brushes in Vishnu Smriti   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Types of Herbal Tooth Brushes in Vishnu Smriti   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Types of Herbal Tooth Brushes in Vishnu Smriti   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Types of Herbal Tooth Brushes in Vishnu Smriti   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Types of Herbal Tooth Brushes in Vishnu Smriti   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Types of Herbal Tooth Brushes in Vishnu Smriti   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Types of Herbal Tooth Brushes in Vishnu Smriti   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Types of Herbal Tooth Brushes in Vishnu Smriti   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Types of Herbal Tooth Brushes in Vishnu Smriti   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Types of Herbal Tooth Brushes in Vishnu Smriti   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Types of Herbal Tooth Brushes in Vishnu Smriti   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



 

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