Author Topic: HISTORY of MEDICAL and WELLNESS TOURISM IN INDIAN SUBCONTINENT , SOUTHEAST ASIA  (Read 6601 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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In this topic,  Bhishma Kukreti will post history of medical tourism history of medicines , history of wellness tourism in Indian Subcontinents as-

History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia,  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, , History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia;    History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;   History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;   History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia, 

Bhishma Kukreti

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                                                                                                       SBK
   Defining Medical Tourism and Health and Wellness Tourism
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   -1
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  As far as Medical Tourism, Health and wellness Tourism is concern, the concept had been there ince human came in existence. However, it was not defined in past because people did not use medical services for earning, becoming rich  or attracting tourist for earning.
 Now days, when tourism and medical became major source of earning marketing fellows started defining medical tourism and health and wellness tourism as well.
    Hume and DeMicco (2007) define Medical tourism as “The process of travelling another country to for receive medical , dental and surgical care (1)” 
 Carrera and Bridges defined health and wellness tourism as “the organized travel outside one’s local environment for maintenance, enhancement or restoration of individual’s wellbeing in mind and body (2)” 
     Reddy et all (2010) define as “tourism (domestic or International) for the primary purpose of invasive, diagnostic and life style treatments (3)”
 For writing History of Medical, Health and Wellness tourism and wellness in India is concerned, the author will discuss following major aspects
History aspects of medicines, places, doctors, patient visiting medical centers, doctors visiting to patients, doctor visiting for teaching, doctor visiting getting medical knowledge, institution etc.
     This author will discuss periodical evolution of treatments for Body, Mind and paramedical aspects in India. 

References
1 , 2,o 3, Fredrick J. DeMicco, 2017,  Medical  Tourism and Wellness: Hospitality Bridging Healthcare ,(H2H), Apple Academic Press , Canada,   



Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti , 21/5/2018
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in – 2
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Medical Tourism and Health and Wellness Tourism in Stone age in India
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   -2

 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
     Homo erectus lived on the upper Pathohar in Upper Punjab, Pakistan and during Pleistocene epoch, historians found sites in Shivalic region (Kennedy)
   Homo Sapiens lived in India before 75000 and 50000 years BCE (Chauhan et al ).
  Mehrgarh civilization and Medical tourism
   The Medical Tourism historians have to analyze medical tourism from the angles of those time people and not from today’s angle. Then the diseases, occupation, communication and administration style was totally different than the present.
     There was Mehargarh civilization in Baluchistan from 7000-2000 BCE. Mehrgarh civilization is thought precursor of Indus Valley civilization.
       The civilization was using mud utensils, houses, and copper utensils too. It was food growing civilization (barley) Pottery was common. Burial was individual and in mass too.
        Dentists and dental Drilling in Stone Age
   Historians and scientists found teeth drills . Amitabh Avashthi wrote for National geographic news (http://Http://nationalgeographic.com//news/2006/4//0405_060405 (site found on 22nd my 2018) that archeologists found and “9000 year old drilled teeth are works of stone age dentists”.  Amitabh further informed that Anthropologist Clark Spencer of Ohio University cleared that there were proofs of earlier people had knowledge of manipulation of dental hard tissues in living people. Scientists found 11 teeth in a grave yard that have been drilled and including one that  had gone to complex drilling procedure for hollowing out a cavity deep inside the teeth.
 Scientists suggested that it was sophisticated drilling and machines and was for medical pupose and not for any aesthetic purpose.
  Scientists suggested that the drill would have been of flint similar but  smaller than used for fire generation.  Scientists suggested that the teeth drilling fashion existed for 1500 and suddenly disappeared 7000  years ago. Perhaps due to pain in drilling for manipulation the hard tissue was one reasons for discontinuation of the technology.  Scientists of University of Poitiers made the discoveries.
   Sign of Medical tourism (Dental Drilling)
  The above discovery clearly suggests that the region was famous for dental clinics as the same fashioned drilled teeth were not found other places. The population was estimated 2500 around Mehargarh site at that time. There were expert (bead craftsmen) in making drill and bow and rope and dentists were sophisticated dentists in drilling the teeth cavity of living persons.  . Since, scientists did not get such bow drill elsewhere, it is evident (strong indication)  that Mehargarh of 7000 BCE  was dentary hub for patients visiting Mehrgarh from other places. The people from nearby area might be visiting the dentists for teeth cure.  Whether the teeth drillers were charging to patient or is not known. If at all dentists were charging to the patients it would be barter system nly. There are no indications that those teeth drillers were also expert for other dental problems. Since, Specialization in curing patients came in existence in the modern age , this author is of strong opinion that the teeth drillers of stone age in Baluchistan were also knowing other dental cure too and most probably herbal medicines.
  The Mehrgarh civilization showed the first evidence of Medical tourism in India.    Definitely, it was craft medical tourism industry from today’s point of view.         
    References
Kennedy, A. R, 2000, God Apes and Fossils Men Paleoanthropology of South Asia Ann Arb , University of Michigan Press 
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti , 21/5/2018
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in – 2
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Stone age in India  , North India , South Asia;, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Stone age in India  , South India; South Asia, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Stone age in  India , East India, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Stone age in  India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Stone age in India  , Central India, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Stone age in India, Pakistan , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Stone age in India  , Myanmar, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Stone age in  India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Stone age in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 


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Medical, Wellness Tourism in Indus Valley Civilization part -1
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   -3
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)

   Indus Civilization developed and flourished in Afghanistan, Pakistan and North West India from Gujrat to Rajasthan to Meerut near Saharanpur Uttar Pradesh. The Archeology Survey of India Head  started excavation at Harappa site and still researches and excavation is going on . The following sites are in the map of Indus valley civilization (3300-1300 BCE and mature age 2600-1900 BCE)
 As per Frankfort , (Foulies de Shortughai page 75, Vol 7) , by 22008, there were 1000 Indus Valley civilization sites discovered of which 406 are in Pakistan and 616 in India .
   Most of historians divide Indus valley Civilization into four eras  (1)–
 Early Food producing Era – 7000-5500 BCE Mehargarh era belongs to this era.
The Regionalization Era-4000-2300 BCE or Early Harappa Civilization
Integration era or late Era

    Major Characteristics of Indus Valley Civilization
(Summarized from Mahajan)
  The people were agriculturists.
The very important characteristics are road planning, hygiene and cleanliness that even lacking today in Indian subcontinent, constructing building by burnt bricks, ceramics , metal extraction, metal forging, producing cotton and textiles.
Mohenjo-Daro remains prove that people used bathrooms, drainage and believed in personal hygiene.
There was occasional warfare therefore, people were conscious plant medicines.
There was homogenous indigenous culture.
 The deities were Shiva, Brahma, Pashupati.
Nakshtra name are of  Indus Valley Civlization  time.
The seal are very important
Decimal system was used in weight and measures.
 They had knowledge of Lunar astrology.
Their rectangular bath suggest religious society  and a religion .
 Harappa people could make painted potteries glazed potteries, burnt clay, terracotta .
 The archeologists found  planned shipyard at Kalibangan and Lothal sites . It means the society had trade and export relation with other civilization as with Sumerian civilization , Mesopotamia  and Egypt
 Archeologists found Certain Medicated and contemplative postures of people available among terracotta figurines That suggest that people developed Physical and mental l science with high degree.


References
1-Cunningham and Young  , Archeology of South Asia: from Indus to Asoka 6500 BCE-200CE, Cambridge press)
2- V.D.  Mahajan , 1998Ancient India pages from 54-95, S. Chand & Company

   
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, 21/5/2018
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –4
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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Presumptions for Medical practices in Indus Valley Civilization
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   -1
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
    The Indus Valley civilization was well aware about the importance of health care. That is the reason,  people built  baths and well planned water drainages in the township. However, historians, archeologists or anthropologists did not mention or search much anything related to medical practices at the time of Indus River Civilization.
   T Pullalah stated referring Piggot (1950)  that Indus Valley civilization people used mainly rituals, magic etc for health care. This author argues that if a Shilpkar (Scheduled caste) does not have any history documentation or evidence that does not mean that Shilpkar did not have forefathers or that Shilpkar is history less. Same way, it is ridiculous to state that Indus Valley civilization wholly depended on Rituals and Magic for health care. Nobody should believe that with so much building works, industries, trade tours to Egypt, Sameria and Mesopotamian region,   It is unbelievable that Society  had capacity of building Shipyard butt such society survived only on religious medical practices. No society can build such township, shipyards, building without physical medicines and survive for so many years on only ritualistic medical practices.
 Second important aspect about herbal or animal part based medicines is that, Mehrgarh civilization had some knowledge of dental care and other body part care, Indus Valley traders were regularly visiting Sumer and Mesopotamia regions, Egypt for  trading. All those contemporary civilizations had physical medical practices. If Indus Valley civilization did not have knowledge for physical medical practices definitely the Indus people might have taken knowledge from other civilizations. it is just impossible a society believed in sanitation and its value  and could not innovate physical medicines from nature.
 The later successive civilization as Rigveda and other Veda civilizations proved that they took clues for many medical practices (Ayurveda) definitely from predecessor- Indus Civilization.
   From Medical Tourism point of view, this author will discuss medical practices in contemporary civilizations and later on the civilization after Indus valley. There might be missing link of evidences for physical medical practices in Indus Valley civilization but cant rely on the theory that Indus people were only practicing rituals and magic for medical purposes. If a road or house building labor gets injured and bleeding starts , in that case, the magic never works but some physical methods work for stopping bleeding etc, No doubt,  the evidences show that rituals and magic medium were used by Indus people more  .
     Disease in Indus Civilization
 Shug, R.( 2013) reveals that later Indus Civilization (around 1900 BCE) suffered because of many diseases and violence . Shug discovered tuberculosis and     infectious disease even leprosy too. However, those evidences do not show any diseases at initial stages and mid stages (peak) of Indus civilization.
     Sumerian, Mesopotamian, Egypt Civilizations medical practices
  Sumerian civilization (4000-1700 BCE) -the Contemporary civilization of Indus Valley had already developed the medical practices by professional practitioners and archeologists found a tablet of medical prescriptions too from Sumer (Kramer). Sumerian people also invented medical ethics too. Same way Egypt was advance in medical practices. Indus Valley people had contacts with those societies. It is surprise that Indus did not apply medical practices og the above socities even after trade relationship. Might be we did not get the records.
 We have to presume following theories for medical tourism in Indus Valley time.
   Presumption -1 – Traders used to get medical facilities from Mesopotamia, Sumer or Egypt but every sick person was unable to visit those territories. Traders definitely used to get health care services from all three regions whenever they toured foreign countries.
Presumption -2 - Since cities were having big bath small area persons used to visit for Big bath (that was thought to be spiritual healers) or used to visit spiritual centers for healing.
  Presumption 3- Though, there is no proof but this author assumes that spiritual or physical medical practitioners or healers would have been touring (Today’s moving hospitals) the patients.
     Biologically all humans and animals are always conscious about their health and take conscious or unconscious measures. It can’t be possible that such an advance civilization was without physical medical practices. There were medical practices but those were banished.
    After hundreds of years, Vedas came in existence and Vedas has all types of medical senses. Might be they took clues from earlier civilization and that proofs that there were medical practices in Indus or Harappa era.
   Be it premature period of medical practices or advance one or spiritual medical practices (Sankhya Yoga or auto suggestion type) , all types of medical practices create Medical Tourism or tour for medical aids.
 The preceding chapters will open the medical practices after Indus valley civilization and will proof that there was no vacuum for medical practices in Indus Valley civilization

  T Pullalah et all, (Ethnobotany of India Vol 5, page Part 3,5)
Piggot s, 1950, prehistoric India , Penguine Books, London.
 Shung R, Infection ,disease and Biosocial Process at the end of Indus Civlization. Plos One
Kramer S.N., 1963 The Sumerians : Their History, culture and Character page , The University of Chicago Press, 95
   
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  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in – 2
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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Medical and Wellness Tourism in Rigveda Period
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   5
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)

  Brief History aspects of Vedas especially Rigveda
     From Indian History point of view, the ruins tell the stories of Indus Civilization and then Vedas show some glimpse of historical aspects.
   There are four vends. Out of four Vedas Rigveda, Yajurveda, Soma Veda and Atharvaveda, Rigveda is the oldest book in this world.  There is unanimity that Rigveda is the oldest book in this earth but there are different views on the date of Rigveda creation time and places of creation.
 Some say that Rigveda was created around 1000BCE and some historians argued for creation period from 3000-2500BCE.
 Rigveda reveals many historical, political, military and medical aspects of India of that time.
 Vedas are in fact the pre narration of Sankhya Yoga or knowledge narration. Samkhya means indirectly Autosuggestion. Most of hymens are virtually suggesting own self for empowerment . The hymns offer confidence for attaining something in all Vedas.
 Social Conditions in Rigveda
   The Rigveda points out well organized society . Monogamy was general rule but among Prices , polygamy was common .Marriages were sacred and unbroken but widows could remarry. Wife was supposed to be partner.
  Father used to control the family and his duties were that he saw that children had characters and he used to punish characterless sons. girls had right . The unit of society was Family , unit of families was kula and then Gram,
   There are different opinions about caste sytem or no caste system in Rigveda time.
 There were two three types of dresses. Barring nose ring , other ornaments are described in Rigveda.
Milk was very important food item and other items were  rice , wheat, meat , wine , pulses and vegetables.
 Chariot racing , horse racing dancing , decing , gambling are also described. Society was settled society and lived in cottages.
                       Economic Condition

 Aryans of Rigveda were solely agriculturists and used plough, bulls, oxes, harvest was cut by sickles. Craftsmen as Carpenters, cobblers, tanners, cottage builders, metal smiths, potters, grinders and other smiths are described in Rigveda.  .  Barring nose piercing ornaments, there are description of ornaments in Rigveda.
   Barter system was common in Rigveda. Contract system was also there in Rigveda period
    Religion
   People worshipped multiple deities and goddesses. People believed in territorial deities.
(Based on V.D Mahajan, Rigvedic India , Ancient India , pages 115-125)
                  Tourism and Medical practices
      It is important that in medical tourism, there should be medicines, medical practitioners, and tourism cultures together. Not only medicines but medicine producers also play important role in medical tourism. Since, medical practice was not done for earning or being rich man but for public services, we can’t analyze  Rig Veda from lower price in treatments point of view as is the culture in today time.
    Rigveda shows the importance of Travel for human kind for overall growth –
 Rohita meanwhile met a Brahmin on his travel, who advised him , It was Indra in human for , “ There is no happiness for him who does nor travel , Thus we have heard Living in the society of men , the best man becomes a sinner … therefore travel ! The fortune of him who is sitting sits; it rises when he rises ; it sleeps when he sleeps ; it moves when he moves; Therefore wander” from Zenaide Alexeievna Ragozine, 1895, 1961 Vedic India as embodied Principally in the Rig Veda, Mittal Publication, India  page 411)
   The Mode of Tourism
The following modes were available for touring –
By foot as was primitive condition
By Horses
By Bull cart
By Chariot
Patients would be transported by Pinus or dandi or on two wood rods
Cot was already invented in Rigveda time and it is mentioned in a prayer (Dr Rajabali Pandey :Rigveda page 134 ) . Therefore, people might have used cot for taking patient to the medical practitioner .or in case of religious healing , to the healer ..
 in Rigveda, there are mentions of chariot, bull cart , horses or vehicles  (Second chapter 59, Rigveda, 1996,  in Hindi , Sadhna Pocket Books, India, page 138)  and there is mention for protection from moving vehicles (rajbali same page) . Persons go by moving vehicles either the persons are army men, traders, patients or rich men. All would have required medical treatments in case of urgency.
 There are s mentions of army movement in Rigveda (Rajbali Pandey, Rigveda page 164) . That means army required medical practitioners and medical practitioners required tour with army.
 There are mentions of person or writer calling Deity for overall protection, body protection or good health. That indicates that there was culture of calling medicines knowledge person to the patient. The ritual halers would also go to the patients. This practice is still in rural India that Vaidya or religious healers visiting to patients.
Guest welcome and hospitality in Rigveda
 The root of slogan ‘Atithi Devo Bhavh’ (May Guest be deity) is hidden in Rigveda. B B Paliwal writes in his book Message of the Vedas (2006, Diamond Books, India, page 175) that “ Welcoming the guest was considered the most important. It was one of five ‘yajnas’ , We get a glimpse of Hospitality to the guests in Rigveda.
 Martin Haug  (Aitarey Brahmins of the Rigveda vol -2, page 40) offers the glimpse of Guest welcome in Rigveda that for the ceremony of receiving a guest (atithithyam –atithi –isthi) is the head of sacrifice. Haug further translates that there are seven vital airs in the head. By this ceremony the hotar puts vital seven airs in the head (Sacrificer).
  The host used to offer kush  (a wide long grass herb)  Seat to the guests as stated in following hymn –
Sabke Stuti part , sundar , kirti wale , shreshth agni , rup raatri divas hmari kushaon par aakar viraajmaan hon …….lt  vani ka rup Bharati , Sarswti and Ila all three sit on our kusha seats.
( He  prayed by all , beautiful famous, best of all Agni rest here on our Kusha seat for day an d night. …. He sarswati, Bharti and Ila let you sit on our Kusha seat.)(Rigvda -2, 21 from Rigveda , in Hindi page 113, Sadhna Pocket Books Delhi)
  Calling Deities in rituals, welcoming them and then sending off  with grace started there from Rigveda and still those practices survive in present time karmkanda (rituals).
     
                    Deities of Medicines in Rigveda
For understanding Medical Tourism in ny era, it is essential for understanding the culture about medicines, treatments and religious practice for curing the disease.
                      Ashwini the Doctor for heaven
    In Vedas, after Indra, Agni and Soma deities, Ashwini is another important deity. Ashwini were twins and eternal, beautiful, young and bright, Ashwini are doctors of  heaven.  Ashwini offered new eyes and new body parts to deities Ashwini was expert as Physician and Surgeon too. On Laterlitterature,  Medical practitioners were named for both the expertise.  In Ayurveda , Ashwini learnt Ayurveda from Prajapati and Indra learnt  Ayurveda or medical science from Ashwini.Bhardwaj, Dhanvantari and Kashyap learnt Ayurveda from Indra. However, Indra, Prajapati and other deities never practiced medical treatments (Atidev, Ayurved ka vrihadItihas, 1960 page 18, Varansi)
    Rudra the Doctor of Common men
  All Vedas describe Rudra  another  many times as doctor. Rudra is never described as doctors for deities. Rigveda describes Rudra as Bheshaj –
क्व स्य ते रूद्र मृलयाकुरहर्स्तो  यो अस्ति भेषजो जलाप (ऋग्वेद 2/33/7)
 In Rigveda, Rudra is finest doctor as-
भिपक्तम त्वा भिषजा श्रीणोमि (ऋ वे 2/33/4)
 Rudra has thousands of medicines and it is requested Rudra for medicines-
स्तुतस्त्व भेषजा रास्स्यमे ( ऋ वे 2/33/12)
 However, In Vedas, Ashwini and Rudra had been given less importance and never called for any Yjna. Puran offered importance to the both as doctors of deities etc. (Atidev, Ibit page 19)>. Veda named Indra, Varun ,Mrut ,  Agni as Bheshaj /doctor but asan adjective.
    Concept of Artificial part transplantation   in Rigveda
  There was a custom of doctors visiting war field with the warriors. In Rigveda, there is mention of iron leg transplantation too. Compulsory, Purohit (ritual performers and medicine knowledge man ) used to go with warriors in Warfield. In case of  urgency, Purohit used to request deity for protecting his master warrior.
  In one hymn, Purohit prayed Ashwini for light iron leg as his master’s wife’s leg was cut-
चरित्र हि वेरिवाच्छेदि पर्णमाजा खेलस्य परितकम्यायाम
सद्यो जघामायसीं विष्पलार्यम धनेहि ते सर्तवे प्रत्यवत्तम ( ऋ वे 1/176/15)
 Concept of   Eye Plantation 
 in Rigveda, there is concept of eye transplantation. Ashwini transplanted new eyes to blind  Rijashwa (Ri. Ve. 1/116/16)
Chyavan Sage- Puran described rejuvenation of Chyavan sage by Chyavanprash but not in Rigved. Thought Rigveda mentions Chyayansage in 7/7/15.
   Characteristics of Divya chikitsak or Eternal Doctor
  Veda describes five main characteristics of finest doctor as (Atidev page 21) –
1-Keeping all medicines intact with him or in store
2-Expert of medicinal knowledge
3-Bhishjyati or a good planner of disease  curing
4-Destroyer of Rakshas, Asur (worms)
5- Destroyer of diseases by root cause
यत्रोपधौ सम्मत राजन समितामिच
विप्र स उच्यते भिषग रक्षोहामोवचातन
Atidev offers examples from sutra and states that according to  Rigveda, the   Doctors should not be greedy but a server (Ibid page 22)

 Medicines in Rigveda
   Rigveda calls medicine as Mother.
या औषधि पूर्वा जाता देवेम्यस्त्रियुग पुरा
मनै नु वभ्रूणामय शत धामनी सप्त च (ऋ वे 10/97/1)

  Hydrotherapy in Rigveda
 There are many hymns about water medicines as mentioned in hymn 10/137/6 that Water is nectar and medicine is in water.
Solar Therapy in Rigveda
 There is concept of  solar therapy in Rigveda. The rising sun is supposed to be worm killer उद्यन्नादित्य क्रीमी हन्ता
 There is prayer for Sun as protector in Rigveda .
न सूर्यस्य सद्र्यिसे मा युयोया (Ri.Ve. 2/33/1)
 Air Therapy
 There is importance of respiratory air and outgoing false gas  too  and air is called storage of medicines as –
आ वात वाहि भेषज विचात वाहि यद्रप
त्व हि विश्वभेषजो देवाना दूत ईयसे Ri .iVe 1/137/3). Rigveda calls Air as Nectar. (Rive 10/186/1)
Smoking Therapy in Rigveda
 There are mentions many times about Havan or Hom or Yagya in Rigveda that tells us about importance of smoking for medical purpose or protection.
 Mental Illness curing
All Vedas hymns are auto suggestion hymns. It shows that on that time, ritual performing was more common for medical facilities. 
Sign of Medical Tourism  in Rigveda and Rigveda Period
 Rigveda clearly suggests medical tour for curing or health. In Rigveda hymn 8/9/15, the sage states – O Ashwini! far or near, there are disease curing medicines  related to you ,O knowledgeable come to our house and offer medicines for Vimadvatsa . Here sage request Ashwini for coming to house and we might assume that it may be opposite that Vimadvats would have been taken to the doctor. The hymn suggest that on that time too medicines were not available everywhere but at particular place (near or far) .
  From hospitality angle, it might be said that the guests were perceived as god and they were welcomed with respects. The doctors were for serving the people and it was not thought that they would be greedy.

 People lived in villages in Rigveda period as per study of Vedas. Villages were fa from each other. Definitely, there would be shortage of ritual performers for illness curing and medical practitioners. In both the reasons, the ill men had to visit another locality for ritual performance or taking medical aids. It seems from above studies that medical practitioners were also touring to their patients or Yajmans.







 
 


     
      Coyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, 21/5/2018 bckukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in – 6
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



Bhishma Kukreti

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Medical and Wellness Tourism in Rigveda Period
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   5
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)

  Brief History aspects of Vedas especially Rigveda
     From Indian History point of view, the ruins tell the stories of Indus Civilization and then Vedas show some glimpse of historical aspects.
   There are four vendas. Out of four Vedas Rigveda, Yajurveda, Soma Veda and Atharvaveda, Rigveda is the oldest book in this world.  There is unanimity that Rigveda is the oldest book in this earth but there are different views on the date of Rigveda creation time and places of creation.
 Some say that Rigveda was created around 1000BCE and some historians argued for creation period from 3000-2500BCE.
 Rigveda reveals many historical, political, military and medical aspects of India of that time.
 Vedas are in fact the pre narration of Sankhya Yoga or knowledge narration. Samkhya means indirectly Autosuggestion. Most of hymens are virtually suggesting own self for empowerment . The hymns offer confidence for attaining something in all Vedas.
 Social Conditions in Rigveda
   The Rigveda points out well organized society . Monogamy was general rule but among Prices , polygamy was common .Marriages were sacred and unbroken but widows could remarry. Wife was supposed to be partner.
  Father used to control the family and his duties were that he saw that children had characters and he used to punish characterless sons. girls had right . The unit of society was Family , unit of families was kula and then Gram,
   There are different opinions about caste sytem or no caste system in Rigveda time.
 There were two three types of dresses. Barring nose ring , other ornaments are described in Rigveda.
Milk was very important food item and other items were  rice , wheat, meat , wine , pulses and vegetables.
 Chariot racing , horse racing dancing , decing , gambling are also described. Society was settled society and lived in cottages.
                       Economic Condition

 Aryans of Rigveda were solely agriculturists and used plough, bulls, oxes, harvest was cut by sickles. Craftsmen as Carpenters, cobblers, tanners, cottage builders, metal smiths, potters, grinders and other smiths are described in Rigveda.  .  Barring nose piercing ornaments, there are description of ornaments in Rigveda.
   Barter system was common in Rigveda. Contract system was also there in Rigveda period
    Religion
   People worshipped multiple deities and goddesses. People believed in territorial deities.
(Based on V.D Mahajan, Rigvedic India , Ancient India , pages 115-125)
                  Tourism and Medical practices
      It is important that in medical tourism, there should be medicines, medical practitioners, and tourism cultures together. Not only medicines but medicine producers also play important role in medical tourism. Since, medical practice was not done for earning or being rich man but for public services, we can’t analyze  Rig Veda from lower price in treatments point of view as is the culture in today time.
    Rigveda shows the importance of Travel for human kind for overall growth –
 Rohita meanwhile met a Brahmin on his travel, who advised him , It was Indra in human for , “ There is no happiness for him who does nor travel , Thus we have heard Living in the society of men , the best man becomes a sinner … therefore travel ! The fortune of him who is sitting sits; it rises when he rises ; it sleeps when he sleeps ; it moves when he moves; Therefore wander” from Zenaide Alexeievna Ragozine, 1895, 1961 Vedic India as embodied Principally in the Rig Veda, Mittal Publication, India  page 411)
   The Mode of Tourism
The following modes were available for touring –
By foot as was primitive condition
By Horses
By Bull cart
By Chariot
Patients would be transported by Pinus or dandi or on two wood rods
Cot was already invented in Rigveda time and it is mentioned in a prayer (Dr Rajabali Pandey :Rigveda page 134 ) . Therefore, people might have used cot for taking patient to the medical practitioner .or in case of religious healing , to the healer ..
 in Rigveda, there are mentions of chariot, bull cart , horses or vehicles  (Second chapter 59, Rigveda, 1996,  in Hindi , Sadhna Pocket Books, India, page 138)  and there is mention for protection from moving vehicles (rajbali same page) . Persons go by moving vehicles either the persons are army men, traders, patients or rich men. All would have required medical treatments in case of urgency.
 There are s mentions of army movement in Rigveda (Rajbali Pandey, Rigveda page 164) . That means army required medical practitioners and medical practitioners required tour with army.
 There are mentions of person or writer calling Deity for overall protection, body protection or good health. That indicates that there was culture of calling medicines knowledge person to the patient. The ritual halers would also go to the patients. This practice is still in rural India that Vaidya or religious healers visiting to patients.
Guest welcome and hospitality in Rigveda
 The root of slogan ‘Atithi Devo Bhavh’ (May Guest be deity) is hidden in Rigveda. B B Paliwal writes in his book Message of the Vedas (2006, Diamond Books, India, page 175) that “ Welcoming the guest was considered the most important. It was one of five ‘yajnas’ , We get a glimpse of Hospitality to the guests in Rigveda.
 Martin Haug  (Aitarey Brahmins of the Rigveda vol -2, page 40) offers the glimpse of Guest welcome in Rigveda that for the ceremony of receiving a guest (atithithyam –atithi –isthi) is the head of sacrifice. Haug further translates that there are seven vital airs in the head. By this ceremony the hotar puts vital seven airs in the head (Sacrificer).
  The host used to offer kush  (a wide long grass herb)  Seat to the guests as stated in following hymn –
Sabke Stuti part , sundar , kirti wale , shreshth agni , rup raatri divas hmari kushaon par aakar viraajmaan hon …….lt  vani ka rup Bharati , Sarswti and Ila all three sit on our kusha seats.
( He  prayed by all , beautiful famous, best of all Agni rest here on our Kusha seat for day an d night. …. He sarswati, Bharti and Ila let you sit on our Kusha seat.)(Rigvda -2, 21 from Rigveda , in Hindi page 113, Sadhna Pocket Books Delhi)
  Calling Deities in rituals, welcoming them and then sending off  with grace started there from Rigveda and still those practices survive in present time karmkanda (rituals).
     
                    Deities of Medicines in Rigveda
For understanding Medical Tourism in ny era, it is essential for understanding the culture about medicines, treatments and religious practice for curing the disease.
                      Ashwini the Doctor for heaven
    In Vedas, after Indra, Agni and Soma deities, Ashwini is another important deity. Ashwini were twins and eternal, beautiful, young and bright, Ashwini are doctors of  heaven.  Ashwini offered new eyes and new body parts to deities Ashwini was expert as Physician and Surgeon too. On Laterlitterature,  Medical practitioners were named for both the expertise.  In Ayurveda , Ashwini learnt Ayurveda from Prajapati and Indra learnt  Ayurveda or medical science from Ashwini.Bhardwaj, Dhanvantari and Kashyap learnt Ayurveda from Indra. However, Indra, Prajapati and other deities never practiced medical treatments (Atidev, Ayurved ka vrihadItihas, 1960 page 18, Varansi)
    Rudra the Doctor of Common men
  All Vedas describe Rudra  another  many times as doctor. Rudra is never described as doctors for deities. Rigveda describes Rudra as Bheshaj –
क्व स्य ते रूद्र मृलयाकुरहर्स्तो  यो अस्ति भेषजो जलाप (ऋग्वेद 2/33/7)
 In Rigveda, Rudra is finest doctor as-
भिपक्तम त्वा भिषजा श्रीणोमि (ऋ वे 2/33/4)
 Rudra has thousands of medicines and it is requested Rudra for medicines-
स्तुतस्त्व भेषजा रास्स्यमे ( ऋ वे 2/33/12)
 However, In Vedas, Ashwini and Rudra had been given less importance and never called for any Yjna. Puran offered importance to the both as doctors of deities etc. (Atidev, Ibit page 19)>. Veda named Indra, Varun ,Mrut ,  Agni as Bheshaj /doctor but asan adjective.
    Concept of Artificial part transplantation   in Rigveda
  There was a custom of doctors visiting war field with the warriors. In Rigveda, there is mention of iron leg transplantation too. Compulsory, Purohit (ritual performers and medicine knowledge man ) used to go with warriors in Warfield. In case of  urgency, Purohit used to request deity for protecting his master warrior.
  In one hymn, Purohit prayed Ashwini for light iron leg as his master’s wife’s leg was cut-
चरित्र हि वेरिवाच्छेदि पर्णमाजा खेलस्य परितकम्यायाम
सद्यो जघामायसीं विष्पलार्यम धनेहि ते सर्तवे प्रत्यवत्तम ( ऋ वे 1/176/15)
 Concept of   Eye Plantation 
 in Rigveda, there is concept of eye transplantation. Ashwini transplanted new eyes to blind  Rijashwa (Ri. Ve. 1/116/16)
Chyavan Sage- Puran described rejuvenation of Chyavan sage by Chyavanprash but not in Rigved. Thought Rigveda mentions Chyayansage in 7/7/15.
   Characteristics of Divya chikitsak or Eternal Doctor
  Veda describes five main characteristics of finest doctor as (Atidev page 21) –
1-Keeping all medicines intact with him or in store
2-Expert of medicinal knowledge
3-Bhishjyati or a good planner of disease  curing
4-Destroyer of Rakshas, Asur (worms)
5- Destroyer of diseases by root cause
यत्रोपधौ सम्मत राजन समितामिच
विप्र स उच्यते भिषग रक्षोहामोवचातन
Atidev offers examples from sutra and states that according to  Rigveda, the   Doctors should not be greedy but a server (Ibid page 22)

 Medicines in Rigveda
   Rigveda calls medicine as Mother.
या औषधि पूर्वा जाता देवेम्यस्त्रियुग पुरा
मनै नु वभ्रूणामय शत धामनी सप्त च (ऋ वे 10/97/1)

Sign of Medical Tourism
 Rigveda clearly suggests medical tour for curing or health. In Rigveda hymn 8/915, the sage states – O Ashwini! far or near, there are disease curing medicines  related to you ,O knowledgeable come to our house and offer medicines for Vimadvatsa . Here sage request Ashwini for coming to house and we might assume that it may be opposite that Vimadvats would have been taken to the doctor. The hymn suggest that on that time too medicines were not available everywhere but at particular place (near or far) .
  Hydrotherapy in Rigveda








 
 


     
      Coyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, 21/5/2018 bckukreti@gmail.com
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in – 6
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Atharva-Veda
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   6
History Medical Tourism, Wellness tourism in Vedic Era, India -2
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)

  Atharva Veda is fourth Veda. Yajurveda is about performing rituals and Somveda is about music and Chhanda/tones.
There are mentions of medicines in many mantras /hymns of Yajurveda (Atidev,1960,  Ayurveda ka vrihad Itihas page 29)
  Atharva Veda deals with health, manufacturing medicines, growing medical plants, disease description and medicines for human beings. Atharva Veda deals with, body parts description of diseases too. Atharvaveda is called the originator of scientific Ayurveda.
 Thera are two types of medical remedies- mental and physical remedies. Atharvaveda deals with the both.   
    In Atharvaveda, there are description of various plants used in medicine making, worm science, surgery and child delivery process and medical treatments.
          Worm Science in Atharvaveda
 Worms means those are microscopic in nature and many insects or reptiles. Atharvaveda describes – By big source /weapon, I kill the worms  those impure blood and flash.
Those are killed by my medicines and those are left live I  kill them ( AV 2/31/3 As cited by Atideva in Ayurveda ka vrihad Itihas page 33).
  Medicinal plants in Atharva Veda
  In Ayurveda ka Vriahad Itihas ( 1960, Bhrgava Press banaras page 34) , Atideva offers following medicinal plants list described in Atharvaveda –
Pippali
Chirchita
Pushniparni
Banyan
Rohani
Arjun.
Piplkhan etc
  There are tens of medicines described in Atharva Veda for eradicating disease as leprosy, vat , hair diseases, intestine gas and other disease ; urine related diseases , Blood circulation related  diseases , head related pains and disease; tuberculous;
 Atharvaveda offers us names of various diseases and medicines too .
  Sales of Medicines in Atharva-Veda
 Though, in normal circumstances, Atharva-Veda does not support sales of medicines for profit but in certain cases, Atharva-Veda also advices ideal merchandizing of medicines –
चिकित्सितस्तु स्श्रुत्य यो वाअसश्रुत्य मानव ,नोपाकरोती वैद्याय नास्ति तस्येय निष्कृति कुर्वते ये तु वृत्यर्थ चिकित्सापण्यविक्रयम ते हित्वा कांचन राशिम पाशुराशिमुपासते ( Chi. A.V 1/4/55-59)
 Medicines were bought under barter exchange system but leprosy medicines were bought by money (धनैरभि श्रुत्वा यन्ति , A.V .5/4/2).
People used to buy varanavati medicine in exchange of a Pavsa grass and deer skin ( AV 4/7/6)
Pharmacology in Atharva Veda
 There are hymn those prove that there was knowledge of pharmacology in Atharva Veda period (Atidev,  ibid, page  55-56) .


 


Public Health concept in Atharvaveda /Atharva-Veda
 Atharva-Veda describes Swasthayvrata or life style management for good health
   Welcoming Guest concept in Atharva-Veda
    In any society, tour general,  medical or amusement tour is possible when there is concept of taking care for the guests. There are many hymns in Atharva –Veda for welcoming thee guests with respects as –
 To welcome a guest at the door step is like making offerings to God ( A.V .9/6/3)
In part of  9th book of Atharva Veda offers many instances of guest welcoming and glorification of guest welcome –
The man eats before guest eats up glory and the understanding of the house .
The man should not eat before the guest who is Brahmin versed in holy lore.
When the guest had eaten he should eat.
O King! When a person comes as a guest ones house a patient man must offer a seat and them wash his feet with water. Then he must ask the welfare of the guest and reciprocate according to situation. Thereafter, depending upon circumstances, meal should be offered (A/V 9/6/1)
In A.V 9/6/3, it is said –The sins of person who offers hospitality to a guest are absolved
   Visiting Himalaya for Medicines: Medical tourism
 There is clear concept of Medical Tourism too in Atharva-Veda. There is description of  ptient visiting to medicine production place and buying the medicine there ---in In fourth hymn of part V of Atharvaveda –
Thou who was born on mountains, thou most mighty of all plants that grow
Thou banisher of disease /fever, come, Kushtha! Make fever pass away
Brought from Snowy Mountain, born on the high hill, where eagles breed,
  Men seek to buy thee when they hear: for Fever banisher they know (A.V 5/4 ..)
 
  Conclusion
 The examples of plants used for medicines , medicine names, disease description, guest visiting , patients going for buying medicines , exchange for buying medicines , selling medicines for nominal earning in Atharva Veda prove that there was medical tourism concept  in Atharva Veda period. Medical tourism in Atharva Veda period was more advance than Rigveda and tourism was for both –gaining mental peace and disease or pain curing purposes. No Doubt, the medical tourism was in craft industry format only and mostly primitive in nature.

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  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in – 7
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North India , South Asia;, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , South India; South Asia, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Central India, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , North East India , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India, Pakistan , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Myanmar, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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Medical tourism, wellness Tourism in Upanishadas

History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in Upanishad, India
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   -7
 By: Acharya Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)

  Medical Tourism is not related only to ill man taking medicines but is also related to training, discussion on physical and mental ill ness or wellness among teachers, medical science training and promoting medical science too.
  Ther are more than 230 Upanishads (Klayan Upanishad Ank, Geeta Press Gorakhpur, India ). However, there are 11 major Upanishad. 
Upanishad are explanations or commentary on Veda . That is why learned call Upanishad as Vedanta or end of Veda or no need of Veda reading.
 Upanishad are called Brahmvidya or spiritual knowledge literature. That means Upanishad are related to psychology . Upanishad deals mainly search of soul and pace of mind. Peace of mind is also must for a wellbeing human.
 Upnishad means sitting near Guru and gainingBrahma (soul) knowledge from Guru.
परीक्ष्य लोकान्कर्मचिताब्राह्मणो निर्वेद मायात्नास्त्य प्रित कृतेन
तद विग्यार्था म गुरुमेवाभिगच्छेत सामित्पाणी श्रोत्रिय ब्रह्मनिष्ठं (Mundak Upanishad 2, 12)

 In most of Upanishad, a knowledge seeker visits a guru or Ashram for gaining the knowledge of Brahma. That means in other sense, Upanishads are literature of psychology Education tourism and psychology education tourism is nothing but a part of medical tourism too.
    As Veda believed that good health comes by good conduct, Upanishads also teach that good conduct brings healthy mind and body.
 For example, in Chandogeya Upanishad (7th chapter,1-26 ), there are ways of perfect communication. Communication methods are nothing but psychological aspects. Psychology or physiology training is always part of medical tourism i.e. creating doctors for treatment. . 
            Treatment to Guest: Atithi Devo Bhava
 Every type of tourism requires a welcoming host. Upanishad understands the value of treatment to the guest. 
 Taitiriya Upanishad advices for treating guest as God
... अतिथि देवो भव: ( Taitiriya Upanishad 1 , 11, 2)
 ‘Atithi Devo Bhava’ became insight slogans for Indian society and India never thought invaders as enemies and welcomed all invaders as God.
 Medicines, Diseases and Surgery Concepts in Upanishads

     Upanishad tells us that Brahma knowledge could be attained by Body only (Taitiriya Upanishad 2).
 Chhandogaya Upanishad states about importance of Food and food digestion in its 5th balli.
  There are mentions of Pama (a type of leprosy) disease in Chhandogeya Upanishad (4/1/8). There is heart beating mechanism description in Brihadarnya Upanishad (5 /3)
There is description of transplanting of horse head in Brihadarnya Upanishad (5/17).
    One word is mentioned in Upanishad ‘Charak’ . Chrak means that roams here and that is part of person that loves touring.
There is mentions of Bhut Vidya ( fearful excitement or mental disorder by past or other  etc) in Chhandogey Upanishad (7/1/2)
 Atideva states that there is no Ayurveda word in any Upanishad (Atidev, Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas page 75).

***
Major reference for medicines in Upanishad, Atideva , Upanishadon me Ayurveda , Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas, page 69-75 )
     




       


   
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  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in – 8
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Upanishad, India  , North India , South Asia;, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Upanishad, India  , South India; South Asia, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , East India, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Upanishad, India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Upanishad, India  , Central India, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Upanishad, India  , North East India , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Upanishad, India , Bangladesh , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Upanishad, India, Pakistan , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Upanishad, India  , Myanmar, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Upanishad, India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Upanishad, India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



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History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in   Valmiki Ramayana Epic, India
History of Medical Tourism, Health and Wellness Tourism in India, South Asia   -8
 By: Bhishma Kukreti (Medical Tourism Historian)
  Epic Valmiki Ramayana is called first Sanskrit Poetry and thought to be dated back five to first BCE.
 Valmiki is the creator of Valmiki Ramayana. There are 24000Shlokas and 7 cantos (Khandas) and there are 48002total words in the epic.
 Hindus think that Ramayana is history (Puran) . The epic story is about King Dashratha, his three queens and his eldest son Rama with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana going to forest for fourteen years. Ravana kidnapped Sita and there is battle between Rama and Ravana. There are many other topical stories in Valmiki Ramayana.  Most of the time in Ramayana, Rama spent his time in forest. In fact, it is appropriate to state that Ramayana is Forest Touring.
     Medicinal Plants in Valmiki Ramayana
In Valmiki Ramayana, there are mentions of a few medicinal plants as –Kutz, Ashok, Kadamb, Sarj, Asin, etc (Atidev, Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas page 78)
 Medicines mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana   
   Atidev in Ayurveda ka Vrihad Itihas (page 77.78)offers examples of medicines mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana as
          Forest touring with taking education
 Rama and Lakshmana visit Forests with  Vishwamitra and learned weaponries and many more subjects there through Vishwamitra . (Valmiki Ramayana (VR)  , Balkand, 19 – 65 Chapter ).
     Knowledge for Medicinal plants by Forest tourists
   Rama,Lakshamana and Sita were forest tourists for fourteen years. That clearly shows that the roamers should have knowledge of medicinal plants or medicines as and when is required. In VR, there is mentions of Rama knowing the importance of Gajkand tubor . Rama asks Lakshmna to bring Gajkand for rituals after building hut in Chitrakoot. 
 अयं सर्व: सम्स्तांग श्रित: कृष्णमृगो मया
देवता देवसंकाश यजस्व कुशलो ह्यासि (VR, Ayodhyakand 65/28)
 O Brother! I cooked well the black barked Gajkand that cures all disorder of body, Now , you may perform Vasty Ritual.
    It is part and partial for a tourist to take care of his health.
      King Dasharatha visiting Fertility improvement expert Sage Rishyashring
 Rishyashring sage was expert of rituals for making infertile couples as fertile couples. Emperor Dasharatha was having three wives but was childless. His minister Sumant advised dahsharath for visiting Rishyashring age in his ashram for prforming Ashwamedha yagya for fertility. Dasharatha visited the sage and requested him for performing fertility Rituals. Sage Rishyashring accepted the invitation and visited Dasharatha palace and performed fertility Yajya. Therefater Dasharatha got four children
 Visiting a medicine expert for aids and medicine expert visiting the patient are parts of Medical Tourism.
       Example of Medical Tourism in Valmiki Ramayana
  Valmiki mentions an example of medical tourism in Yudha  Kand .When battle between ravana and Rama, Meghnada used  most powerful weapon Shakti on Lakshamana and monkey soldiers, Monkeys and Lakshmana got unconscious. Rama called Doctor  Vaidya Sushain for curing Lakshamana and monkey soldiers. Sushain advised for medicines Sanjivani before sun rise. However, Sanjivani medicinal plants were found only in Kailash shrine, Uttarakhand Himalaya. Rama sent hanuman for bringing Sanjivani plants or medicines from Himalya. Sushain explained the characteristics of Sanjivani plants (glows in night). Hanuman went flying to Himalaya  but was confused and he de-rooted the whole mountain and brought the mountain to Lanka. Monkeys crushed sanjivani plant and Vaidya Sushain extracted medicines from plants and all including Lakshmana became conscious by smelling the medicine. (VR Yudha Kand 74/73)-
तावप्युभी मानुष राजपुत्रौ गंधमाघ्राय महीषधीनाम
वभूवतुस्तन तदा विशल्यावुतस्थुरगये च हरिप्र्वीरा (VR Yuddh kand 74/73)
  Valmiki Ramayana is nothing but stories of forest tourists and their managing the forest tour from all angles including security, sustaining environment, guest welcome and care, treating the hosts  and tourists taking health care too.
 There are many instances of guest care and welcome in Valmiki Ramayana. 
 
   
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, /6/2018
  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India will be continued in –
History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Valmiki Ramayana, India  , North India , South Asia;, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Valmiki Ramayana India  , South India; South Asia, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Valmiki Ramayana India , East India, History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Valmiki Ramayana India  , West India, South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Valmiki Ramayana India  , Central India, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Valmiki Ramayana India  , North East India , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in India , Bangladesh , South Asia; History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Valmiki Ramayana India, Pakistan , South Asia;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Valmiki Ramayana India  , Myanmar, South Asia; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Valmiki Ramayana India  , Afghanistan , South Asia ; ;  History of Medical, health and Wellness Tourism in Valmiki Ramayana India  , Baluchistan, South Asia,  to be continued 



 

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