Author Topic: HISTORY of MEDICAL and WELLNESS TOURISM IN INDIAN SUBCONTINENT , SOUTHEAST ASIA  (Read 7135 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Introductory notes on Asoka the Great

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -18
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 79
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
 Asoka the great period played a great role in establishing various social and cultural aspects for India for centuries and still today the great Asoka is relevant in India.
   Asoka ( 272-232 BC) the great  (was son of Bimbsar (297 -272 BC )and grandson of Chandragupta Maurya (321-297BCE) .  It is said that Asoka killed his brothers and got the Mauryan Empire. Asoka defeated Kalinga Kingdom in 260 BCE (Bentley). There was death of millions in Kalinga –Asoka war.  Asoka accepted Buddhism after Kalinga war.  Barring Tamil Nadu , parts of Karnataka and Kerala, Asoka ruled most of India subcontinent from Bangladesh to Afghanistan . After death of Asoka , Mauryan kingdom remained only for fifty years.
  Asoka started many social works in his regime as (Atrideva)  –
Erected Pillars or edicts all over Indian subcontinent
Asoka became pure vegetarian and preached others nonviolence
 Asoka arranged Hospitals for humans and animals everywhere. Though, a few historians state that those were not state owned but private ones.
Asoka built or inspired for building guest houses and dug wells  for travelers each after kilometer  .Asoka planted banyan and mango trees for shade on highways and state ways,
Asoka arrange medicinal plantation where medicinal plants were not there.
  All the above aspects suggest well develop  medical tourism in Mauryan Period .





References –
Atrideva, ibid, page 137
Bentley, Jerry (1993), Old World Encounters: Cross Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre Modern Times , Oxford Univ. Press, NY page 44

   
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Asoka the Great and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Asoka the Great and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Asoka the Great and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Asoka the Great and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Asoka the Great and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Asoka the Great and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Asoka the Great and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Asoka the Great and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Asoka the Great and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Asoka the Great and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Asoka the Great and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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Export of Medicinal Plants , Medicines and Ganga Water from Uttarakhand in Mauryan Period

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Mauryan Period (321-187 BCE) -
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia-
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
  Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar regions) was under rule of Mauryan Kingdom (Dabral).
  As per Mahavamsh, the Himalayan herbs were used in hospitals established by Asoka the great (2) .
 Asoka used to call daily Gangawater from Uttarakhand and used to distribute the same to his elites (Mahavamsh 25)
  In Asoka and previous period, There was export of medicinal plants  and medicines as Timaru brushes , Anwala , baheda , Ganga water , color , perfuming herbs, eye ointments and mangos .
  Exporting Gangajal and medicinal plants or herbal medicines is nothing but part of medical tourism .
References –
1-Dabral Shiv Prasad , (1969) , Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 3  page 107
2-Dabral ibid page 110
Mahavamsh page 21
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Export of Medicinal Plants from Uttarakhand in Asoka Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Export of Medicinal Plants from Uttarakhand in Asoka Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Export of Medicinal Plants from Uttarakhand in Asoka Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Export of Medicinal Plants from Uttarakhand in Asoka Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Export of Medicinal Plants from Uttarakhand in Asoka Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Export of Medicinal Plants from Uttarakhand in Asoka Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Export of Medicinal Plants from Uttarakhand in Asoka Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Export of Medicinal Plants from Uttarakhand in Asoka Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Export of Medicinal Plants from Uttarakhand in Asoka Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Export of Medicinal Plants from Uttarakhand in Asoka Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Export of Medicinal Plants from Uttarakhand in Asoka Period , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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Sungas Period: revival of Brahminical Society and Sanskrit Literature
 
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Sunga Period (185-73 BCE) -
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia-
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
     The Sunga Rule was over 112 years from 185 – 73 BCE on India and  has great importance in terms of defending Yawan attacks from west as well reviving Brahminical culture in India too.  The emergence of Panini’ Ashtadhyayi and thereafter Mahabhashya or great commentary on Panini‘s Ashtadhyayi by Patanjali are important aspects of Sunga Period.   Yoga Sutra by Patanjali is also the creation of that great period. It is said that Manusmriti was also created in Sunga Period but might have compiled, edited in later period.   
 
             Pushyamitra Sunga
 Pushyamitra Sunga was the founder of Sunga dynasty.  Pushyamitra belonged to Brahmin family and most probably, Maurya Royal Priest family.  When Mauryan rule became very week, Pushyamitra captured the Maurya Kingdom (1)
 Pushyamitra ruled for 36 years and restarted animal sacrifice (horse sacrifice (Ashvamedha yajna) .
 Pushyamitra expanded his empire from Magadha to half of India from Sialkot.
  Though, there are debates on Pushyamitra as prosecutor of Buddhists but it is true that Buddhist arts and architects flourished in Sunga Period too. (2)
    Agnimitra Sunga
 Agnimitra the son of Pushyamitra succeed his father Pushyamitra.
 After Agnimitra, Sunga dynasty rule started disintegrating and ended around 73 BCE. (1). Devbhuti  was the  last Sunga King .
  In Asoka period, Brahminical culture diminished and so the Sanskrit literature preservation and creation too diminished. . In Asoka period, the sponsors for Sanskrit lessoned hence, Sruti ( literature preservation by memories and telling to disciples  for preservation  ) system diminished too and perhaps that is the reason that Mahabharata tells that 1lakhs shlokas of Guru Brihaspati  lost .
There is no doubt that Sunga period revived Sanskrit literature and Brahminical culture that became important factors in later stages for creating ,compiling and editing tens of Sanskrit classics including Ayurveda literature . Sunga rule put foundation stones for revival of Sanskrit promotion.
References –
 1-Mahajan, V.D. (1960) Ancient India, S. Chand and Co. Delhi, page pages 360
Mahajan, V.D. (1960) Ancient India, S . Chand and Co. Delhi, page 363, 364 

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Sungas Period and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Sungas Period and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Sungas Period and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Sungas Period and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Sungas Period and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Sungas Period and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Sungas Period and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Sungas Period and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Sungas Period and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Sungas Period and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Sungas Period and History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



   



Bhishma Kukreti

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Patanjali: Paving the way for Yoga Tourism for Centuries

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Sunga Period (185-73 BCE) -2
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 82
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
  Yoga Surta by Patanjali is one of the most important Formula books in the History of Human meical treatment and Spirituality. The Yoga Sutra by Patanjali is still relevant in physical exercises, psychology and spirituality. Yoga Sutra by Patanjali paved the way for Yoga Tourism in the world. The classic book still motivate Yoga Tourists tour Uttarakhand and other parts of  India. Yoga Surta by Patanjali is playing great role in establishing new Yoga tourist places in the world.
                             Patanjali: Dispute over who was Patanjali of Yoga Sutra
 There have been many Patanjali. One Patanjali is that wrote commentary on Panini’s grammar and another  that wrote Yoga Sutra
 There had been other Patanjali in eighth century and eighteen century too.
   Was Panini Patanjali too?
 Some believe that Panini was Patanjali too
    The author of ‘ Mahabhashya’  the commentary on Panini ‘s  Ashtadhyayi (Sanskrit Grammar)  was also Patanjali and historians note that That Patanjali was from mid-2nd BCE (Banerji and George Cardona ) .
   Most historian accept that Patanjali that wrote Yoga Sutra lived between  2nd CE to 4th CE (Philipp, Demarais ).
   There is dispute for who was Patanjali of Yoga Sutra but there is two theories that Yoga Sutra was a revolutionary treatise in the history of human history.
                Yoga Sutra
           The reasons behind theory of Panini being Patanjali is that the words used  for each in Sutra or Aphorism/ formula are the least  and that was possible only when the author was grammar and vocabulary super expert. There are 196 aphorisms in Yoga Sutra by Patanjali
     There are following parts of Yoga sutra
Samadhi Pada
Sadhana Pada
Vibhuti Pada
Kaivilya Pada
  Yoga had been India from Veda or before Veda. Patanjali  put in words the physiology  and psychological amalgam together .
 There are examples of some words of human physiology, human psychology and spirituality (Iyengar)  cited in Yoga Sutra by Patanjali –
Yoga=union of body, mind soul with God .
Astangyoga – Eight Aspects of Yoga
Yama = Restrain on behavior
Niyam=Spiritual observances
Asan= Posture
Pranayam= Control of breath
Pratyahara = Withdrawal of senses
Dharana= Concentration
Dhyana =meditation
Samadhi = complete absorption
citta = conscious composed of mind , intellect and ego
Asmita =sense of self
viritis = thought waves
abhyas = practice
    Yoga sutra by Patanjali opened up yoga tourism and till date Yoga Tourism is flourishing . Yogi teaching teacher or preparing students for yoga teaching is part of Yoga tourism and even with all odds, Indians preserved the Yoga and Yoga tourism for many centuries after Patanjali.

References –
1-Subhash Chandra Banerji  (1989): A Companion to Sanskrit Literature: , Motilal  Bnarasidass , India, Pp 233
2-George Cardona (!997) Panini : A Survey of Research, Motilal Banarasidass pp267-68
3-Mass Philipp A , (2006) , Samadhipad : ,
 4-Michael Desmarais (2008) Changing Minda, Motilal Banarasidass India pp 16-17
5- BKS Iyengar , (1993) Light on Yoga Sutra of Patanjali, Harper Collins Pub India pp IX
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Patanjali : Father of Yoga Tourism , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Patanjali : Father of Yoga Tourism , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Patanjali : Father of Yoga Tourism , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Patanjali : Father of Yoga Tourism , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Patanjali : Father of Yoga Tourism , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Patanjali : Father of Yoga Tourism , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Patanjali : Father of Yoga Tourism , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Patanjali : Father of Yoga Tourism , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Patanjali : Father of Yoga Tourism , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Patanjali : Father of Yoga Tourism , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Patanjali : Father of Yoga Tourism , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha a Buddhist Treatise -1

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Sunga Period (185-73 BCE) -3
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 83
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
   The Bactrian –Greek Period in India: Introduction 
        Mahabharata, Panini described Yawan or Bactrian –Greek communities and their invasion into India. The King of Bactrian (Balk, Afghanistan) were the successors of Alexander‘s governor Selecucus. The notable successors of Selecucus were Antiochus II, Diodotos I, Diodotos II, Euthydemus I (2 ) . Antiochus invaded India in 206 BC.. The successors of Euthydemus were Demetrius, Eucratides, Heliocles (Mahajan) .
                 Menander
 Menander (or Milinda in Pali language) was the greatest among all Indo Greek Kings (Mahajan page 409) . Perhaps he ruled from 115 -90 BC.. His capital was in Sialkot or Sakala
  From Buddhism and Medical services History point of views, Milinda Panha a Pali treatise is very important treatises of that time.
 Milinda Panha is book of questions by Menander (plays the role of devil) and answer by a Buddhist Sage Nagasena. Menander visits Buddhists sage and asks him questions about various subjects especially religious or spiritual subject (1)
   In following chapters, this author will discuss about subject of Ayurveda in Milinda Panha or Milinda Prashna or questions by King Menander .
References –
1-Atrideva, ibid, page , 140-141
2- Mahajan V. D., (1998) Ancient India, S Chand and Company , Delhi page 403 – 417 ( The Bactrian Greeks in India chapter )    
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –

Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia, Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Myanmar :  Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Hakha , Myanmar : Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in  Kachin , Myanmar :  Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Kayin Myanmar :  Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Karenni Myanmar :  Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Mon Myanmar :  Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Rakhaine Myanmar : Glimpses of medical Tourism in Milinda Panha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in  Shan Myanmar :      to be continued 





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Six Types of Dreams mentioned in Milinda Panha

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Sunga Period (185-73 BCE) -4
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 84
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
     Indo Greek King Menander asks questions to Buddhist monk Nagsena and Nagsena replied (Milinda Panha) . There are description (question answer) regarding Ayurveda and medicines in Milinda Panha too. The Ayurveda or medical knowledge to Nagsena was possible only by Nagsena visiting a medical knowledgeable person or Medical practitioners visiting Nagsena and Nagsena getting knowledge of medical subjects. Both types of visits are example of Medical tourism in past when medical practices were meant for public services and not for profit.
             Dream is a psychological subject. King Menander asks the question about dream as follow (1) –
Menander – “Bhante Nagsena! Every male and female sees the dreams. pleasant  and evil  too, seen before and not seen before; acted before and not acted before too; peaceful and making restlessness too; near from them  and far from them  and thousand types too; What is this dream and who sees that dream “
 Nagsena answers – Maharaja, O King! The dream is a picture coming before Chitta .O King! There are six types of dreams
1-By formation of gas (in stomach)
2-By disorder of Pitta
3-Increase of Cough
4-Influence of deities
5- Seeing the future
 Maharaja! The last dream is true and al others are illusion. When there is no sound sleep, then only human sees dream. When Chitta is active the human sees the dream. There are other explanations about dream further.
     The meaning of dreams are still unsolved mystery and still people visit to Puchher  or Pundit ji  priest (who tells the future) in many rural regions of Garhwal for knowing the meaning of dreams seen by person . ( based on this author’s personal experience). If in rural Garhwal, a person sees snakes or tigers in dream that person visits the Brahmin priests or astrologer or future teller either in his village or other village. This visiting astrologer or future teller for knowing the meaning of dreams is nothing but is pure medical tourism.
 



             
References –
Atrideva, ibid, page    141
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Six Types Dreams mentioned in Milinda Pamha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Six Types Dreams mentioned in Milinda Pamha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Six Types Dreams mentioned in Milinda Pamha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Six Types Dreams mentioned in Milinda Pamha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Six Types Dreams mentioned in Milinda Pamha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Six Types Dreams mentioned in Milinda Pamha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Six Types Dreams mentioned in Milinda Pamha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Six Types Dreams mentioned in Milinda Pamha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Six Types Dreams mentioned in Milinda Pamha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Six Types Dreams mentioned in Milinda Pamha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Six Types Dreams mentioned in Milinda Pamha , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia, Milinda Panha and Medical Tourism History of Balkh, Afghanistan;  Milinda Panha and Medical Tourism History of  Sialkot ,  Milinda Panha and Medical Tourism History of  Badakhshan , Afghanistan;  Milinda Panha and Medical Tourism History of Badghis Afghanistan;  Milinda Panha and Medical Tourism History of Kabul Afghanistan;  Milinda Panha and Medical Tourism History of Badlhan , Afghanistan;  Milinda Panha and Medical Tourism History of Ghazani , Afghanistan;  Milinda Panha and Medical Tourism History of Ghor, Afghanistan; 



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Untimely Death mentioned in Milinda Panha

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Sunga Period (185-73 BCE) -5
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 85
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
  In Milinda Panha, King Menander asks the questions of timely and untimely death. Sage Nagsena answers about death and exemplifies the untimely death by comparing fall of raw fruits and explains reasons for untimely death (1). Atrideva took references from the  book ‘Milinda Prashna’ by Jadish Kashyap(2)   –
1-Untimely death by starving (by not getting food in time or hunger)
2-Untimely death by not getting water in time (long thirst)
3-Untimely death by snake bite and not getting medical service in time
4- Untimely death by food poisoning and not getting timely medical aids
5- Untimely death by fire burns
6- Untimely death by drowning in water and not getting physicians in time
7- Untimely death by arrow injuries and nit getting physician in time
All the reasons from 2nd to 7th direct the concept of Medical tourism wherein either patient visits physician or physician visits patients for treatments. The above citation clearly indicates that there was concept of medical tourism in Menander period in Indian sub-continent. 
References –
1-Atrideva, ibid, page s 141-142
2- Bhikshu Jagdish Kashyap (1986)  , Milinda Prashna , Nagpur 
Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –

Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia, Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in  Sialkot , Pakistan , South Asia,  Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in  Daska, Sialkot , Pakistan , South Asia, Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in , Pasrur Sialkot , Pakistan , South Asia,  Reasons for Untimely   Death described in Milinda Panha,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Sambrial Sialkot , Pakistan , South Asia,    to be continued 





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Reasons for Death mentioned in Milinda Prashana

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Sunga Period (185-73 BCE) -6
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 86
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
  There are questions answers about reasons for Death in Milinda Panha or Milinda Prashna.
 Sage Nagasena replies about reasons for death ( 1, based on Jagdish Kashyapa’ s book) )–
“ Maharaja! There are following reasons for natural or common death –
1-Vayu (Ayurveda term)
2-Disorder in Pitta (Ayurveda term)
3-Disorder of Sannipat (Ayurveda term)
4- Bad or unconducive weather
5- Unconducive habitats
6- Other outside reasons
7- Increase in Cough
8- Due to results of past acts or undisciplined habits
Atrideva compare those reasons with Charak Samhita too .
  The above mentions of reasons for death is indicative that thee was educating  medical science at that time (Menander period ) and Medical Science education creates  Medical Tourism without doubt.
References –
1-Atrideva, ibid, page    142-143
2- Bhikshu Jagdish Kashyap (1986) , Milinda Prashna , Nagpur  , India

Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in next chapter –
Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Pkaistan , South Asia, Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Krachi Pakistan , , South Asia, Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Lahore , Pakistan , South Asia, Reasons for death in Milinda  Prashna ,  , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Rawalpindi Pakistan , South Asia, to be continued 


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Treatment for Broil or Injury in Milinda Prashna

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Sunga Period (185-73 BCE) -
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 87
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
   Nagsena in Milinda Panha explains difference between timely death and untimely death by many examples. In the same chapter, Nagsena offers example of violence or nonviolence in treating of broils or injury (1) as follows-
    O King! Imagine, if a physician and surgeon uses irritating smelling and rough ointment for treating broil or injury and by that swelling goes off. Then the physician cuts the skin for surgery and thereafter the physician washes the injury by base /acid and uses ointment. By doing so, the broil or injury goes off. . O King is that act is violence?
References –
1-Atrideva, ibid, page 143 (Atrideva uses the book by translated Jagdish Kashyapa )   
2- Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2018 bjkukreti@gmail.com
 History of Medical Tourism, health Tourism and Wellness Tourism and History of Medicines in India will be continued in next chapter –
Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , North India , South Asia; Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , South India; South Asia,  Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India , East India, , Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , West India, South Asia; Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Treatments for Injury in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia, 


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Importance of Practical Practices for Physician in Milinda Prashna 


History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Sunga Period (185-73 BCE) -8
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia- 88
(With Special mentions of History of Medicines in India)
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
-
  King Menander visited Multi Knowledgeable Sage Nagsena for satisfying his   queries. Nagsena was aware about Medical Treatments too. This visit by Menander is one of examples of Medical Tourism in that period.
 Nagsena explained to Menander about the importance of practical education for a physician as follows (2)-
“O King! First the physician goes in search of Guru .Then, by offering Guru by his service or money , he learns -how to catch knife, how to cut, how to detect or sign, how to use knife, how to take out spike, how to wash cut or injury, how to dry the cut or injury , how to apply paste or ointment , how to get patient vomiting, how patient gets latrine etc. and how to provide medicines to the sick man. After learning all that the physician takes medical practice freely. “
  The above shows that there was medical education system in India and medical education system opnes the front for medical tourism.
  Atrideva compares the above answer by Nagsena with chapter Yogasutra of Sushruta  Samhita    wherein Sushruta explains the importance of practical knowledge by a physician. (1)
 
References –
1-Atrideva, ibid, page 143-44
2- Bhikshu Jagdish Kashyap, 1951 (Translation, 2nd edi.) , Milinda Prashna ,  Bhikshu mahanam , Kolkatta  page 434    
 Copyright @ Acharya Bhishma Kukreti, //2019 bjkukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical Tourism, health Tourism and Wellness Tourism and History of Medicines in India will be continued in next chapter –

Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , North India , South Asia; Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , South India; South Asia,  Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India , East India, , Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , West India, South Asia; Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , Central India, South Asia;    Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , North East India , South Asia;   Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medical Tourism  , health Tourism and Wellness Tourism  and Importance of Education for Physician in Milinda Prashna, History of Medicines in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia, 



 

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