Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 174968 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
            Khasa the Ancient race of Garhwal-Kumaon (Uttarakhand) 
History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -11 
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-7
Western Brachycephal Races of Uttarakhand -3 
                                       Bhishma Kukreti
                There may be differences of opinion on when the Khasa race came to India and Himalayan belt. However, there is agreement among scholars that Khasa race dominated Himalayan belt from Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Garhwal, Kumaon, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Hills of Bengal and Rajasthan.  Khasa were spread in Zagros Mountains of Iran-Iraq long before Christian era. From there, Khasa one race spread towards plains and reached to Bengal and Bengal. It is believed that one part of Khasa from Iran- Afghanistan reached and settled in Himalaya before one thousand years of Aryan entered to India.
                There are mentions of Khasa of Himalayas in Mahabharata (Sabhaparva, Bhishm Parv, Udyog parv, Dron Parv etc);  Brahmand Purana ( 27-62-62); Matsya Purana (120-43, 44,48,51); Vayu Purana (47,, 42-43,45,47-49); Vishnu Puran (2,4-8); Markendey Puran (58); Bhagwat Puran (2, 4); Kalika Puran III(6);Sanat Kumar samhita (36-41); Rajatrangani (Translated by Dr Stein). There are mentions of Himalayan Khasa in Brihat Samhita, Tibetan chronicle Dpag –bsam-ljon-bzah (The Excellent Kalpa Briksh).
  The characteristics of Khasa are longer in height, long and straight nose, white or wheat color, strong built and wider chest and full of beard and mustache on face.  Due to cross breeding with Aryan, it is difficult to find exact body characters today. 
Many scholars support Dr. Dabral that following village names are the proof of Khasa culture and their dominance in the territory.
British Garhwal- Kashkhal, Kasunda, Kashbadi, Kashli, Kaslinagar, Kasmoli, Kashlodi, Kasyali, Keshta, Kapol, Kapeti, Kafola, Kafaldi, Kafolgan, etc (taken from Rajeshawri Prasad, Village Directory, Garhwal).
Tihri Garhwal villages- Kash, Kashani, Kashral, Masho, mana, Kash or Shas, Las, (taken from Rajeshawri Prasad, Village Directory, Garhwal).
Almora Villages –Kashan, Kashani, Kashauli, Khasparja, Kashur, Khasoti, Kashyari etc (taken from Rajeshawri Prasad, Village Directory, Almora).
  Khasa were perfect in domestication of animals and were hunter and shepherd and farmers too. Khasa or Kasa used to worship Sun, Marut, Borij etc deities. Initially, the deity sign of Khasa was horse.
 The main deity of Kasa or Kasa was Kassu. The Khasa,Khashas or Kasa left many old deities and adored new deities as per place, class and time.  Sun worshiping was taken from Shaka by Khasas, Khashas or Kasas. However, they never left Kassu and Khasa beloved Kassu that they used Shu name in naming the villages and deities. The deity Mahasu is the monument to suggest that Khasa dominated in Garhwal-Kumaon.
The village names Amlasu,  Utransu, Farsu, Gandasu, Masbuna  or Patti/Pragnaa names Brahsyun,Dhoundiyalsyun suggest that before Aryan took over Khasa were main human societies of Kumaon and Garhwal and Nepal too.
 The Khasa of Iran worshipped Shimliy goddess and then words were derived as Himadevi. Him became Uma. Kassu-Mahassu, maheshwar Shima,Hhima Devi , Uma devi show tha ezistance of Khasa in himalya for many centuries.
 Khasa invented tens of village deities-goddesses in Uttarakhand and pilgrim places as Amarnath, Baijnath, Uttarkashi, Badrinath, Triyuginarayan, Dwarhat, Binsar etc. No doubt, later on other races or Khasa built temples on these pilgrim places. Khasa belied on village deity and used to offer cereal first to village deity before their own uses.  Dabral states that this race believed in dead souls and used to offer prayer (Hantya). The images of Bada temples
            Khasa also invented Yaksha, Jakh or jagas deity. The village or place names remind the people about Yaksha deity or protectors of Khasa –Jakhni, Jakhnikhal, jakher etc.The Khasa were believers of offering animals to their deities and Jakh (Yaksha).
 The deities Vinayak, Kushmand, Gajtund, jayant, Mahakal, nandi, mahakal, Ghantakarn were yaksha or Jakh of Khasa race. The Jakh is gatekeeper of Badrinath temple.
Khasa was also called as Yaksha race or jakh race.Asoka had soldiers of Khasa race. There was caste system among Khasa at later stage.
 Khasa race initially used to follow female leadership in the family that mother would be the career of property.
  After entry and settlement of Aryan culture in India and Uttarakhand, the Khasa lost their ruling power but not the social power.
    There are many cultural norms of Khasa race remained intact till date in Kumaon and Garhwal.       
When Aryan entered hills of Himalayas the Aryanization of Khasa and Kols started (approximately? around 2000 to 2500BC).
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001 , Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736 )
Dr.Bipin Adhikari , 2011, Nepal Khas Jati,
H.K Barpujari, 1990, The Comprehensive History of Assam (page 11)
Bindeshwar Prasad Sinha, 1974 The Comprehensive History of Bihar (Page-70)
Fisher, William B., 2003, The Middle East and Africa 
S.N Sen, 1999, Ancient Indian History and Civilization
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 13/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -12
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…8
Western Brachycephal Races of Uttarakhand to be continued…4
Notes on Historical aspects on Khasa, Khasha the Ancient race of Uttarakhand; Historical aspects on Khasa, Khasha the Ancient race of Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Historical aspects on Khasa, Khasha the Ancient race of Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Historical aspects on Khasa, Khasha the Ancient race of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Historical aspects on Khasa, Khasha the Ancient race of Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Historical aspects on Khasa, Khasha the Ancient race of Haridwar/Hardwar Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Historical aspects on Khasa, Khasha the Ancient race of Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Historical aspects on Khasa, Khasha the Ancient race of Dwarhat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Historical aspects on Khasa, Khasha the Ancient race of Pithauragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Historical aspects on Khasa, Khasha the Ancient race of Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Historical aspects on Khasa, Khasha the Ancient race of Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Historical aspects on Khasa, Khasha the Ancient race of Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Historical aspects on Khasa, Khasha the Ancient race of Udham Singh Nagar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…



Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
        History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -12   
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-8
History of Garhwal-Kumaon Uttarakhand in Indus Civilization Era -1

                                       Bhishma Kukreti
         History of Garhwal-Kumaon Uttarakhand in Indus Civilization Era   
          Civilization Ages in Chronological pattern
    The Indus (Sindhu Ghati ki Sabhyata ) civilization is one of oldest urbanized society. It flourished in today’s Pakistan, Baluchistan and Gujrat, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh regions too. 
          The Indus Valley sites are –Almagiripur (Meerut), Balu (Haryana), Balakot (Pakistan), Banwali (Haryana), Bargaon (Saharanpur), Bhagtarav (Gujrat),Bhirana (Haryana), Sindh (Pakistan), Dholavira (Kucch Gujrat),Daimabad (later Harappa, Mahrashtra), farmana (Haryana), Ganeriwala (Punjab, Pakistan), Goladhoro ( Gujarat), Harappa (Pak),Hulas (Saharanpur), kalibangan (rajsthan), Khirsara (Kutch, Guj),Padri (Kutch, Guj),kotbala (Pak),Kot Diji, (Sindh), Kunal (Haryana),Kuntasi, (Rajkot, Guj), Lakhun do Jado(Pak), Larkana (Sindh), Lateshwar (mehsana, Guj), Lothal (Ahdbad, Guj), Manda (j&K, Ind), Malwan (Surat, guj),Mandi (U.P), Mehargarh(Pak), Mohenjo daro (SIndh),Mundigak (Afghn),Nausharo (Pak), Ongar (Pak), Pir Shah Juno  (Sindh), Pirak (Pak), Rakhigarhi (Haryana), Rangpur (Ahmd , Guj),Rahman Dheri (Pak), Rojdi (Rajkot, Guj), Rupar, (Punj), Sanauli (Bagpat, india), Shikarpur (Guj), Shortugai(Afgn), Sothi (Haryana), Shurkotada (Guj), Sutkagar Dor (Afghanistan).
    The historians provide the chronological Ages of Indus Valley civilization as follows
Date Range ---------------------Phase----------------------Era
7000-5500 BCE------------Aceramic Neolithic-----------Early Food Producing Era
5500-3300 BCE------------Ceramic -------------------------Regionalization era
3300-2600-----------------Early Harappan----------------- Regionalization era
3300-2800-----------------Harappan (Ravi Phase) ----- Regionalization era
2800-2600-----------------Harappan phase 2 ------------- Regionalization era
2600—1900 ------------Mature Harappan A, B, C Indus Valley civilization,--Integration Era
1900-1300--------------Late Harappan --------------------------------Localization Era
1900-1700---------------Harappan  4------------------------------------ Localization Era
1700-1300-----------------Harappan 5----------------------------------- Localization Era
1300-300----------------Painted Grey Ware –Iron Age ------------Indo Gangetic Tradition
   The script of Indus valley civilization is yet to decipher. The archeologists found 400-600 symbols.
 It seems that there was no ruler system in this age and everybody enjoyed equal status. But every society had own authority.  There was accuracy to measure length, height etc. The society followed decimal system. Indus system coined metallurgy and developed it. Civil engineering was best. There were uses of sculpture, seals, pottery, gold jewelry,   in Indus valley civilization era. The societies worshiped images.
 There were some types of dance in the society. There were many crafts as shell working, ceramics, agate, bead making.
The societies depended on trade. The people used to celebrate religious ceremonies and used to worship gods and goddesses. Initially, the burial system was common but in later stage, the cremation was also common.
There were four main classes in the society- Elite class, soldiers, Traders/craftsmen, Servants.
 It is said that due to climate changes, the civilization started collapsing and people started migrating various places. Non- commissioning of fort is also one of the reasons of collapsing of Indus valley civilization.
 Indus Valley civilization influenced all the later societies of northern and western India.
When the Indus valley civilization was flourishing, there were Proto-Australoid, Mediterranean, Monggoloid and or Alpanoid civilizations in Uttarakhand (Already written in last parts).
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 14/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -13
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…9
History of Garhwal-Kumaon Uttarakhand in Indus Civilization Era to be continued…2


References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001 , Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad  Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736 )
Dr.Bipin Adhikari , 2011, Nepal Khas Jati,
H.K Barpujari, 1990, The Comprehensive History of Assam (page 11)
Bindeshwar Prasad Sinha, 1974 The Comprehensive History of Bihar (Page-70)
Fisher, William B., 2003, The Middle East and Africa 
S.N Sen, 1999, Ancient Indian History and Civilization
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe


Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
       History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -13   
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-10

        Thapli Sites, Malari Burials, Ranihat Sites, Sanana Baseri and ancient History of Uttarakhand

[Notes on ancient history of Uttarakhand; ancient history of Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Hardwar Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Nainital Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Almora Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Champawat, Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Dwarhat, Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Pithauragarh Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Bageshwar Kumaon,  Uttarakhand]


                                  Bhishma Kukreti

                                    Thapli Excavation
                  The K.P.Nautiyal team excavated at Thapli (near Shrinagar at Shrinagar –Badrinath road at Alaknanda bank) in 1982-83. The site is single painted grey ware culture and period is estimated 1100-800B.C.
                          Malari Burials and History of Uttarakhand
                Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral informed about his finding burials in Malari village (3800Meter height, Niti valley, Chamoli Garhwal, 61 Km from Joshimath at bank of Dhauliganga) on June 1956. Agarwal , Bhatt, J.Kharakwal, K.P. Nautiyal and B.M Khanduri et al also did researches on the burials of Malari.
    Dr K.P. Nautiyal and B.M. Khanduri provide us recent details of recent researches on prehistoric time of Uttarakhand.   The Malari burials are now said to be 1-2 B.C. (http://www.asidehraduncircle.in/excavation.html, Archeological Survey of India Dehradun).   
 Caves of burials – The oval caves were covered by flat stones. The men /women were buried bent knees. There are similarities in burying pattern with burials found in Iran of 100-200 B.C. Earthen  Pots, potteries, drink vessels and dishes of meat were kept on the head side of buried persons.
Dabral informs that same types of burials were found in Dwarhat , Kumaon. Pandey refers them as burials of sages.  Dabral also refers the similar burials in ladakh, lahul, Chamba Tibet. Agarwal and Kharakwal provide references of Stacul to make similarities of Malari burials with Burazahom of Kashmir. Dabral states that these burials may be of Saka and Agarwal and Kharakwal states,” ..Some of these burial complexes may belong to Early Indo European migrants in to central and western Himalayas.”
The People- the human died by natural death and the height of those buried men /women were five feet three inches. They were strong, with broad chest, strong jaws and strong teeth.
Appliances found- The leather bag (kutup), monal was drew on leather bag (kutup), squat pot, grey ware bowl, pedestalled bowl, red ware bowl ,spouted pots, horse burials, horse harshening appliances were found in the burials.
Hunters- The burials indicate that the Malari people were mainly hunters and used to depend on domesticated animals. They used to do farming perhaps in summer season. The Malari population used to build caves for them and animals.
               The Malari society was happy society. The human beings were mainly dependent on meat. Malari culture was fully aware of copper items. The society was well versed with jewelry. Dr Dabral predicted that the society used to migrate from height altitude to lower altitude as it happens now in Niti and Mana regions. 
The Malari people were also traders and used to export animals, wool, leather, herbs etc and used to import metallic appliances, precious stones and barleys.
The society had system of leader leading the society.
The society used to believe on good souls, harmful souls and deities. The people used to believe on the satisfaction of souls.
 
                               Ranihat excavation and History of Uttarakhand
 There was archeological excavation at Ranihat (opposite Shrinagar, bank of Alaknanda, Tihri Garhwal) in 1977 under the supervision of Professor K.P. Nautiyal and the site represents three occupational periods-Period-I (600-400 B.C.), Period II (400-200B.C.) and Period III (200B.C.-200AD).
Period I-There were evidences smelting iron and copper in  period I of Ranihat excavation as unpainted grey ware, glossy red ware, black polished ware.
Period II- The excavation party found burnt bricks, varieties of potteries such as rimless handi, miniature bowl of Maurayan period.
Period IIB-decent floors with the help of stones and new types of potteries as sprinkles,
Period III- built structures of stones and expertise in iron smelting and manufacturing iron tools.
                            Sanana Baseri, Almora
H.N. Bahuguna University team excavated the Sanana Baseri, Almora sites, and urn burials and found the painted grey ware culture. The team found in urn burials -large size earthen jars with ripple marks, dishes miniature bowls, vases, globular goblets. There was practice of multiple burials. 



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 14/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -13
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…11
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001 , Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri , 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt,  K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas,  http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Cist+burials+of+the+Kumaun+Himalayas.-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment 
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5_Annali_1986_46_(f1)_K.P._Nautiyal_-_B.M._Khanduri.pdf
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736 )
M.S. S Rawat (editor),, Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Notes on ancient history of Uttarakhand; ancient history of Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Hardwar Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; ancient history of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Nainital Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Almora Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Champawat, Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Dwarhat, Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Pithauragarh Kumaon,  Uttarakhand; ancient history of Bageshwar Kumaon,  Uttarakhand to be continued…

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
                      Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand     

  History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -14   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-11
                      Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand -1     

                                      Bhishma Kukreti

 There are two major theories about initiation of Aryan civilization in India-.
1-Aryans migrated from Eurasia
2-Out of India Theory (OIT) or Indian Urheimat Theory or Indigenous Aryans
               Aryans migrated from Eurasia or are Indo Iranian in origin
 It is believed that Aryans have origin in Eurasia. The Yaz, BMAC  (Bacteria-Margiana Archeological Complex)  and Andronova cultures have association with Indo-Iranian migrations, with Indo Aryans proper separating from Proto-Indo-Iranian dated back 2000-1800 B.C. The Gandhara grave, Cometery H. Copper Hoard and painted Grey Ware cultures are associated with Indo Aryan movement.
  According to Shaffer, there are very scanty evidences of mass Iranian –Aryan movement to India but there is small evidence for small scale migration to South Asia. Linguistic theories were mainly responsible for the theory of Indo Aryan as Eurasian race.
                             Indian Urheimat Theory or Indigenous Aryans Theory
  In twentieth century, scholars started providing new theories that Aryans were Indigenous rather than Indo-Iranian race.
Elst (1999),Talageri (2000) came with Indian Urheimat theory or Indigenous Aryan theory.
After studying DNAs, Professor Lal Ji Singh, Gyaneshwar Chaubey, Dr Kumarswamy Thangaraja (2011) declared that no foreign DNA entered the Indian mainstream in the last 60000 years. They claim that Africans came to India through central Asia during 80000-60000 BCE.
         
                                    Characteristics of Aryan race
  Whatever may the theories, it is sure that Vedic Aryan civilization started before Vedas were created and the Aryan culture started after Indus civilization ended or was ending.
 Mostly the characteristics of Aryan are guessed on the basis of Rig-Veda.  It seems the Aryans were reached to Yamuna at the time of Rigveda.
The colour of Aryans was whitish or fair. The hair color was golden and eyes were blue. They were with dense beard.   
Aryans used to assume domestic animals as wealth. The custom of keeping caretaker for animals was also started.
 The Vedic civilization was more of rural community. Main meal was –meat, cereals, pulses,  milk. There were farmers, Brahmins, Kshatriya , chariot drivers, carpenters, metal smith, in the society. There was system of King and kingdom.
The Aryans used to enjoy dances, songs, gambling, horse riding and Som drink.
The dress was made of cotton and leather. The Aryans like white dress. They used to enjoy ornaments.
The weapons were arrow, bow, club, different axes,
The family was governed by eldest man. The society was paternal oriented and son has importance. The marriages were in the same community. The caste system was very strong. Men used to marry with more than one wives. There was system for educating girls.
  The Aryan worshipped deities and goddesses with devotion. They were worshippers of strength and were hopeful. Aryans were well versed with the idea of psychological strength and values of hope/optimism. Aryans were believers of souls, life after death, bad souls, good souls, belivers of heaven and hell.
 The major deities of Aryans were Indra, Aditi, Varun, Mitra, Agni, Aryama, savitri, Rudra, Marut, rodasi, Ashwini, Nasatya, Bhag, Sarswati, vayu, ribhuksha, Parjany. The forefathers were as deities. 
  Aryans worshipped the rivers, sun rise, sun, clouds, fire, and seasons as deities.
There was importance for farming and forest produces.
Yagya was started by Aryans. Offering animals to deities was also there.
The prayers were for prosperity, defense-protection, society, fame, enemy killings, getting servants, long life, sons and children, protection from wild animals etc. The Aryan used to ask t deities to give them   hundred years of life. 
Besides mantras, Aryans were versed with herbal medicines and surgery. Black magic was also part of Aryan culture.
Respecting fire and saving fire was main part of culture.

***Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand to be continued in History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -15
     
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 18/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -15
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…12
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001 , Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736 )
M.S. S Rawat (editor),, Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Elst, Koenraad, 1999, Update on the Indian Aryan invasion debate, Delhi
Talgeri , Shrikant, 2000, The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis
Kumar Chellappan,  2011, New Research Debunks Aryan Invasion Theory, DNA, Chennai edition, 10the Decmevr 2011
Notes on Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Pithauragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dwarhat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Hardwar Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarkashi Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Tihri Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Rudraprayag Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Chamoli Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Pauri Garhwal , Uttarakhand to be continued…



















Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
            Rigvedic Tribes and History of Uttarakhand
History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -15   
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-12
                      Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand -2     
   
                                      Bhishma Kukreti
      It is essential that the historians discuss about tribes described in Rigveda to discuss the ancient history of Garhwal-Kumaon or Uttarakhand as described by Rahul Santyakritan, Dr Dabral, little bit by B.D.pandey, Saklani, Agarwal , Handa etc.
   According to F. Stall (1999), the tribes described in Rigveda are semi-nomadic pastoralists. The lists of tribes described in Rigved are –Alina people, Anu, Ayu, Bhajeratha, Bhalans, Aryan Bharats, Bhrigus, Chhedi, Dasa, Dasyu, Dhrabika,Druhus,  Gandhari, Gungu, Iksavuku, Krivi, Kikata, Kuru, Mahina, Maujavant, Matsya, Meenas, Nahusa, Pakhta, Jan Kristi etc, Pani, Paravata, Parsu, Parthava, Puru, Rusama, Sarasvata, Satvant, Sigru, Simayu, Shiva, Snjaya, Savitana, Tritsu, Trivasa, Usinara, Vaikama, Vasu, Vibhindu, Visanin, Vrachivant, Yadu and Yaksu
                                         Caves men Dasa                               
  There is mention of Aryans fought many times with Kirats the caves men of Punjab.
                                           Das Janpad
                      The mentions of Dasas of Himalaya in Rigveda show that these Dasas janpad of Himalayan were great warriors, strong and difficult to win. That is why there are prayers for  winning to Dasas of Himalayas by Aryans in Rigveda.
                                            Hill Dasa Kings
  The Rigveda mentions the Dasa Kings as Shambar (Kangda Janpad king) was very strong and there was fight by Aryan with Shambar for forty years.
   Other hill Dasa kings were –Chumari, Dhuni, Shushn, Ashus, Balbut, Pipru, Vrishshrip, Kuyav, Vritr, Vyans, Rudhika, Namuchi, Kulitar, Bhed, Aj, Yaksh, Shigru, Yaksh, Shigru, Ilivish, Varchin.
   Shambar , his son Bhed and other Hill Dasa kings fought with Aryan Divodas and his son Sudas.

 ***Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand to be continued in History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -16
     
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 18/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -16
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…13
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001 , Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736 )
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Elst, Koenraad, 1999, Update on the Indian Aryan invasion debate, Delhi
Talgeri , Shrikant, 2000, The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis
Kumar Chellappan, 2011, New Research Debunks Aryan Invasion Theory, DNA, Chennai edition, 10the Decmevr 2011
Notes on Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Pithauragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dwarhat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Hardwar Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarkashi Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Tihri Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Rudraprayag Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Chamoli Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Pauri Garhwal , Uttarakhand to be continued…


Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
      Great Rigvedic Battle or Aryan Defeating Hill Tribes and History of Uttarakhand
History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -16   
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-13
                      Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand -2     
   
                                      Bhishma Kukreti
                                       Das Rule
 Divodas was Aryan king who battled with Dasa kings. Dasas mean the older race.
  In Rigveda non Aryan were dasa people. Dr Dabral with the help of Rigveda and other historians state that the various Dasa Kings rules must be extended not only to plains and hills of Punjab but in plains (Tarai) hills of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
  .
  Yakshu, Bhed, Shigru, Aj supported Bhed. Yakshu, Bhed, Shigru, Aj were the kings of eastern Satlaj area.
                                   Prosperous Dasa Land 
    The Hills even plains of central Himalayan regions were prosperous because of grasses, strong domestic animals of Dasa. There was availability of iron, gold, colour stones, alums and ample of medicinal herbs. The Dasa of Hills of Himalaya had monopoly over precious stones, metals and gold dust.
 There are enthusiastic mentions in Rigveda that Divodas (Aryan king) looted wealth as horse, metals, clothing, gold etc from Dasa kings of Hills and gifted to sages as Garg.
                               Looting from Hill and Tarai Grasslands by Aryans
  Kirata were the inhabitants of plains and hills of various regions of Himalaya (here Himachal and Uttarakhand). Aryans used to loot regularly from Kirat inhabitants. Looting by Aryans was life and death problems for Kiratas. 
                                        Looting Dasas Children by Aryans
  Rigveda reveals that Aryans used to loot whitish Kiratiyan and Khas children. Aryans used to make strategies for looting Kiratiyan and Khasiyan children. Aryans used to employ these young children as servants. Aryans (even sages to) started to keep Dasa as Keep or Rakhail. The Dasa children were converted for many works. Many selfish Kirats used to supply their own community children to Aryans. Aryans used to pray gods for Dasas and animals. It means for Aryans, Kiratas or Das were as good as animals. in the same.
                  Insulting Dasas
 Rigveda wrote various incidents of Aryans insulting Dasas of Himalyas or Dasas. There were orders from sages to Aryan communities to kill Das or strong caves men Dasas.
     The Aryans kings who used to kill caves men Dasas were appreciated in societies and in other countries.
              Great Battle in Rigveda between Himalayan Hill inhabitants and Aryans
   There is mention of great battle between Aryans and Dasas of Hills for centuries (Dabral, 1968).
The caves men Dasas of hills had caves, permanent fortes, and seasonal fortes. It was easy for hill Dasas to run away into hill forest as soon Aryan invaders used to attack them. The Dasas were well versed with black magic too. The Dasa women armies also took part in great battle.
       There were songs and stories about heroes of Dasas who fought bravely the great battle and even Mahabharata mentioned their stories.
Namuchi: Namuchi is one of the oldest and effective Dasa heroes of great battle. Namuchi was ruler of low hills of old Punjab.  Namuchi defeated the army chief of Manu. Manu killed Namuchi. Manu got food and wealth by defeating Namuchi.  Mahabharata mentions that Indra killed Namuchi be deceit. The land under Namuchi was around Sirmaur of Himachal. 
Vishisship: Vishiship was a hill Dasa king and with the help of Agni Manu killed him in great battle of centuries.
Vritra: Vrita was Hill Dasa king of Sirmaur near Haryana. Manu killed him.
Puruva the Aryan king killed hundreds of Dasa army men.
Kulitar: Kulitar was father of Shambar and there was peace between Aryans and Dasas at this period.
Shambar Pratap: Shambar Pratap was very brave Himalayan Dasas king and supposed to rule over Kangda.
Parvteey Sangh or Himalayan federation: Shambar united Dasas of Himalayan to fight with Aryans.
Aryan Sangh: Aryas also formed Aryan federation to fight with Hills Dasas.
Vadhrayashva: Vadhrayashva was a brave and famous Aryan kings who burnt the wealth and farms of hill Dasas.
Divodas: Divodas one of the brave and famous Aryan kings who killed hill king Shushna.
Shushna:  Shushna was brave hill king, was expert of war strategies and flank battling and the Aryan king Kuts defeated him.
Kuvay: Kuvay was main aid of Shushna. His wives were great worriers.

Vipru: Vipru was prosperous hill Dasa king because of animal wealth. With the help of Indra , Rijishwa Priya defeated Vipru.
Mrigay, Chamuri and Dhuni were great hill kings and Aryans brave men killed or defeated them.
 Vachin: It seems that Vachin was ruler of Himachal and Uttarakhand regions. He was also killed  by Aryan army.
                                       Results of Great Battle
  The dasa societies of Himachal and Uttarakhand lost much in great battle of centuries. After winning great battle, initially Aryans were organized but later on their unity was defused. After great battle Aryans entered into Himalayan regions.
                The Himalayan Asur Civilization

The Asurs (Himalayan inhabitants) were inhabitants of Himalaya.
They were having fortes and seasonal fortes.
The Asuras were brave, strong and knew war strategies (mayavi). They were phallus worshippers. Indra types of leaders could win over them.
Asura or inhabitants of hills were prosperous because of wealth of domestic animals, ores, weapons, dedicated to protect their lands.
 The Asura kings used to collect taxes, help to needy ones, were law abiding people.



 



***Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand to be continued in History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -17
     
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 20/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -17
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…14
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001 , Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736 )
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Elst, Koenraad, 1999, Update on the Indian Aryan invasion debate, Delhi
Talgeri , Shrikant, 2000, The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis
Kumar Chellappan, 2011, New Research Debunks Aryan Invasion Theory, DNA, Chennai edition, 10the Decmevr 2011
M.S Ahluwalia, 1998 Social, cultural and Economic History of Himachal Pradesh
Notes on Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Pithauragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dwarhat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Hardwar Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Uttarkashi Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Tihri Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Rudraprayag Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Chamoli Garhwal , Uttarakhand; Aryan Civilization and History of Ancient Pauri Garhwal , Uttarakhand to be continued…

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
 Kumaon and Garhwal in Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans

History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -17   
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-14                     
Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans -1    
[Notes on Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Pithauragarh Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Dwarhat Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Bageshwar Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Champawat Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Almora Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Nainital Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans]         
                                      Bhishma Kukreti
       Every literature provides full or partial historical accounts of its contemporary time and past.  Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans are stories of many historical people of ancient India. Mahabharata, Ramayana, Upanishad, Bhrahmins, Purans provide some ideas of places, civilization, culture. These literary works may not provide exact details but throw light on past of India.
 All historians of Uttarakhand as Rahul Sankrityayan, Pundit Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey, Shiv Prasad Dabral, Dinesh P. Saklani, D.D. Sharma, O.C. Handa, Ajay Rawat and other historians provide the examples of Mahabharata, Ramayana, Purans, Kedarkhand, and other old literature for explaining historical aspects of Uttarakhand.
                       Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puran
B.D Pandey sums up the references of epics, Purans etc  that many places , rivers and personalities of Kumaon as  Bhimtal, Devidhure, Viratnagari (Kurmanchal), Katyur Pargana of Kumaon, Baijnath, Kailas, Mansarovar (once, both were part of Kumaon), Pavan parvat (Seera Patti), Jauljeevi, Keral hills, Nakuri, Darun, Patan, Panchchuli, Ketuman (Girafat), Rathvahini (ramganga), Darukvan (Jagishwar), Dranagiri (birth place of river Bairti), Bansulisera, Gagas, Bhikiyasain, Lodhr Shikhar (Bhatkot), Pinakeesh, Kashya parvat (Kalmatiya), Badaditya(Katarmal), Katyanidevi (Syahidevi), Shali (Sunval), Seetavani (Bhabhar), Devki river (Dabka river), Gargi river (Gaula river ),  Kalmatiya (Kapar), Bageshwar Danpur,  Udaksrotra (Udaknauli ),  kuru (Kurmanchal) of Kumaon are mentioned in epics, Purans and other old Sanskrit literature and Pali literature as well.
 
Reference for Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans -1
B.D. Pandey, Kumaon ka Itihas, pages 179
Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 2, pages 283-319

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 20/4/2013

(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -18
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…15

References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
Kumaon and Garhwal in Epics- Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -18   
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-15                     
Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans -2    
[Notes on Garhwal in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Hardwar Garhwal in Mahabharata, Dehradun Garhwal in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Rudraprayag Garhwal in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Tihri Garhwal in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans;  Chamoli Garhwal in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Pauri Garhwal in Mahabharata, Kankhal, Bhrigukhal, Kotdwara Garhwal in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Ramayana and Purans; Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Pithauragarh Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Dwarhat Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Bageshwar Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Champawat Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Almora Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Nainital Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans]         
                                      Bhishma Kukreti
   From the time, professional historians started writing History of India the existence of Mahabharata and Ramayana happenings have been in question and the questions of reality of Mahabharata and Ramayana are still in discussion among historians even after Dr. B .B. Lal carried on  Hastinapur excavation (Chattopadhyaya, 2003).
 R.C. Majumdar and A.D.Pusalkar  (1988) divided Mahabharata eras as
Before, flood- 3102 B.C.
Great Flood- Manu Vaivswat 3102 -2950 B.C.
Yayati era- 3000-2750 B.C.
Mandhata era- 2750-2550 B.C.
Parushram Era- 2550-2350
Ramchandra Era – 2350-1950- B.C.
Krishna Era 1950-1400 B.C.
 Great Battle of Mahabharata – 1400B.C.
Parikshit to early Nanda era- 1400-350 B.C.
                 Uttarakhand in Epics, Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans.
The great grandson of  Dhruva  was Venu.  Kedarkhand, Mahabharata described Venu and his capital was Mayapur (Haridwar/Hardwar). Due to cruel behavior of  Venu , the subject did not like him and displaced him from crown. It seems Venu was Dom king.
Kedarkhand a Puran (172/15;178/44) describes  that king Satyasandh ruled Uttarakhand. Kanningham states that the kingdom of Satyaasandh was in Maadipur, Bijnaur regions.
According to Mahabharata (Shantiparv, 59/1-9), Prithu the son of Venu collected gold from Meru hills (Uttarakhand).
Daksh- The fifth generation king of Prithu was Daksh Prajapati. The kingdom of Daksha Prajapti was extended to uttarkahnd to Madhya Pradesh. The capital of Daksha was Kankhal , Hardwar (Mahabharata, Shalyaparv, 38/28-29).
Vaivswat Manu: Manu protected people in great flood (Pralay). Manu performed the ritual of Tapa (penance) in Badrikashram , Garhwal (Mahabharata, Vanparv, 187/4). Manu was ultimate father of human beings and his capital was Ayodhya.
Pururava: As per Rigveda, Puruva displaced Dasa kingdoms. According to Haripuran (26/6-7), Pururava roamed and live for many years and travelled Chaitrarathan near Badrikashram (Garhwal), Alkapuri near Mandakini bank; Uttarkurupradesh, Gandhmandhan mountains.
Nahus of Yayati era: According to Mahabharata (Vanparva, 129/3), the grandson of Pururava Nahus performed penance ritual near Yamuna bank in Uttarakhand.
Yayati: Yayati was son of Nahush and is believed his kingdom was extended up to Uttarakhand.
Anu: Anu was son of Yayati who was given the Uttarakhand kingdom (Mahabharata, Adiparva, 84/25-26).
                  Sages who performed penance rituals in Uttarakhand
Sages as Angira, Mareechi, Pulah and many sages performed Tap (penance ritual) in Badrikashram and other parts of Uttarakhand (Mahabharata, Vanparv, 142/6).
                           Bhrigutung Mountain of Mahabharata is not Kedar shrine 
Taking shloka of Mahbharata (Vanparva 90/23 as base, Shiv Prasad Dabral (Uttarakhand ka Itihas -3 page 294) writes that sage Bhrigu performed pnance ritual in Bhrigutung and Dr Dabral states Bhrigutung as Kedar Shrune. It seems wrong as Dhyauma sage describing various teerthas (auspicious place) of North region states that there is Gangdwar (Hardwar), Kankhal (sanatkumar’s living place), and there is place of Tapasthali of Bhrigu sage.
भृगुर्यत्र तपस्तेपे महर्षिगणसेविते
राजन स आश्रम ख्यातो  भृगुतुंगो महागिरी (महाभारत , वनपर्व 90/23)
In this episode of Mahabharata, the Bhrigutung shrine is near to Kankhal  and Hardwar. Even today, there is Bhrigukhal  (Udaypur Patti, Pauri Garhwal) near to Kankhal and Hardwar. It means Mahabharata describes about Bhrigukhal and not Kedar shrine as guessed by Dr Dabral.   



Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans to be continued…3


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 20/4/2013
****Reference for Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans .

B.D. Pandey, Kumaon ka Itihas, pages 179
Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 2, pages 283-319
B.D. Chatopadhyaya , 2003, Studying Early India: Archeology, Texts and Historical  Issues
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -19
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…16

References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Notes on Garhwal in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Hardwar Garhwal in Mahabharata, Dehradun Garhwal in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Rudraprayag Garhwal in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Tihri Garhwal in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans;  Chamoli Garhwal in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Pauri Garhwal in Mahabharata, Kankhal, Bhrigukhal, Kotdwara Garhwal in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Ramayana and Purans; Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Pithauragarh Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Dwarhat Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Bageshwar Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Champawat Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Almora Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Nainital Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans to be continued…

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
Historical Features of Garhwal, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Mandhata Era of Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans 

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -19   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-16                     
Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans -3    

                                          Bhishma Kukreti
                          Mandhata Era
 Mandhata king was from Ikshwaku grace. His father was king Yuvnashva.
Mandhata was great king. Mandhata was king of central Indian regions, Eastern Punjab. Mandhata was vegetarian and stopped consumption of non vegetarian food in his kingdom. Dr Dabral suggests that Mandhata might have ruled over Uttarakhand too.
                  The Uttarakhandi kings as Pattabh and Subhikshraj appreciated the deeds of Mandhata in copper plates.  His successors could not protect the Suryavanshi regime.
                       Was Uttarakhand as Ushinagar?
                    Anu the son of Yayati got kingdom of Uttarakhand and Panchal regions and he extended it to Punjab and Northern Sindh. In Aiterey Brahman, Kaushtakiupnishad (Vedic literature) and Mahabharata, there is mention of Ushinagar. Dabral provides references of historians that Ushinagar was Uttarakhand.
The kings of Ushinagar were brave and strong. After the death of ushinagar king his sons divided the kingdom into five parts.
Kulindrajya: Mahabharata (vanparv, 130/21mentions about Kulindrajya and that was also part of today’s Uttarakhand. Kanningham supported the theory of Kalund area as Uttarakhand from the Kulind coins.

                                        Parushram era
 There are mentions of Sahstrarjun whose army also travelled in Uttarakhand (Bhagirathi bank where pines were there.).
Parushram fought Sahstrarjun and freed the evils.
Sagar- sagar was king of Ayodhya. Bhargava took care of Sagar in childhood. Sagar extended his rule to Bengal and Northern India.
Bhagirath- The epics state that Bhagirath was great grandson of Sagar. Bhagirath brought Ganga to the earth from heaven.
Vishwamitra- Vishwamitra was great king but took Sanyas. While practicing penance, Menka (nymph) attracted Vishwamitra.  Menka became pregnant but Vishwamitra did not accept being father of would be child.
Dilip- Dilip was one of successors of Bhagirath and his capital was Ayodhya. He ruled Uttrakhand and travelled Uttarakhand too.
Raghu-Raghu was son of Dilip.
Dashrath- Aj was son of Raghu and dashrath was son of Aj. Dashrath was great king.
Rama- Rama was one of four sons of Rama was great king of Ayodhya. Rama is lord Rama.
Seeta- Seeta was queen of Rama. Rama ordered Seeta to leave Ayodhya and Seeta wnet to Uttarakhand. It is said that Seeta lived in Sitansyun , Pauri Garhwal.
Shakuntala –Shakuntala was the daughter of Vishwamitra and Menka. After delivering child, Menka left her and went to heaven. Sage kanva took care of Shakuntala in Kanvashram (Kotdwara, Bhabhar, Pauri Garhwal).
Shakuntal married as Gandhrva style  with king Dushyant ,
King Bharat- Bharat was son of Shakuntala and Dusyant. He ruled India and the name Jamboodweep became Bharat in the name of Bharat.
Bhardwaj- Bhardwaj was great knowledgeable Brahmin. Bhardwaj sage had Ashram in Gangadwar (Haridwar). It is said that many races of Uttarakhandis are generation of Bhardwaj. Bhardwaj Gotra is famous gotra in uttarkahnd.

Historical Features of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans to be continued…4
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 20/4/2013
****Reference for Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans.
B.D. Pandey, Kumaon ka Itihas, pages 157-179
Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 2, pages 283-319
B.D. Chatopadhyaya , 2003, Studying Early India: Archeology, Texts and Historical  Issues
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -20
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…17

References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
Historical Features of Garhwal, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Krishna Era of Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans -4

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 20   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-17                     
Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans -4    

                                          Bhishma Kukreti

                                 Uttarakhand in   Krishna Era or in Mahabharata era
 As already discussed that first brave King of India was Bharat and he was Garhwali who was born in Kanvashram, Bhabhar Garhwal.
Decline of Suryavansh- After time gap, there was decline of Suryavansh. In Dwapar era, Paurav, Panchal, Yadav became stronger in India.
Kuruvansh- the Kuru king of Paurav kingdom (capital was Hastinapur, today’s Haryana region) was the strongest king. Kuru extended his kingdom and was called Kurukshetra and Kurujangal. One of the kings of Kuruvansh was Shantanu. Shantanu had a son Devbrata who vowed not to marry and later was called Bhishma. Shantuna married Styavati who had two sons. One of sons died early. Vichitryviry ruled kuru for some time but died early. After the death of Vichitravirya, through Niyog technique with Vyasa, his three wives (including maid servant) had sons Dhritrarashtra (blind), Pandu( weak in color) and Vidur.
 It is said in Mahabharata that there was shradh of Shantanu the father of Bhishma and Vichitravirya  in Gangadwar (Hardwar),(Mahabharata, Anushashan parva).
Pandu- Since the eldest sons of Kuruvansha Dhritarashtra was blind, Pandu became the king of Kurukshetra or Kurujangal.  Pandu extended his kingdom
Mahabharata states that Pandu was hunting lover and he hunted regularly in dense Bhabhar forest with Shal trees. Today too, in Bhabhar, there is one valley called Panduvalasot (Adiparv, 113/8).

Pandu had to leave kingdom and he reached Shatshring near Badri-Kedar shrines travelling through Nagast (today’s Nagthat, Near Mussoorie); kalkoot (today’s Kalsi); Gandhmadhan (Mahabharata, Adiparva 124/3-4). Shatshring was two hundred miles away from Hastinapaur (Haryana) the capital of Kuru kingdom. Five Pandavas were born in Uttarakhand (Shatshringi). When Pandu died, his queen Kunti and five sons Pandavas reached back from Shatshrigi to Hastinapur in sixteen days.
Pandavas and Kaurvas- Pandavas were sons of Pandu and Kauravas (Duryodhan and other hundred sons) were sons of Dhritrrashtra. 
 Duryodhan the eldest son of Dhritrashtra was not ready to accept Pandavas as heir of Kuruvansh. He conceived a plan to kill Pandavas in a palace made by resin. Pandavas ran away from the resin palace.     
                 From resin palace, Pandavas went to a forest at the Dhaumya Brahmin Ashrama , near Gangadwar ( Hardwar)  at the bank of Ganga. Dhyaumya was Garhwali Brahmin. There, Bhima killed a Rakshas Hidamba . One of Pandavas, Bhima married to Hidambana the sister of Hidamb. Ghatotkachh was son of Bhima and Hidambana.  From there, with the advice of vyasa , Pandavas went to Ekchakranagari (today’s Chakrata). In Ekchakranagari (Chakrata), Bhima killed a Bak rakhshas (Mahabharata, Adiparva).
Purohit Dhyaumya of Mahabharata epic- There was Swaymbar of Draupadi at Panchal and Arjun won Draupadi the princess of Panchal. Draupadi had to marry with all five brothers Pandavas (Yudhishthar, Bhima, Arjun, Nakul and Sahdev ). Dhyaumay was the main priest of Draupadi- Pandavas marriage. Dhyaumya was a Garhwali priest (Dabral, 1968, Mahabharata, Adiparva, 182/7-9). The Garhwali priest Dhyaumya also performed the rituals for many Sanskars for sons of Pandavas.
Arjun’s son Irwan- for a punishment one of Pandavas Arjun had to spend twelve years in forest. Once, Arjun was roaming in Gangadwar (Hardwar, Uttarakhand). There a Ulipi the princesses of Nagraj Kaurvya fell in love with Arjun. Arjun married Ulipi and they had a son Irvan (Mahabharata, Adiparva, 213)
Historical Features of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans to be continued…5
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 20/4/2013
****Reference for Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans.
B.D. Pandey, Kumaon ka Itihas, pages 157-179
Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 2, pages 283-319
B.D. Chatopadhyaya , 2003, Studying Early India: Archeology, Texts and Historical  Issues
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -21
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…18

References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi ,Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder  Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Notes on Historical aspects of Uttarakhand in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Kumaon in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Tihri Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Jaunsar Bhabhar Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Hardwar Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Dehradun Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Chamoli Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Pauri Garhwal in Mahabharata epic; Historical aspects of Gangasalan Garhwal in Mahabharata epic to be continued…










 

Sitemap 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22