Author Topic: HISTORY of MEDICAL and WELLNESS TOURISM IN INDIAN SUBCONTINENT , SOUTHEAST ASIA  (Read 7123 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Role of Nursing craftsperson  in Arthashastra
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -8
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 69
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
There many sholkas or prose versions in Arthashastra those describe about importance and practices by physicians.
  Arthashastra describes different types of physicians as physicians for human treatments, elephant, horse treatments (mostly for war).
 There is mentions of male and female ‘paricharikas’ or nurses in Arthashastra ( 2,23,2;3,13, 9). Ancient Medicines historian Kanjiv Lochan states that those were of lower level than physicians in Arthashastra.
Besides paricharikas, Arthashastra  (2.27,5;)describes another craftsperson ‘ Matrika’ and  Dasi  (Artha -3,20,7) .Kanjiv Lochan states that  Matrikas, paricharikas and Dasis had low status as they were courtesans or prostitutes. Dhatris had slightly upper status as they were regarded equal to mother and were used at the time of new born deliveries. Dasis, Matrikas and Paricharikas were equal to domestic servants
        Mentions of Role of Nurses in Arthashastra, hospitals and treatment for ill foreigners direct us that medical tourism was well development in Mauryan period. All those are part of infrastructure and essentials for medical tourism.
      .

References –
Kanjiv Lochan () Medicines of early India: With Appendix on Rare Ancient  Texts, Chaukhamba Prakashan , Banaras page    104
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Role of Nurses in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Role of Nurses in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Role of Nurses in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Role of Nurses in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Role of Nurses in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Role of Nurses in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Role of Nurses in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Role of Nurses in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Role of Nurses in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Role of Nurses in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Role of Nurses in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



Bhishma Kukreti

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Medical Facilities for Army in Mauryan Period (Arthashastra)
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -9
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 70
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
    Army campaigning or defending the enemy attack is not pleasure tour but it is tour or war tour . The medical facilities for army in any territory indicate the status of available medical facilities for the touring people.
        Gabriel taking references from Thapliyal (Military Organization) states that ‘Arthashastra’ offers better clues than old texts for ‘effective military medical services.
 Arthashastra describes the existence of military ambulance corps drawn by horses and elephants .The competent surges or physicians were regularly attending the army. The commanders used to check the sufficient doctors, drugs, instruments and clothes for bandages were in baggage train /carts.   
         Thapliyal describes that the women were kept for supplying prepared food and beverages for the fighting troops and wounded soldiers. Those women, in fact military nurses used to recite encouraging words for armed forces.
          Miltary Medical tents in Arthashastra
 Acharya describes that the instructions were clear that the medical tent  should be near King’s commander. The medical camp should have an exclusive flag that soldiers recognize easily and could bring wounded to the camp easily. 
 Further, Acharya describes that the King must visit regularly to wounded soldiers with surgeons and should speak brave, praiseworthy words to them for fast recovery.
 Gabriel praises the military corps and states that nowhere else in the early ancient world there was military medical services.  Gabriel offers credit for medical science development in India to the system of military medical corps (in Mahabharata and Mauryan period or  stated in Arthashastra ) .
 Military medical corps is the sign of medical tourism too.
 Army campaign is not a pleasure trip but getting medical services on war tour or campaign is different type of tour where medical services requirements are more than normal tour.
References –
1-Gabriel Richard A. (2012) ‘Man and Wound in Ancient World’: A History of Military Medicines from Sumer to fall of Constantinople, Potomac Books, Inc.
2-Thapliyal, Uma Prasad (2010) . “Warfare in Ancient India ‘Manohar Publishers and Distributor, India, page 93
3-AcharyaAAM, (Jan 1976)  Military Medicines in Ancient India page  Bull .Indian History Medicines journal 1976 January 6(1) page t 52
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –


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Tourism and medical Tourism Infrastructure in Arthashastra

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia-
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukret[/b]i (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
  The Arthashastra reflects that there were concerns for creating infrastructure for general tour and medical aid tour.
 All types of tours including require facilities of road, safety, food, carriages, rest houses, money exchange, fair prices, loaders, health services.
   Chakraborty writes about road and goods safety in travel ,” The Arthashastra reflects the protection given to merchants and their high status in Indian society. Insurance and safe passage for goods , regulation of prices , weights and measures and the use of gold, silver and copper as rates of exchange also indicate  a well-developed mode of trade and travel”.
 Chakraborty states that the Greece accounts mention that in India chariots roads were well laid and other modes of transportation were horses, camel and elephants.
 Arthashastra narrates the Trees for shades, wells, rest houses and security for travelers. There is classification of travels as military, commercial and common men’s travelling that indicates the importance of travel infrastructure in Chandragupta Maurya and early periods.  In Kautilya time, the state was controlling inside water ways too.
    Each developed travel infrastructure encourages the medical tourism. The torism infrastructure cited in Arthashastra indicate that the medical tourism was well developed in Kautilya or Mauryan time.
References –
Hana Chakraborty, Chakravarty  Dr. B.K. (2008) , Global Tourism    , APH Publishing Corpn. Delhi , page 35
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Tourism Infrastructure in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Tourism Infrastructure in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Tourism Infrastructure in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Tourism Infrastructure in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Tourism Infrastructure in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Tourism Infrastructure in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Tourism Infrastructure in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Tourism Infrastructure in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Tourism Infrastructure in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Tourism Infrastructure in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Tourism Infrastructure in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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   Diseases mentioned in Arthashastra

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -11
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 72
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)

 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
   Knowledge of Diseases is important symbol of medical tourism. The classic Sanskrit Text of Mauryan period ‘Arthashastra ‘(AS) mentions following diseases –
1-Anah (Suppression of urine and stool) (AS14.3.68)
2-Shosa (Consumption) (AS 14.1.21)
3-Prameh (Gonorrhea)  (As14.1.21 )
4-Kushtha (Leprosy) AS 14.1.20)
5- Vishuchika (Cholera)  (AS 14.1.23)
6- Jvara (fever) (AS  14.1.24)
 Arthashastra advices for husband separating from pregnant wife  and divorce in case of dead deliveries by wife repeatedly (AS3.2.39)

 The above names tally more or less with Ayurveda Texts (Kanjiv Lochan )
References –
Kanjiv Lochan (2003) medicines of early India : , Chaukhamba Sanskrit  Bhawan  Banaras  page 15
   
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Diseases mentioned in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Diseases mentioned in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Diseases mentioned in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Diseases mentioned in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Diseases mentioned in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Diseases mentioned in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Diseases mentioned in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Diseases mentioned in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Diseases mentioned in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Diseases mentioned in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Diseases mentioned in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 


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Classification of Physicians in Kautilya’s Arthshastra

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -12
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 72
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
  There are references of various types of physicians in Kautilya’s Arthashastra (Dr. Mansa) . Dr. Mansa illustrates that there are following types of physicians described in Arthashastra –
Kaya Chikitsak or general physicians
Sainyachikitsak Army physicians
Rajasyachikitsak – Physicians for King and elites
Streerog Chikitsak (Experts of Obstetrics  and Gynecology )
Visha Chikitsak or expert of poisons
Pashu Chikitsak (veterinary doctors

 Atideva in Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas also refers above types of physicians described by Kautilya in Arthashastra.
In many subjects, Kautilya describes the duties of physicians their status, payment to them and punishment if doctor indulged in carelessness and abortion.
References –
Dr. Mansa BAMS, Ayurveda in Chanakya’s Arthashastra, https://easyayurveda.com/2016/12/08/Ayurveda-canakya-arthashastra/   
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Classification of Physicians in Arthashastra,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Classification of Physicians in Arthashastra,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Classification of Physicians in Arthashastra,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Classification of Physicians in Arthashastra,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Classification of Physicians in Arthashastra,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Classification of Physicians in Arthashastra,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Classification of Physicians in Arthashastra,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Classification of Physicians in Arthashastra,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Classification of Physicians in Arthashastra,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Classification of Physicians in Arthashastra,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Classification of Physicians in Arthashastra,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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Postmortem Aspects in Kautilya’s Arthashastra 


History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -14
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 75
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
 Since in India till Bitish rule, medical practice was not more for earning , but was more for public service  the historical literature do not describe medical tourism as today is described . Therefore, for understanding medical tourism of India of any period, medical tourism historians analyze the factors of toady’s medical tourism of that period.
  The   postmortem concept is one of the strong indicative factors for understanding the status of medical tourism of any period in India.
 Arthashsatra should be studied for understanding Medical Tourism development from such angles  as postmortem aspect.
 Kanjiv Lochan states that Arthashastra (4.7) definitely did not have reservation against postmortem of human body .The author lays provisions for physicians for endowing the state laws.
  Sharda More (Pol) and Hemant Pol analyzed in details about description of Vidhivaidyaki (Medical jurisprudence) and Ashumritakpariksha (medical postmortem for legal aspects) .
     There are following terms for  postmortem and  death by causes in Arthashastra (Pol and Pol)  –
1-Nirudhochuvashatam (strangulation)
2-Udbandhhtam (Hanging)
3-Shoolaropitam (death by sharp object)
4-Udakahatam ( Killing by drowning )
5-Kashthairashmibhirvahatam (Killing  by sticks or ropes)
6-Avakshiptam (Death by fall from building etc)
7-Vishatam (by Poison)
8-Sharpkithtam (Snake or insect bite death or Killing)
9-Madanyogahatam (Death by consuming narcotic drugs)
Pol and Pol analyzed Autopsy of Arthashastra and compared with modern ways of Postmortem and found many similarities.

  References –
Lochan Kanjiv, Medicines of Early India: with appendix on Rare Texts Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan ,Banaras page 114      
(Pol ) More Sharda , Pol Hemant , (2017 ) Post Mortem Examination(Ashumritakpaiksha)  ijn ancient Era w.s. r. Kautilya Arthashastra , International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharmaceutical Chemistry   Volume 7 , issue 2 ,2017 page 
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Postmortem in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Postmortem in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Postmortem in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Postmortem in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Postmortem in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Postmortem in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Postmortem in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Postmortem in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Postmortem in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Postmortem in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Postmortem in Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



Bhishma Kukreti

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Toxicology in Kautilya’s Arthashastra (Food Testing for king)
Toxicology in Arthashastra -1
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -13
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 74
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
                 Food testing for poison
   Kautilya describes different types of poison, poison uses for political reasons more than medical reasons.
         As per Chanakya or Kautilya, there used to be enemies more than friends or well-wishers around the king. Servants might offer poison to the king by greed and women can also give poison to the king due to many reasons. The poison could be given to king through food, garlands, jewels, beds, bath etc. (Atrideva) 
   Kautilya suggests that the king should keep persons nearby him those are alert, well knowledgeable, wise, non-culpritious nature, polite, psychologist, well versed with eight parts of Ayurveda, and those had poison remedial medicines. Kautilya names such physicians ( those knew toxicology and remedies) as ‘Jangali Vaidya’ .
 Kautilya suggests that the person (Jangali Vaidya) should first test himself the medial medicine/food and then offer to the King.
 Same way the person should test wine and water (by consuming himself)  the wine and water before king consumes the liquid.
Chanakya suggested use of female maids for King taking bath or making  beds, making garland etc. (AS 28/29


References –
Atrideva, (1960) Ayurveda ka Vrihat Itihas    , Hindi Samiti, Banaras, page  130
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
 Toxicology in Arthashastra (Mauryan Period) , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Toxicology in Arthashastra (Mauryan Period) , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Toxicology in Arthashastra (Mauryan Period) , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Toxicology in Arthashastra (Mauryan Period) , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Toxicology in Arthashastra (Mauryan Period) , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Toxicology in Arthashastra (Mauryan Period) , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Toxicology in Arthashastra (Mauryan Period) , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Toxicology in Arthashastra (Mauryan Period) , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Toxicology in Arthashastra (Mauryan Period) , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Toxicology in Arthashastra (Mauryan Period) , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Toxicology in Arthashastra (Mauryan Period) , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



Bhishma Kukreti

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Symptoms of Poisonous Food illustrated in Kautilya’s Arthashastra (Food Testing for king)

Toxicology in Arthashastra -2
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -15
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 76
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
                Balivaishwadev Ritual before taking Food
 Kautilya suggested in Artha Shastra for checking poison in food for King and perform Balivaishwadev ritual wherein food is offered to birds or and animals and put on fire too. In that ritual, the food gets tested. Kautilya shows following symptoms for poison when food is put on fire   -
The flames become blue if food is poisonous
The sound is chat chat if food is poisonous
 The vapor is as peacock Neck if food is poisonous
The birds get injured or died if food is poisonous
Poisonous food gets cold earlier than normal food
Many grains show dry symptom
Kautilya showed other symptoms for poisonous food (oil Ghee etc.) too and Atrideva detailed those symptoms in his book .
In Arthashastra (21/9-22), Kautilya describes symptoms of poison on bed, bed sheets etc.
In Arthashastra, Kautilya illustrates many ways for recognizing the person involved in poisoning food or other materials .







References
Atrideva, (1960), Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas , Hindi Samiti , Banaras page
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Symptoms of Poisonous Food illustrated in Kautilya’s Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Symptoms of Poisonous Food illustrated in Kautilya’s Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Symptoms of Poisonous Food illustrated in Kautilya’s Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Symptoms of Poisonous Food illustrated in Kautilya’s Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Symptoms of Poisonous Food illustrated in Kautilya’s Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Symptoms of Poisonous Food illustrated in Kautilya’s Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Symptoms of Poisonous Food illustrated in Kautilya’s Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Symptoms of Poisonous Food illustrated in Kautilya’s Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Symptoms of Poisonous Food illustrated in Kautilya’s Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Symptoms of Poisonous Food illustrated in Kautilya’s Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Symptoms of Poisonous Food illustrated in Kautilya’s Arthashastra , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 




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 Medicinal and Economic Plants in Arthashastra

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -16
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 77
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
  There are mentions of forests produces and its management in Arthashastra.  In Kupyavargah chapter of Arthashastra (2.17.4)   , Kautilya describes Saka /teak , Khadira , Dhanvana, Arjun , Madhuka, Sal, Shisham , tal sarj etc. and many or all those trees/plans are also medicinal plants.
  Arthashastra describes sixteen poisonous or poison producing plants as Kalkoot, Vatsnam , Halahal etc too.
 There are twenty one varieties of hardwood, eight varieties of reeds , five varieties of creeps and seven varieties of fiber producing  plants, two varieties of rope making fibrous plants,  and four categories of medicinal plants (Tom Trautman)
   The economic and medicinal plants are always tourism oriented produces. Medicinal Plants inspired or used to become base for medical tourism in past and even in present time too.
References –
Tom Trautman ( 2012), Arthashastra : the Science of Wealth, Penguine Books , pages 62     
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –

Medicinal and Economic Plants in Arthashastra, History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Medicinal and Economic Plants in Arthashastra, History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Medicinal and Economic Plants in Arthashastra, History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Medicinal and Economic Plants in Arthashastra, History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Medicinal and Economic Plants in Arthashastra, History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Medicinal and Economic Plants in Arthashastra, History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Medicinal and Economic Plants in Arthashastra, History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Medicinal and Economic Plants in Arthashastra, History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Medicinal and Economic Plants in Arthashastra, History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Medicinal and Economic Plants in Arthashastra, History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Medicinal and Economic Plants in Arthashastra, History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 





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Remedies for Epidemics mentioned in Kautilya‘ s Arthashastra

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -17
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 78
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
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  The medical tourism in past was not meant for making money or making a prosperous region but medical practices were for serving the people. Therefore, historians don’t get those terminological words those are used in modern medical tourism management in old classics. The historians had to take clue from medical services available in each past period for knowing the situation of medical tourism in a particular period.
     Knowledge and remedies for Epidemics is one factors for getting guessed information for situation of medical tourism in a particular period. Epidemics and remedies for epidemics available in a place inspire medical tourism. In Uttarakhand, religious toruism was from Mahabharata period but the tourists flow increase more when there were remedies for epidemics available in Tourist line from Haridwar to Badrinath or Gangotri or Yamunotri . from British period. When hospitals were opened by British government and social trusts in Tourist tour line, the tourist flow increased.   
     Kautilya mentioned about epidemics and remedies for epidemics and snake bites in Arthashastra. That sows well developed medical tourism in Mauryan period and later period too.
  Kautilya suggests Tantra, Mantra and Karmakanda ritual performances for stopping or lessening the epidemics in A.S. chapter 78/20 as –
   After rainy season, the people should perform rituals for pleasing Indra, Ganga, hills, oceans and medicines.
   Kautilya suggests physicians , Siddhas for taking necessary steps by offering medical services and rituals .
 For animal epidemic remedies, Kautilya suggested mostly ritual performances .
 For snake defense, Kautilya suggests medicines offered by physicians and by killing them by citizens.  (Atrideva)
References –
Atrideva , ibid , page 134
   
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Remedies for Epidemics in Arthashastra , History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Remedies   for Epidemics in Arthashastra , History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Remedies   for Epidemics in Arthashastra , History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Remedies   for Epidemics in Arthashastra , History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Remedies   for Epidemics in Arthashastra , History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Remedies   for Epidemics in Arthashastra , History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Remedies   for Epidemics in Arthashastra , History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Remedies   for Epidemics in Arthashastra , History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Remedies   for Epidemics in Arthashastra , History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Remedies   for Epidemics in Arthashastra , History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Remedies   for Epidemics in Arthashastra , History  of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 




 

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