Author Topic: HISTORY of MEDICAL and WELLNESS TOURISM IN INDIAN SUBCONTINENT , SOUTHEAST ASIA  (Read 7123 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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     Suggestions for Bathing in Vishnu Smriti
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Smriti Literature -5
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 59
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
       Ayurveda does mean healthy life knowledge. Therefore, Dharma Shastra texts (Smritis) or encyclopedia of code of conducts discussed many health related subjects taken from various Ayurveda texts or other behavioral texts.
      Every Hindu Karmakanda performance texts discusses taking bath regularly with proper care and ‘hastha prakshalaym’ is part of each Karmakanda ritual performance. Bathing is essential for the good health and Vishnu Smriti (64) suggests following codes for proper bath-
   Never take bath into well built by others (perhaps unknown or enemies)
 Never bath by water left by other man after bath.
If at all necessary donate five mud pindas made from the mud of well . That code is also in Yagyavalkya Smriti and Sangraha.
Don’t shake head after bath. In Sangraha, it is suggested not to shake hair after bath .



Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Suggestions for bathing in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Suggestions for bathing in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Suggestions for bathing in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Suggestions for bathing in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Suggestions for bathing in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Suggestions for bathing in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Suggestions for bathing in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Suggestions for bathing in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Suggestions for bathing in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Suggestions for bathing in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Suggestions for bathing in Vishnu Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



Bhishma Kukreti

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Yajnavalkya Smriti: An Introduction
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Smriti Literature -6
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 60
(Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
    Yajnavalkya Smriti is one of the prominent Hindu Dharmashasta texts (code of conducts). Yajnavalkya Smriti period is from 4th to 5th century BCE (Patrick) . Yajnavalkya Smriti is created after Manu Smriti is in verse from and systematic one. Yajnavalkya Smriti influenced  more to central and South India than north. There are three Kandas (books ) –Achar Kanda, Vyavhara Kanda and Prayschita Kanda. There are 1010 Shlokas in Yajnavalkya Smriti .
References
Patrick Olivelle  (2006),  ‘Between the Empires: Society in India between 300-400 CE’ Oxford University Press p176

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Yajnavalkya Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Yajnavalkya Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Yajnavalkya Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Yajnavalkya Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Yajnavalkya Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Yajnavalkya Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Yajnavalkya Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Yajnavalkya Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Yajnavalkya Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Yajnavalkya Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Yajnavalkya Smriti , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 


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Human Anatomy  aspects in Yajnavalkya Smriti -
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Smriti Literature – 7
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 61
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  The Yajnavalkya Smriti is created after Manu Smriti. The medical aspects are taken from Sushruta or Charak Samhita and others.
 There are various aspects of medical science in Yajnavalkya Smriti. Yajnavalkya Smriti mentions human anatomy and are based on Charak Samhita or Ashtang Samhita –
Charak Samhita counts the number of human bones for 360. Yajnavalkya Smriti mentions 360 bones in human body too. (YS 3/84)
As Charak mentions six skins as in Charak Samhita (Atideva )
Yajnavalkya Smriti mentions following numbers for various human parts –
Veins – 700
Nerves – 900
Arteries -200
Mussels -500
Nadi (YS, mentions going from hart) – 72000
 Reference
Atideva , ibid page 120



Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter
    Human Anatomy  in Yajnavalkya Smriti    , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;   Human Anatomy  in Yajnavalkya Smriti    , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,    Human Anatomy  in Yajnavalkya Smriti    , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, ,   Human Anatomy  in Yajnavalkya Smriti    , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia;   Human Anatomy  in Yajnavalkya Smriti    , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;      Human Anatomy  in Yajnavalkya Smriti    , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;     Human Anatomy  in Yajnavalkya Smriti    , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;    Human Anatomy  in Yajnavalkya Smriti    , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;     Human Anatomy  in Yajnavalkya Smriti    , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;    Human Anatomy  in Yajnavalkya Smriti    , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ;   Human Anatomy  in Yajnavalkya Smriti    , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 


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Concept of Embryo Development in Yajnavalkya Smriti -
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Smriti Literature - 8
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 62
( with Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
                Yajnavalkya Smriti is definitely a Hindu code of conducts text. However, Yajnavalkya Smriti followed Charak Samhita for explaining embryo development principles. The narration is more of spiritual sense than scientific explanation from today’s angle.
 Yajnavalkya Smriti (3, 72-81) states that during the *ual intercourse, the universal soul grasps and mixes the five elements and the soul remains in the form of fluid in first month. This is in contrast of soul is form less. In the second month the fluid changes into hard lump. In third month, the limbs and sense organs develop and the mass starts movement in the uterus. According to Yajnavalkya Smriti, the limbs become hard and blood is produced in the fourth month. Yajnavalkya Smriti explains that there is development of strength , color, nails and hairs in the sixth month. Arteries, sinews and blood vessels develop in seventh month with mind in consciousness.  Skin, flesh and memory develop in the eighth month. The energy transition from mother to fetus starts in eighth month. That is why it is general belief that If child delivery is before or on the eighth month, child does not live long.  Charak Samhita also vouches same theory on condition of embryo development in eighth month (Ch Samhita Sha A 4/24)
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018  bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
  Embryo Development in Yajnavalkya Smriti  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;     Embryo Development in Yajnavalkya Smriti  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,      Embryo Development in Yajnavalkya Smriti  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, ,     Embryo Development in Yajnavalkya Smriti  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia;     Embryo Development in Yajnavalkya Smriti  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;        Embryo Development in Yajnavalkya Smriti  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;       Embryo Development in Yajnavalkya Smriti  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;      Embryo Development in Yajnavalkya Smriti  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;       Embryo Development in Yajnavalkya Smriti  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;      Embryo Development in Yajnavalkya Smriti  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ;     Embryo Development in Yajnavalkya Smriti  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 


Bhishma Kukreti

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 Maurya Empire: Introduction
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Maurya Period – 1
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 63
(with Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
  Chandra Gupta Maurya established the giant Maurya Empire and is said the period from 321 B.C to -187BCE. The territory was comprised majority of South Asia . The capital of Maurya Empire was Patliputra and had been the largest ever in Indian subcontinent.  The Mauryan Empire   area was spanning around 5 million square kilometers in Asoka Time. After the death of Asoka the Maurya Empire started declining and Sunga period started after Maurya Period. The following Kings were famous in Mauryan Empire
Chandra Gupta Maurya and Chanakya
Bindusara
Asoka 
  From administration, cultural , religious , art , architectures, metallurgy , agriculture, administrative laws, languages, economy , literature, creativity, and medical science point of views, Mauryan Empire opened many fields fo India.
In medical science and medical tourism, Maurya administrations created infrastructures for paving medical science growth in India

References –

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Importance of Maurya Period in History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Importance of Maurya Period in History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Importance of Maurya Period in History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Importance of Maurya Period in History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Importance of Maurya Period in History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Importance of Maurya Period in History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Importance of Maurya Period in History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Importance of Maurya Period in History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Importance of Maurya Period in History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Importance of Maurya Period in History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Importance of Maurya Period in History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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 Effects of Indian invasion by Alexander on History of Medicines 
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Maurya Period -3
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 64
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
             Brief about Alexander the Great
     No doubt, Alexander the great did not win much Indian territory. However, the invasion by Alexander on India influenced directly, indirectly on Indian arts, science , culture and medicines too.
    Alexander the great (356-323 BC.) was the son of Macedon King Philips who invaded Afghanistan and west India after Persian invasion. Alexander and his army did not stay at one place in India  , Pakistan and Afghanistan . Alexander and his army were on campaign. He returned perhaps around 316 BC from western India before his death.
   After the death of Alexander the great his Satraps or governors took over each territory as King. Seleucids was the King of Afghanistan and Indian Territory.
                 Alexander‘s campaign brought new technology
   Alexander campaign for invading today’s Afghanistan and west India opened the way for exchanges of tens of knowledge between Greece, Egypt and India.
   Medical science and war science were also exchanged between the two territories.
 It is easy for guessing that when Alexander’s armed forces were campaigning in Afghanistan and India, the soldiers and back office workers would have extended knowledge for various injury medicines and other medical remedies to the local inhabitants and soldiers might have taken much medicinal knowledge from Indian inhabitants too. 
    Rebelakou et all states, “It is very likely that Greek medicines first arrived in India with the campaign of Alexander the Great in Asia (334 -323 BC).” Alexander campaign created ways for translating medical text (same).
  Forced and lured medical Tourism
 Alexander the Great army passed many months and travelled hundreds of kilometers for campaign in India from Persia. It is easy for speculating –
 Greece soldier got injured and had to stay at nearby place and Greece soldier /soldiers taking rest in Indian village and physicians medicating him.
Greece soldier /soldiers got ill and Greece soldiers inviting or taking forcefully or by luring a Indian physician and getting medical treatment.
Greece soldiers were taking the Indian surgeons or physicians from villages with Greece Army by force or by luring them.
Greece soldiers were getting tired and calling locals for massage or for other reliving acts or refreshing causes or asking energy herbs or energy generating herbs, animal produces.
The Greece soldiers were getting advices from the Indian villagers/experts for medical herbs, muds, stones and animals.
Greece soldiers were taking help of Indian villagers (forcefully or by awarding) for taking ill or injured soldiers from one place to other.
 There are historical or folk stories that Alexander visiting Rishis and Rishis were mental pain relievers as well as physical pain relievers on that period.
The above assumptions are examples of medical tourism of that period.




   
 

References –
Rebelakou E.P., M. Karamanou, A. George (  2015) , The Impact of Greek medicines in India :The Birth of Unani Medicine, Acta med His Andriat 2015 13(2)
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Effects of Invasion by Alexander the Great on India , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Effects of Invasion by Alexander the Great on India , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Effects of Invasion by Alexander the Great on India , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Effects of Invasion by Alexander the Great on India , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Effects of Invasion by Alexander the Great on India , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Effects of Invasion by Alexander the Great on India , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Effects of Invasion by Alexander the Great on India , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Effects of Invasion by Alexander the Great on India , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Effects of Invasion by Alexander the Great on India , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Effects of Invasion by Alexander the Great on India , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Effects of Invasion by Alexander the Great on India , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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Highway in Mauryan period and its importance in Medical Tourism
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -4
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia-65
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
  Before, after and at the time of Alexander ‘invasion in India, there were  tens of small kingdoms in India apart from Nanda Kingdom that was big largest Kingdom of that period. There was a high way from Magadha (Nanda capital) to Kabul and on the high way there were smaller kingdoms too.  The said high way was crossing northern parts as Chitral and Swat valley. There was Balakah place that was big Mandi (whole sale market) . From Balakh (Afghanistan ) high way was heading to far west and in east south to today’s India. Hindu Kush , Sindh River were there and high way was reaching up to Magadha through various tows . In Balakh, there were Indian, Chinese and Persian communities. Balakah was exchange center for traders
    Traders used to bring goods from Indian territories including Uttarakhand and used to get western countries goods for exchange in Balkh. Indian traders used to bring herbs, herbal medicines, health oriented food ingredients, animals and animal products of wellness importance for trading and used to sell those in Balakah. This author will inform in coming chapters about medical goods brought in Balkh for trading in Mauryan period.
    Trading of medicines medical herbs, medical animal products or animal products for wellness is nothing but part of medical tourism. High way is nothing but factor of promoting tourism of various types. When there was high way , definitely, there would be shelters (commercial or free) and food facilities in definite gaps of  high way too on the high way and those shelters would also be the centers  of collection from villages of medical and other consumable goods and commodities.
     The high way was going from Balakh to  Bharuch port , and Taxila too .Kautalya called the high way Haimvant path and Charaka called it ‘Himvant parshwa’. In Mahbharata, there is praise for mules of Balakh. ( Atideva )
There were network of roads in Maurya Period that network encouraged medical products trading within India and export to out of India through water ways and road ways.
         

References –
 Atideva, (1960) , Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Sammelan Banaras .

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Importance of High way in Mauryan period   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Importance of High way in Mauryan period   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Importance of High way in Mauryan period   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Importance of High way in Mauryan period   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Importance of High way in Mauryan period   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Importance of High way in Mauryan period   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Importance of High way in Mauryan period   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Importance of High way in Mauryan period   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Importance of High way in Mauryan period   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Importance of High way in Mauryan period   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Importance of High way in Mauryan period   , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



Bhishma Kukreti

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Concept of Visha Kanya or Poison Damsel and Medical Tourism in Mauryan Period
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia-
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
   We have following literature for knowing Chandragupta Maurya the founder of Mauryan dynasty in India –
Megasthenes literature – Megasthenes was a Greece author that wrote Indika offering us the accounts of India of Chandragupta Maurya (324 -297 BCE) period.
Mudrarakshasa: a Sanskrit classical drama by Vishakhadatta (4- 8th BC)
Artha Shastra by Kautilya
 Mudrarakshasa narrates the story of ascent of King Chandragupta power and administrating India.  Vishakhadatta is supposed to be the writer of Mudrarakshasa play.
 Chanakya and Chandragupta defeated Nanda King Alliancing with King Parvateshwara (Parvata) and other Kings. Parvateshwara was a hill region king.
 Atideva describes that Chandra Gupta and party killed Nanda by offering him poisonous food (example of medical science development concept ).
    Chanakya and Chandragupta promised Parvateshwara for offering him half of the Kingdom of nana Empire (Dabral) after winning Nanda King.  It seems that Chandragupta had blood relation with Parvateshwara.
 After winning the Nanda Empire by killing Nanda King, Parvateshwara asked for his part (from Nanda Empire). Chanakya and Chandragupta I not wish for dividing the won territory.
 Chanakya sent a Vishakanya or prostitute for killing Parvateshwara.
   There is mention of Visha Kanya or poisonous girl or poison damsel It is believed that the blood and fluid of Vishakanya was instant poisonous to other person.
      Medical Tourism in Visha Kanya concept
 Uses of Visha Kanya or poison girl for killing the enemy is having  the factors for medical tourism, pleasure.
 Developing a girl child poisonous – The patron had to offer the girl such foods (mostly folk belief is that such girl was made habitual taking poison on regular basis) that girl became poisonous for poisonous.  Making a girl body poisonous is part of medical science.
The Visha Kanya as attractive hostess or hospitality management –Mostly, Visha Kanya were taught the training of attractive prostitute whose act was to attract the target and enter her fluid or blood into enemy’s body or offering poisonous alcohol to the target.  Seducing by a girl is part of hospitality management.
Girl visiting the target- The concept was that either the Visha Kanya had to travel where target was there and find the ways to meet target (enemy) or somebody used to take the target to Visha Kanya for pleasure etc.
  Poison making science in Chandragupta Maurya Time
  In Mudrarakshasa Play, there is a scene about a physician coming for killing Chandragupta and Chanakya and his party killing the said physician by poisonous food.
  Visha Kanya concept in Kalki Purana
The concept of Visha Kanya is also in Hindu text Kalki Purana wherein Sulochana the wife of Gandharva was Vishakanya (Chturvedi) 
               

References –
1-Atideva, (1960), Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas, Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, Banaras
2-Shiv Prasad Dabral, (1975), Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 3 , page 95 based on Mudrarakshasa drama Act - 5 shloka 11
3-Chaturvedi B.K. , Kalki Purana , Diamond Pocket Books, Delhi  page  74 

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Visha Kanya concept in Mauryan period , of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Visha Kanya concept in Mauryan period , of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Visha Kanya concept in Mauryan period , of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Visha Kanya concept in Mauryan period , of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Visha Kanya concept in Mauryan period , of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Visha Kanya concept in Mauryan period , of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Visha Kanya concept in Mauryan period , of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Visha Kanya concept in Mauryan period , of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Visha Kanya concept in Mauryan period , of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Visha Kanya concept in Mauryan period , of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Visha Kanya concept in Mauryan period , of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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Health Care management for Foreign Travelers in Mauryan Period
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -6
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 67
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
   The historians get knowledge of Mauryan Period by writings of Greece traveler Megasthenes, Arthashastra by Kautilya and inscriptions of Asoka. Arrian of Nicomedia offers the details of campaign of Alexander the Great in India
              Medical Aid to Foreigners in Mauryan Period
  Eminent Medicine Historian Kanjiv Lochan offering the book by  W.McCrindle and states that Megasthenes suggests that officers were appointed specially looking after the ill foreigners . There is reference of ‘bhaishjyagriham ‘ in Arthashastra ( 2.4.14). Historian found seal of Asoka period that mentions ‘Arogyavihara (Kanjiv) 
 Atideva states that Megasthenes informs,” Indian physicians can deliver /produce many children by their power.  Indian Physicians are capable of desired * of children by uses of medicines. Their ointments are excellent and they treat patients by food input system. “
 Narendra Nath Law and Radha Kumud Mookarji states that at that time, the city in charge  had to attend  the Entertainment of foreigners .
The above citations conclud that government was having system of taking records of foreign travelers and in case foreigners felt ill, officers were taking them for treatments to ‘hospitals or medical dispensaries ( Bhaishajyagriha).     The above examples are clearly the examples of Medical tourism.  Since, till recent, in India medical practitioners practiced medical service for justa  human service and not for profit , we don’t get more details  in old texts about charges by physicians to the ill tourists or patients

References –
1-W. McCrindle , (1877)  (1st edition , translated and edited ), Ancient India as describe by Megasthenes and Arrian  , Trubner and Co.   page 87
2-Kanjiv Lochan ( 2003), Medicines of Early India: With appendix on a rare ancient text  , Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan , Banaras page , 124
3-Atideva, (1960) , Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas , Hindi Sahitya Sammelan , page
4- Narendra Nath Law and Radha Kumud Mookarji (1914), Studies on Ancient Hindu Polity : based on Arthashastra of Kautilya, Logmans Green and Co , page 90 .

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Health Care for Foreign  Travelers  in Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;  Health Care for Foreign  Travelers  in Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,   Health Care for Foreign  Travelers  in Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, ,  Health Care for Foreign  Travelers  in Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia;  Health Care for Foreign  Travelers  in Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;     Health Care for Foreign  Travelers  in Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;    Health Care for Foreign  Travelers  in Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;   Health Care for Foreign  Travelers  in Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;    Health Care for Foreign  Travelers  in Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;   Health Care for Foreign  Travelers  in Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ;  Health Care for Foreign  Travelers  in Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



Bhishma Kukreti

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Medical Tourism in Arthashastra by Kautilya: An Introduction
Medical Tourism in Arthashastra of Mauryan Period -1   
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -7
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 68
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
   An ancient Sanskrit Indian Treatise created probably in Chandragupta Maurya period and compiled edited in 3rd or 4th century. Arthashastra is about code of conducts, economics war strategies and social norms. Thought, it is believed that Chanakya or Kautilya or Vishnu Gupta was the writer of Arthashastra. However, it seemed that several authors authored Arthashastra. (Boesche and Olivelle)
   There is no mention of Chanakya name in Arthashastra but Panchatantra mentions the name of Chanakya (Atideva)   -
अर्थशास्त्राणी चाणक्यदीनि काम शास्त्राणी वात्सायनदीनि
  Atideva states that the style of Arthashastra is as of Charak Samhita that is prose and sholka .Due to more similarities with Kamasutra, scholars assume that Arthashastra is of 4th century literature. Atideva argued that Arthashastra style is more similar to Ayurveda literature as Charak Samhita and Sushruta Samhita than other literature.


References –
Roger Boesche (2003) , The First Great Political Realist: Kautilya and his Arthashastra  Laxington Books page 7
Olivelle Patrick, (2013), King, Governance and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya Arthashastra  , Oxford University press pp 1-5
Atideva , ibid page 129-130

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Medical Tourism in  Arthashastra  of Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Medical Tourism in  Arthashastra  of Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Medical Tourism in  Arthashastra  of Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Medical Tourism in  Arthashastra  of Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Medical Tourism in  Arthashastra  of Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Medical Tourism in  Arthashastra  of Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Medical Tourism in  Arthashastra  of Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Medical Tourism in  Arthashastra  of Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Medical Tourism in  Arthashastra  of Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Medical Tourism in  Arthashastra  of Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Medical Tourism in  Arthashastra  of Mauryan Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



 

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