Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 176178 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King who Sifted Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath (Baidyanath)   

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 108
 
   Early Medieval South Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) -19

          (Early Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Early Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                 By: Bhishma Kukreti
 
             There is in inscription about the successors of Subhiksharaj Katyuri.  Therefore no information is available about successors of Subhiksharaj Katyuri.
          The folk sayings provide glimpses on the history of post Subhiksharaj Katyuri kings that Nar Singh Dev Katyuri shifted the capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath (Baidyanath) in present Kumaon. There is no historical written record available about Narsingh Dev Katyuri. Therefore, it is difficult to state about his relationship with Subhiksharaj Katyuri.

             Folk Sayings about Nar Singh Katyur

             The folklore state the following folktale about Nar Singh Dev Katyur-
             It is said that Narsingh Dev was the successor of Vasudev Katyur family. The capital of Narsingh Dev was Kartikeypur or Joshimath.
              One day, Narsingh Dev Katyur was gone for hunting. In his absence, lord Vishnu came there incarnated as Narsingh. Vishnu (Narsingh deity-half lion-half man) asked food from his queen. The queen offered food to Narsingh. Narsingh deity lied down on the bed of king. When king came he saw an unknown person lying down in his bed. The king Nar Singh Dev became angry and he attacked on deity by sword. The king cut the hand of deity. Instead of bleeding the hand started flowing milk. The king became fearful and started shivering.
   The deity said that he came to bless the king but the king did crime. The deity Narsing cursed the king Nar Singh and asked him to shift from Kartikeypur or Joshimath to Katyur (Baijnath).  The deity said to the king that he (king) would see same wound on his (deity’s) idol. The deity Narsingh cursed to King Nar Singh that when the idol would be broken his (Katyur king) family rule would be over from this earth.
       The one hand of idol of Narsing deity in Narsingh temple in Joshimath is thinner than other.

                         Conflicts between Shaivya and Vaishnava

          One assumption is that Katyuri kings were Shaivya (believer of Shiva) and when Vaishnava (believer of Vishnu) became powerful in Garhwal Shiva devotee Katyuri king had to shift from Garhwal to Kumaon. However, the argument is not based on logic as Katyuri kings of Kartikeypur (Joshimath) were also devotee of Vishnu.


                              Glacier Sliding

              Historian Dr Dabral presumes that there were continuous glaciers sliding in Kartikeypur region and landslides too. It might be that Kartikeypur was destroyed due to glaciers sliding and land sliding. Therefore, Katyuri kings took decisions to shift their capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath-Kartikeypur.
           The Katyuri kings had affection with name Kartikeypur. Therefore they named the new capital as Baidnath Kartikeypur.   
             By logic, Dabral suggests that around 1000 AD, Nar Singh Dev Katyuri shifted his capital from Kartikeypur (Joshimath) to Baijnath Kartikeypur (Baidyanath). Baijnath (Baidyanath) is 90 miles in east from Kartikeypur or Joshimath. The place got administrative importance in ninth and tenth centuries.

***Read about characteristics of Katyuri of Kartikeypur Kingdom in History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) Part -109
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 27/7/2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -109
Early Asian Medieval History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…20
    (Oriental Early Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…)
    (Oriental Early Medieval Age History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)

                                        References
A1- Agrawal, D.P., J.S Kharkwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological, linguistic and cultural synthesis 
1-Atkinson, E.T. 1974 (new edition), 1974, Kumaon Hills
1A- Adhikari, Suryamani, 1997, The Khasa Kingdom
1B- Chandola, Khemanand, 1987, Across Himalayas through Ages: a study of relations between central Himalayas and western Tibet
2--Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000AD
3--Dabral, Shiv Prasad , 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
3A- Elliot and Dowson, History of Indian (2nd part)
4--Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4A- Joshi, M.C., 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya: an essay in historical anthropology 
5-Linrothe, Rob, 1999, Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art
6-Mishra, Nityanand, Source Materials of Kumaon History 
7-Mishra Baldev Prasad, Nepal ka Itihas
8- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
9- Pandey, Ram Niwas, 1997, Making of Modern Nepal, page 170
10-Rawat, Ajay S., 19 Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective 
11-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
11A-Saklani, Dinesh Prasad, 1998, Ancient Communities of The Himalayas
11B- Tripathi, Ramdatt , Katyur ka Itihas
 12-Notes on Archeological Aspects of Uttarakhand: ascidehraduncircle.in/uttrakhand.html
13-Indian Archeology: A review, (edited by D. Mitra) 1979-80
14- Epigraphia  Indica 1982, Vol. XIII

Xxx                              xx
Notes on Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Joshimath Garhwal shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Chamoli Garhwal shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Rudraprayag Garhwal shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Pauri Garhwal shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Tehri Garhwal shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Uttarkashi Garhwal shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Pithoragarh Kumaon shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Dwarhat Kumaon shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Champawat Kumaon shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Bageshwar Kumaon shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Jageshwar Kumaon shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Almora Kumaon shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Nainital Kumaon shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath; Early Medieval South Asian History of Narsingh Dev Katyuri King of Doti Nepal shifting Capital from Kartikeypur to Baijnath

Bhishma Kukreti

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Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur (South Asian Early Medieval History)


History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 109
 
   Early Medieval South Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) -20

          (Early Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Early Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                 By: Bhishma Kukreti

                 Borders of Katyuri of Kartikeypur Imperialism

            The historians suggest Katyuri r Imperialism period of Kartikeypur from 740-1065 AD.
The Katyuri inscriptions do not throw light on exact borders of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur. Surprisingly, the Katyuri inscriptions were found from north Garhwal (Chamoli district) and north Kumaon that ifs- Pandukeshwar, Bageshwar and Baleshwar. The inscriptions are silent on western part of Yamuna.
               It is undecided about kings of south Garhwal and Kumaon. Still it is dark about rule on Dehradun, some part of Uttarkashi and Haridwar. Though, there are historical ruins in these territories of Katyuri period and those ruins are insufficient to put light on history background of these regions.   
      The Katyuri of Kartikeypur inscriptions suggest that Katyuri Kings had infantry, cavalry force, camel force and elephant army division. It is also true that a couple of inscriptions are copied from Pal inscriptions. The titles of government officers tally with other contemporary Indian inscriptions. 
 It seems that Katyuri kings had territory of plains of Garhwal and Kumaon (Bhabhar and Tarai).
          Sarvavarman, Harsha and Yashovarman ruled for some time or on irregular basis in hills of Uttarakhand. Other kings of plains of Indian Territory could nor encroach hills of Uttarakhand from 750-1050AD.   
  There are no inscriptions suggesting Katyuri rule on eastern part of Kali Ganga River. However, Katyuri ruled over Doti (Nepal) for many centuries and that suggest that Katyuris rules far away east from Kali Ganga River –western Nepal till Gandaki too.
  Kartikeypur or Joashimath is very near to Tibet border. Having capital at Joshimath region suggests that Katyuris had rule over some regions of Tibet.
 The studies of old traditions suggest that Katyuri also ruled   partly on Rohilkhand if not at all the time but some period.
  On the basis of Long Boot Surya temple at Nirat in Himachal Pradesh, Rahul claims that Katyuri ruled on some part of eastern Sutlej River.
  Oakley and Gairola suggest that around 900-1000 the Army chiefs of Mayapur (Haridwar), Bhabhar of Garhwal and Kumaon became free from Katyuri and established their own rules. At this same period, the governors or Thakurs Katehriya or Katehr of Tarai of Kumaon became free. It is concluded that around 900-1050, there was decrease in Katyuri domination over Bhabhar of Garhwal, Dehradun, Haridar and Tarai of Kumaon including partial territories of Rohilkhand that was under Katyuri.   


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 28/7/2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -110
Early Asian Medieval History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…21
    (Oriental Early Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…)
    (Oriental Early Medieval Age History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)

                                        References
A1- Agrawal, D.P., J.S Kharkwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological, linguistic and cultural synthesis 
1-Atkinson, E.T. 1974 (new edition), 1974, Kumaon Hills
1A- Adhikari, Suryamani, 1997, The Khasa Kingdom
1B- Chandola, Khemanand, 1987, Across Himalayas through Ages: a study of relations between central Himalayas and western Tibet
2--Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000AD
3--Dabral, Shiv Prasad , 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
3A- Elliot and Dowson, History of Indian (2nd part)
4--Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4A- Joshi, M.C., 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya: an essay in historical anthropology 
5-Linrothe, Rob, 1999, Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art
6-Mishra, Nityanand, Source Materials of Kumaon History 
7-Mishra Baldev Prasad, Nepal ka Itihas
8- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
9- Pandey, Ram Niwas, 1997, Making of Modern Nepal, page 170
10-Rawat, Ajay S., 19 Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective 
11-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
11A-Saklani, Dinesh Prasad, 1998, Ancient Communities of The Himalayas
11B- Tripathi, Ramdatt , Katyur ka Itihas
 12-Notes on Archeological Aspects of Uttarakhand: ascidehraduncircle.in/uttrakhand.html
13-Indian Archeology: A review, (edited by D. Mitra) 1979-80
14- Epigraphia  Indica 1982, Vol. XIII

Xxx                              xx
Notes on Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Pithoragarh (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Chamoli Garhwal (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Rudraprayag Garhwal (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur Tehri Garhwal (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Pauri Garhwal (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Haridwar  (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur of Dehradun  (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Bhabhar Garhwal (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Champawat (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Bageshwar (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Haridwar (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Tarai of Kumaon (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Nainital (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Almora  (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Udham Singh Nagar (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur on Nepal (South Asian Early Medieval History); Historical Characteristics of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur On Rohilkhand (South Asian Early Medieval History);

Bhishma Kukreti

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Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur, India


History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 110
 
   Early Middle Age South Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) -21

          (Early Asian Middle Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Early Asian Middle Age  History (740-1100 AD)

                                 By: Bhishma Kukreti
  There are historical characteristics of Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur of Middle Age Asia.

                             Title and Characteristics of Katyuri Kings


          Except Tribhuwanraj, Nimbar and Salonaditya, other eleven Kartikeypur Katyuri kings of Asian middle age period assumed titles as ‘Parambhattarak Maharajadhiraj Parmeshwar’.  Most of Indian sovereign kings used to assume these titles in middle age.

              It was assumed as the King was the incarnation of God or part of God. It was believed that by seeing the King a sinful person would become virtuous.
                  The inscriptions describe Katyuri kings of Kartikeyapur as incarnation of Dharma; they were law protectors and had bright characters.
             The middle age inscriptions portrayed Katyuri kings were having characters of kindness, donors, truthfulness, humble, stable mentality, high bravery, energetic, serious and sensitive to people.
             The middle age inscriptions state that people had great respect for Kartikeyapur Katyuri kings and people were devotee of kings.
              The middle age copper inscriptions express the Katyuri kings were protectors and used to provide asylum to poor, orphans and weak people.
         The middle age historical dedications (Today’s Uttarakhand India, Asia)   explain that the kings were industrious and scholars.
           The middle age copper inscriptions (Middle Himalaya, India, Asia)   or administrative orders inform that Brahmins used to come for visiting the courts of King for donations and honor.  The kings used to donate gold and used to pay honor to scholars.
  The middle age inscriptions notify that Katyuri kings (Himalayan India, Asia)   were scholars, financially sound and respectful Kings.   
 

                Characteristics of Family Members of Kartikeyapur Katyuri Kings

             The middle age inscriptions of Katyuri Kings (Central Himalayan region, India, Asia)   described the names of king’s eldest wife as Mahadevi or great queen and eldest son as heir.
                The middle age inscriptions of Katyuri Kings (North India, Asia) suggest that the sons of King Family used to get important position in administration.
                Where in the middle age inscriptions, the title is Parambhattarak (Brave of Braves) Maharajadhiraj (king of Kings) Parmeshwar (God) , for Katyuri King , the ‘Raja’  (simple king) word was used for brothers, uncles of King.
 Perhaps the Rajanyak meant for prince.
  Rajputr was used for the sons of brothers of King.       
             
 
 


         

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 29/7/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -111
Early Asian Middle Age History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued…22
        (Oriental Early Middle Age History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)

                                        References
A1- Agrawal, D.P., J.S Kharkwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological, linguistic and cultural synthesis 
1-Atkinson, E.T. 1974 (new edition), 1974, Kumaon Hills
1A- Adhikari, Suryamani, 1997, The Khasa Kingdom
1B- Chandola, Khemanand, 1987, Across Himalayas through Ages: a study of relations between central Himalayas and western Tibet
2--Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000AD
3--Dabral, Shiv Prasad , 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
3A- Elliot and Dowson, History of Indian (2nd part)
4--Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4A- Joshi, M.C., 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya: an essay in historical anthropology 
5-Linrothe, Rob, 1999, Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art
6-Mishra, Nityanand, Source Materials of Kumaon History 
7-Mishra Baldev Prasad, Nepal ka Itihas
8- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
9- Pandey, Ram Niwas, 1997, Making of Modern Nepal, page 170
10-Rawat, Ajay S., 19 Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective 
11-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
11A-Saklani, Dinesh Prasad, 1998, Ancient Communities of The Himalayas
11B- Tripathi, Ramdatt , Katyur ka Itihas
 12-Notes on Archeological Aspects of Uttarakhand: ascidehraduncircle.in/uttrakhand.html
13-Indian Archeology: A review, (edited by D. Mitra) 1979-80
14- Epigraphia  Indica 1982, Vol. XIII

Xxx                              xx
Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur, India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Joahsimath , India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Pandukeshwar region, India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Chamoli Garhwal , India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Chamoli Garhwal , India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Tehri Garhwal, India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Pauri Garhwal , India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Rudraprayag , India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Dehradun, India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Haridwar , India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Uttarkashi , India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Doti Nepal; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Pithoragarh, India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Bageshwar , India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Champawat, India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Almora , India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Nainital , India; Asian Middle Age Historical General and Exclusive Characteristics of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur of Udham Singh Nagar, India

Bhishma Kukreti

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Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur Part-1

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 111
 
   Early Medieval   Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) -22

          (Early Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Early Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                 Thakurai or Chieftain System in Katyuri Kingdom in context of Asian Medieval Period

            The Katyuri kingdom was dominated by regional sub kingdoms (Thakurai). The regional sub kingdom or Thakurai was ruled by Samant or Chieftains.  Mostly, the Thakurai used to rule through autonomous system. The Chieftain system was governed by dynasty system. The Chieftains used to help the Katyuri king of early Asian medieval period at the time of war and defusing inland disturbance or civil war.
               The regional Chieftains used to become stronger in weak Katyuri Kingdom (of Asian early medieval period).  The old sayings inform many tales about strong chieftains harassing the Katyuri King of early medieval period (Katyuri of Kartikeyapur).
             The folk tales of this period tell many stories about infighting among regional Chieftains of Katyuri Kingdom of Asian early medieval era.  The folk tales also update that the Katyuri Kings of Asian early medieval age used to create infighting among Chieftains for making balance of power.  When Ashokchall and Krachaaldev attacked Katyuri Kingdom, many chieftains shifted the side and became the chieftains of invaders.  The chieftains used to take tax from the people and used to share tax with the Kings.
              When the Katyuri kings used to donate land for temple or public utility the chieftains did not collect tax from such donated land.
                      Councils of Ministers-   Cabinet of Katyuri Kings of Asian early medieval Period

               The King was whole and sole of the Kingdom. The King used to appoint chief officers for smooth administration. However, Katyuri Kings of Asian early medieval age were not dictators.
       They used to have councils of cabinet. The Katyuri king of Asian early medieval age used to take suggestions from cabinet ministers and scholars, experienced personalities.
 There are following main administrative positions mentioned in Katyuri inscriptions-
1-Amatya or Rajamatya------------Prime Minister
2-MahaSandhiVigrahAdhikrit- ----War or Defense Minister
3-MahaDankshapatladhikrit------- Dharmadhikari or Minister for Religious works
4-Mahadandnayak or Dandnayak -----------Police of Security In charge and or Law Minister
5-Uparik----------------- Governor
6-Ayuktak------------------ Commissioner
7-Vishaypati--------------------- District In charge or Head of Region
8-Koshpal- ---------------- Treasurers
9-Shreshthi ------------------ City or Village Elite by finance or Rich person
 
            Regional or Provincial Administration of Katyuri Kings of Asian early medieval Period

          The inscriptions of Katyuri Kingdom and folktales of Asian early medieval period of Uttarakhand suggest that the Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeypur had five major regions (Vishay)-
1-Kartikeypur Vishaya - from Joshimath (today’s Chamoli Garhwal) to Gomati Valley region
2- Tankanpur Vishaya – Alaknanda valley above today’s Dev Prayag
3- Antrag Vishaya- Central part of between Bhagirathi and Alaknanda Rivers
4- Eshal Vishaya- Most probably, the land between Bhagirathi and Yamuna Rivers
5-Mayapurhat- The folklores suggest that Haridwar was under Katyuri Kingdom of Asian early medieval period.
6-If Katyuri Kingdom of early Asian medieval period was extended from Sutlej to Gandaki then definitely Sutlej –Yamuna Doab and Kali Ganga –Gandaki Doab would have separate regions. Doab means the land between two rivers. 
 
                         Bhukti of Gupta Period

 In Gupta period, the Kingdom was divided among Bhukti and Bhukti used to be divided among Vishay. In Katyuri inscriptions of early Asian medieval period the word Bhukti (Jaykulbhukti) is mentioned only once in the inscription of Tribhuwanraj. It seems in the Katyuri kings of Asian early medieval period, Bhukti were used for division of Region or Vishay.

          Village Councils in Katyuri Kings of Asian early medieval Period
               
             The Vishay or regions were divided among villages or Gram. The Mahamanushya used to control the village council.

 


*** Read More about Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur Part-2

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 30/7/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -112
Early Asian Medieval History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued…23
        (Oriental Early Medieval History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)

                                        References
A1- Agrawal, D.P., J.S Kharkwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological, linguistic and cultural synthesis 
1-Atkinson, E.T. 1974 (new edition), 1974, Kumaon Hills
1A- Adhikari, Suryamani, 1997, The Khasa Kingdom
1B- Chandola, Khemanand, 1987, Across Himalayas through Ages: a study of relations between central Himalayas and western Tibet
2--Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000AD
3--Dabral, Shiv Prasad , 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
3A- Elliot and Dowson, History of Indian (2nd part)
4--Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4A- Joshi, M.C., 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya: an essay in historical anthropology 
5-Linrothe, Rob, 1999, Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art
6-Mishra, Nityanand, Source Materials of Kumaon History 
7-Mishra Baldev Prasad, Nepal ka Itihas
8- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
9- Pandey, Ram Niwas, 1997, Making of Modern Nepal, page 170
10-Rawat, Ajay S., 19 Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective 
11-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
11A-Saklani, Dinesh Prasad, 1998, Ancient Communities of The Himalayas
11B- Tripathi, Ramdatt , Katyur ka Itihas
 12-Notes on Archeological Aspects of Uttarakhand: ascidehraduncircle.in/uttrakhand.html
13-Indian Archeology: A review, (edited by D. Mitra) 1979-80
14- Epigraphia  Indica 1982, Vol. XIII

Xxx                              xx
Notes on Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of Pauri Garhwal in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of Chamoli Garhwal in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of Tehri Garhwal in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of Dehradun Garhwal in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of Haridwar  in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of Doti Nepal in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of  Gandki- Kali Ganga Doab in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of Yamuna-Sutlej Doab  in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of  Pithoragarh Kumaon in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of  Dwarhat Kumaon in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of  Champawat Kumaon in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of  Bageshwar Kumaon in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of  Nainital Kumaon in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of  Almora Kumaon in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval Historical Characteristics of Administration and Society of  Udham Singh nagar Kumaon in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur

Bhishma Kukreti

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Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur


History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 112
 
   Early Medieval   Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeypur in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) -23

          (Early Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Early Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti


                        Powerful defense mechanism of Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Early Medieval Period

                   The Katyuri kings were famous for their large armed forces.  Defense mechanism of Katyuri Kings Kartikeypur (early medieval period) was superior in contemporary competition. These kings defended their territories for two and half centuries. The Khajuraho inscription states that the Chandel King Harsh was pleased by powerful contemporary Khasa King. The Katyuri Kings were able to defense their vulnerable borders due to powerful strategic defensive methods only.

                              Four Army Battalions Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Early Medieval Period
 The army of Katyuri of Kartikeypur (early medieval period) had main four army divisions
Padatik Army - The infantry was called Padatik.
Cavalry   Army- The cavalry armed force was called Ashwarohi Bal and the Army in charge of cavalry was called Ashwabaladhikrit.

War Elephant Army: The war elephant army was named as ‘Hasti bala’. The in charge for war elephant army was positioned as Hastibaladhikrit.

War Camel Cavalry and Artillery (Army) - The name for war camel army was Ustrabal. The war camel army in charge was called ‘Ustrabaladhikrit’.

In Charge of Three cavalries- The in charge of war horse army; war elephant army; war camel army was called ‘Hastyashoshtrabaladhikrit’.
  The elephant and camel armed forces show that Katyuri kings had rule over not only plains of Uttarakhand but in today’s western part of Uttar Pradesh or the Katyuri kings had powerful dense  mechanism against kingdoms of Indian plains
 The King was supreme of all armed force and the Kings used to lead the war. The Laitshur and Subhikshraj inscriptions suggest that Ishtagandev beheaded elephants of enemies. 

                Border Defense Mechanism in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeypur
 
            The Katyuri Kings of early medieval period were very much aware about border defense mechanism as Chadra Gupta Maurya (lalitshur inscription).

Prantpal- The Border defense in charge was called Prantpal or Border Security in charge.

Ghattpal- The security in charge of Mountain Passes of border region was called Ghattpal.

Vartampal- The Border Road Security in charge was called Vartampal.

Tarpati-  The security and tax officer for river crossing  and security was called Tarpati. All these security personnel were keeping eyes on unwanted and spies of other kingdoms and rebellions.

                     Police Force in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeypur (Early Medieval Period)

              The Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur or of early Medieval Age were cautious for internal security too. There was separate department for internal security.
Dandik or Khangik – These police officers were to protect the state and public or people’s properties.

Doshparadhik- These officers were for capturing the criminals.

Dusadhyasadhanik _ This officer was in charge of officers those were engaged in researches on conspiracies in the kingdom. Spying and stopping spying into kingdom were the job of this department.

Chorodharanik- Chorodharanik used capture thieves and dacoits.

Dandpashik, Mahadandnayak and Dandnayak- Officers Mahadandnayak and Dandnayak were high level police officers for internal security. There were strong rules for punishing criminals those oppress the citizens.

                Security for Tourists in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeypur (Early Medieval Period)

          There were necessary internal security management for protecting citizens and tourists.
           The inflow of pilgrim tourists in Uttarakhand was more and the government used to manage their securities.


                          Facilities for Tourists in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeypur (Early Medieval Period)


           It is obvious that tourism was one of the major sources of income in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeypur period.
  There were shelter houses for tourists and on the road the government arranged for drinking water (Pyau).
 



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 31/7/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -113
Early Asian Medieval History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued…24
        (Oriental Early Medieval History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)

                                        References
A1- Agrawal, D.P., J.S Kharkwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological, linguistic and cultural synthesis 
1-Atkinson, E.T. 1974 (new edition), 1974, Kumaon Hills
1A- Adhikari, Suryamani, 1997, The Khasa Kingdom
1B- Chandola, Khemanand, 1987, Across Himalayas through Ages: a study of relations between central Himalayas and western Tibet
2--Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000AD
3--Dabral, Shiv Prasad , 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
3A- Elliot and Dowson, History of Indian (2nd part)
4--Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4A- Joshi, M.C., 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya: an essay in historical anthropology 
5-Linrothe, Rob, 1999, Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art
6-Mishra, Nityanand, Source Materials of Kumaon History 
7-Mishra Baldev Prasad, Nepal ka Itihas
8- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
9- Pandey, Ram Niwas, 1997, Making of Modern Nepal, page 170
10-Rawat, Ajay S., 19 Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective 
11-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
11A-Saklani, Dinesh Prasad, 1998, Ancient Communities of The Himalayas
11B- Tripathi, Ramdatt , Katyur ka Itihas
 12-Notes on Archeological Aspects of Uttarakhand: ascidehraduncircle.in/uttrakhand.html
13-Indian Archeology: A review, (edited by D. Mitra) 1979-80
14- Epigraphia  Indica 1982, Vol. XIII

Xxx                              xx
Notes on Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Chamoli Garhwal; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Rudraprayag  Garhwal; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Tehri Garhwal;  Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Uttarkashi Garhwal; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Pauri Garhwal; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Dehradun Garhwal; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Haridwar; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Doti Nepal; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Pithoragarh Kumaon ; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Dwarhat Kumaon ; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Bageshwar  Kumaon ; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Champawat Kumaon ; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Almora  Kumaon ; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Nainital Kumaon ; Asian Early Medieval Historical Features of Defense, Army, Police, Border Defense in Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 113
 
   Early Medieval   Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) -24
 
          (Early Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Early Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                  Asian Medieval History of Economy in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur
 The agriculture was main base for economy.
Rearing Goats and Sheep was also source of economy for some people.
 The potteries were essential requirements for common and elite people. The Potters used to barter their produces with people or traders.
             
 
Building and Temple Wood works- The crafts of building wood building or temples were still in progress and wood craftsmanship had same value as it had in later historical stages. Though temples of Katyuris were built by cutting stone the wood was essential for building and temples for common men.
Wooden Appliances- Wood crafts for making wheel, chariot, agriculture appliances, beds, building huts, bridges, arrows, etc was essentials and need not to stress that wood crafts men used to depend their earnings on wooden works.  The word on inscriptions Saudhbhangadhikrita (chief architect) and Karika (mason), Sutradhar (craftsman) suggest the importance of craftsmanship.
Weavers- Weaving was an essentials aspect for people.
Dyers- Dying was necessary and dyers had importance for economic development. It is also sure that tanners, cobblers, masons were there in Katyuri period. 
Trading with Tibet would have been common.
Mineral- Minerals was the source of economy too. The mines were state properties.  Iron, copper of Katyuri kingdom was in demand.
Forest- Forest produces were used for internal consumptions and export too. There was demand for Bhojpatra, Bamboo etc. Khandpati and Khandrakshasthanadhipati were responsible for mine and forest management.
Woolen produces- Woolen produces were used for internal consumption and export.
Herbs and Herbal medicines – Herbs and herbal produces were exported.
Animal and bird export- It is suggested that exclusive and useful animals and birds were exported from hills of Katyuri kingdom.
Gangajal Export- The Ganga water used to be exported.
Tourism- Tourism was a source of income for people and kingdom. 

                      Properties of Katyuri King

 The king was wholesale owner of land of Katyuri kingdom. However, the private land ownership persisted in the time. The palace had animals as cows, buffalos, horses, mules etc. Abhir used to look after milking and milk produce management. Kishor-Badva-Go-Mahishydhikrit used to look after animals of king.

                     Agro management in Katyuri Kingdom or Kartikeyapur

  The Katyuri kings of Kartikeyapur had strong agriculture administration.
Pramatar- Pramatar was an officer for measuring the land.
Upcharik or Pattkopcharik- The officer used to keep records or accounts of individual land.
Land Measurement- The land measurement units were Drona, Nalivapam, That means the land was measured by seed sowing capacity.
                 
                                     Taxation 

Bhogpati and Shaulkik used keep tax records. There is no mention of types of taxes in Katyuri inscriptions of Kartikeyapur.
Bhat, Chat officers used to collect taxes on agriculture or animals or forest produces.






Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 1/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -114
Early Asian Medieval History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued…25
        (Oriental Early Medieval History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)

                                        References
A1- Agrawal, D.P., J.S Kharkwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological, linguistic and cultural synthesis 
1-Atkinson, E.T. 1974 (new edition), 1974, Kumaon Hills
1A- Adhikari, Suryamani, 1997, The Khasa Kingdom
1B- Chandola, Khemanand, 1987, Across Himalayas through Ages: a study of relations between central Himalayas and western Tibet
2--Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000AD
3--Dabral, Shiv Prasad , 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
3A- Elliot and Dowson, History of Indian (2nd part)
4--Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4A- Joshi, M.C., 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya: an essay in historical anthropology 
5-Linrothe, Rob, 1999, Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art
6-Mishra, Nityanand, Source Materials of Kumaon History 
7-Mishra Baldev Prasad, Nepal ka Itihas
8- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
9- Pandey, Ram Niwas, 1997, Making of Modern Nepal, page 170
10-Rawat, Ajay S., 19 Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective 
11-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
11A-Saklani, Dinesh Prasad, 1998, Ancient Communities of The Himalayas
11B- Tripathi, Ramdatt , Katyur ka Itihas
 12-Notes on Archeological Aspects of Uttarakhand: ascidehraduncircle.in/uttrakhand.html
13-Indian Archeology: A review, (edited by D. Mitra) 1979-80
14- Epigraphia  Indica 1982, Vol. XIII

Xxx                              xx
Notes on Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur In Haridwar; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur In Doti Nepal; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur in Pithoragarh Kumaon; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur in Bageshwar Kumaon; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur in Champawat Kumaon; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur in Almora Kumaon; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur in Nainital Kumaon; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur in Chamoli Garhwal; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur in Dehradun Garhwal; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur in Pauri Garhwal; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur in Tehri Garhwal; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur in Rudraprayag Garhwal; Asian Medieval History of Economy, Taxation, Revenue, Income source in Katyuri Kingdom of Kartikeyapur in Uttarkashi Garhwal


Bhishma Kukreti

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Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period


History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 114
 
   Early Medieval   Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) -25
 
          (Early Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Early Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                       Secularism, Religious Harmony in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Middle Period

                    There is no doubt that Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur (Asian Middle Age) and largely people were Sanatani (Hindu) believers.  However, there were Buddhists in plains or foothills of Kartikeyapur kingdom. There were Jains also in this territory.   
  The Pravodhchandroday  play suggests that Jain saints had to flee from various regions to get shelters. A few Jain saints migrated to plains of Uttarakhand. The 1010 years old period Idol of Shri vardhmanswamidev is found in Badhpur. Ruins of Mordhwaj and Badhpur suggest that Katyuri kings permitted religious harmony in the kingdom. Buddhists and Jain were free for constructing their temples.

                    Rituals, Beliefs and Worshipping in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Middle Period
 
  Hindu was major religion in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Middle Period.
            The religious title of Katyuri kings was ‘Parammaheshwar’ in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Middle Period. The religious title of Subhikshraj was ParamVaishanva.
      The Katyuri kings of Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Middle Period believed that they got kingdom due to blessings of Shiva and Nanda Devi Bhagvati.
 The early Asian Middle Period Katyuri Kings described them as Parambrahmanya or Brahmin devotees.
The early Asian Middle Period Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur believed in Caste-Class system (Varnashram).
 Shiva and Nanda Devi were major deities and goddess.
Narsingh, Nagdevta, Durga, Brahmeshwar were other important gods and goddesses.
The local deities were Gaviyapind, Bharke, Chandalmunda (village Deities) in the early Asian Middle Period Katyuri Kings Kingdom. There were temples of these deities and goddesses.
 The inscriptions did not mention about Sun god. However, Sun Idols of this period were found in this region.
             The Vishnu was worshipped as Narayan by Katyuris of middle age. The queen of Lalitshur built Narayan temple in Gerunnasa and Shripurushbhadra built Narayan temple in Garudashram.
 Shankracharya reestablished rituals in Badrikashram(Vishnu) before Lalitshur. Narayan was worshipped in Badrikashram. Brahmcharis used to stay in Tapovan near Badrinath. Padmt donated land to Badrikashram. Subhikshraj donated land for a Narayan temple.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 3/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -115
Early Asian Medieval History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued…26
        (Oriental Early Medieval History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)

Xxx                              xx
Notes on Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Religion rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Uttarakhand; Religion rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Pithoragarh; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Almora; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Champawat; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Nainital; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Bageshwar; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Udham Singh Nagar; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Bijnor; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Haridwar; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Dehradun; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Doti Nepal; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Chamoli Garhwal; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Rudraprayag; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Tehri Garhwal; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Uttarkashi Garhwal; Religion, rituals, Beliefs, Deities and Secularism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period around Pauri Garhwal

Bhishma Kukreti

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Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period


History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 115
 
   Early Medieval   Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) -26
 
          (Early Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Early Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

         Ritual Practices in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period
       
              Katyuri Kings of Kartikeyapur donated lands for various temples. The Kings had cabinet minister for Temple Management in their kingdoms. The land was used for getting income for temples. The temple income was used for perfumes, dhup, lighting, flowers, paste, priest and rituals. There were arrangements for music, music instruments, songs and dances.
          There were arrangements by Katyuri Kings for Lady Dancers (Dev Dasi) in temple as Gopeshwar, Kedarnath, Tungnath, Katarmal,. The land was reserved for lady dancers and their families.
         There was custom of animal sacrificing and gifts of cereals and fruits to deities of temples. The Havan custom was very much there in temple.


           

                 Pilgrim Tourism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period

A-Major Pilgrim Tourist Places in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period

          The Badrikashram, Bhrigupanth, and Kedarashram were major pilgrim tourist place and in between from Haridwar (Gangadwar)  Badrikashram, Bhrigupanth, and Kedarashram and from Kashipur or Bhabar of present Kumaon to Badrikashram, Bhrigupanth, and Kedarashram there were tens of pilgrim places in Uttarakhand of Katyuri kings of medieval period.

      B-Major Pilgrim Tour Routes of Uttarakhand of Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period
           The following two major pilgrim tour routs were there in Katyuri Kingdom.
1-Haridwar (Gangadwar) –Devprayag- Shrinagar or Shriyantra Nagar Piligrim Tour Rout
2-Bhabar –Jageshwar- Adi Badri- Simli. Joshimath, Tapovan pilgrim tour rout.
Gopeshwar was base for Kedarnath pilgrim rout.
Joshimath was base place or camp for Badrinath pilgrim tour.
Places as Bhrigupanth, Kedar, Gopeshwar were centers for Shaivya believers (Shiva worshippers).
Other pilgrim places were famous for Vaishanavs.
Shakt had Siddhpeeths in Mayavati (Haridwar), Hrisikesh(Rishikesh), and Badrikashram.
 Siddha and Nath sect sages had major centre at Gaurikund.
  Therefore, it is obvious that the believers of Shaivya, Vaishanva, Shakt and Nath sects from all over India including Cambodia, Thailand and Burma had strong attractions for pilgrim places of Uttarakhand of Katyuri period. The inscriptions of Jageshwar suggest that Indians were eager to visit pilgrim places of Uttarakhand in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period.
 Lakhamandal excavation and Veerbhadra excavations also prove that these regions had religious or pilgrimage importance.
 

 C- Writing Pilgrim names on Walls of Pilgrim temples Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period
Period
     

          The temple inscriptions of Dev Prayag, Jageshwar, Gopeshwar witness that the pilgrims used to write their names on walls temples as witness that they visited pilgrim places.

     D- Proxy Pilgrim Visitors in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period

                 The people had strong desire for visiting religious places of Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval period.
  In case, any person (Darshnarthi) was unable for visiting such religious places of Uttarakhand he used to send a proxy-pilgrim in his place. Such proxy-devotee was called ‘Pakspat’. The Darshanarthi used to pay all expenses of ‘Pakshpat’. It was believed that the Darshnarthi used to get all virtuous benefits by pilgrim place visit of his or her ‘Pakshpat’. The deities were also informed by rituals that Darshnarthi is real benefice of visit by ‘Pakshpat’.
‘Pakshpat’ used to write names of Darshnarthi and name of Pakshpat on the walls of temples.   

             E- Religious Story Teller (Kthavachak) in Pilgrim Tour of Uttarakhand

           The pilgrim parties used to take religious story teller with them. The religious story tellers used to tell religious stories and preaching at staying places Chatti. The pilgrim tourists used to take necessary materials with them.
           Jageshwar temple inscription mentions about   a Religious Story Teller –Bateshwar and devotee Jajjat. 

                Women pilgrim tourists were very less due to difficult rout in Uttarakhand.   


              F- Suicide by People in specific Religious Tour Rout
 
               The Jageshwar inscriptions suggest that there was custom in certain sects especially Shaivya that by dyeing at religious place, the person used get heaven. These high shrines were Bhrigupanth and Nanda Devi hill shrine where sages used to fall down to die.   

 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 4/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -116
Early Asian Medieval History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued…27
        (Oriental Early Medieval History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)
Xx         xxx
Notes on Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism of Pithoragarh in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism of Champawat in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism of Bageshwar in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism of Nainital  in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism of Almora in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism of Udham Singh Nagar in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism of Pauri Garhwal in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism of Tehri Garhwal in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism of Uttarkashi in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism of Chamoli Garhwal in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism of Rudraprayag in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism of Haridwar in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period; Ritual Practices, Pilgrim Tourism of Dehradun in Katyuri Kingdom of Asian Medieval Period;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Indian, Asian Medieval Period

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 116
 
   Early Medieval   Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) -27
 
          (Early Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Early Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti


              Indian and Uttarakhand Scenario in Temple Art in 7th to 10th Centuries

                  From seventh to tenth centuries, the temples were built mostly in each Indian village. Building temples, looking after temples, donating to temples, performing rituals in temples was sign of getting heaven.
                 People and kings built hundred of temples in Uttarakhand. However, earth quacks and landslides destroyed most of Katyuri or Indian, Asian medieval period temples. Many times or most of the times, the renovators of old temples of this period changed the structures of temples.   
   
Features of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Indian, Asian Medieval Period

  Before Gupta era, the temples were built by wood. Building temples by stone started in Gupta period.
                The Katyuri temples were built by cutting rock stone or cliff as Gupta temples. The Katyuri temples were built on high stone platform. The stare cases were built to step in temples.   
 The outer and inner walls of Katyuri temples are simple.
There is single door to enter ‘garbha griha’. The door pillars are decorated by carving art. At Dwarpal of doors the Ganga and Yamuna idols are there as in Adi Badri temple.
 The passages surrounding ‘garbhagriha’ of temples are covered by roof.
The ‘garbha griha ‘of small temples as in Adi Badri and Jageshwar, are square and having ‘gopur’ too. There are places for small idols. The inner part of ritual performance are smaller in are.   
     The Vyal and Kirtimukh ar carved on door pillars as found in Gupta period temples. In a couple of Adi Badri temples, the Kirtimukh are outing garlands. There are carvings of a lion attacking elephant. The lion attack is symbol of knowledge winning over ignorance. 
 The doors or door pillars are made of stones and not wood.

 Shikhar of Katyuri temples of Indian, Asian Medieval Period

 Making Shikhar on temples started in Gupta era. There are Nagshikhar on Katyuri temples. The shikhar starts from flat roof of ‘garbha griha. The walls from four corners of roof shrink continuously till the top end of .shikhar’. The round stone is put on shikhar at top. The round stone is decorated by many circles forming ‘Chakra’. The lowest part is called ‘Amlak’ and top part is called ‘kalas’. These are called ‘Nagarshikhar’ temples and range from 10- to 15 feet in height.
     The local sculpture artists of Katyuri   period changed the ‘Nagarshikhar’ and created exclusive ‘Katyurishikhar’ temples. The ‘Katyuri shikhar ‘temples are from 20-30 feet height. 
The wall of Katyuri shikhar rises in a smooth curvature punctured by equidistantly provided ‘bhumi amaltak’ . The iron rods are not visible from outside. The large roof stones are covered by square stone plates. The wooden plates are below the stone plates. These structures are suitable for strength and snow fall protection.   
Most of the small temples are having Nagarshikhar as Jageshwar, Bageshwar,  Adi Badri, and Simoli. The major or big temples are having Katyuri shikhar as found in Uttarkashi, Kedarnath, Gopeshwar, Gangotri, Jageshwar, Joshimath, Tapovan, Triyuginarayan, Tungnath, Dharali, Dev Prayag, Devalgarh, Nalachatti, Pandukeshwar, Badrinath, Binsar, Baijnath, Baidyanath, Bageshwar, Ranihat, Lalkhamandal, Shrinagar or Someshwar.
            In one temple the name of builder is mentioned- Kalayn. The epigraph is of eighth century. The Navdurgamandir temple of Jageshwar has similarities with Bhuvneshwar –Orissa.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 5/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -117
Early Asian Medieval History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued…28
        (Oriental Early Medieval History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)
Xx                 xxx                xxxx
Notes on Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom in Indian, Asian Medieval Period; Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Pauri Garhwal in Indian, Asian Medieval Period; Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Chamoli Garhwal in Indian, Asian Medieval Period; Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Indian, Asian Medieval Period; Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Tehri Garhwal in Indian, Asian Medieval Period; Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Indian, Asian Medieval Period; Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Dehradun Katyuri Kingdom of Garhwal in Indian, Asian Medieval Period; Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Haridwar  in Indian, Asian Medieval Period; Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Pithoragarh Kumaon in Indian, Asian Medieval Period; Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Almora Kumaon in Indian, Asian Medieval Period; Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Champawat Kumaon in Indian, Asian Medieval Period; Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Bageshwar Kumaon in Indian, Asian Medieval Period; Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Nainital Kumaon in Indian, Asian Medieval Period; Characteristic of Art, Temples Art of Katyuri Kingdom of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon in Indian, Asian Medieval Period 

Bhishma Kukreti

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       Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures of Early Medieval Asia Era

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 117
 
   Early Medieval   Asian History of Katyuri Imperialism of Kartikeyapur in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) -28
 
          (Early Asian Medieval History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Doti Nepal (Uttarakhand, India))
                          (Early Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti


                     The sculpture making inside temples in Uttarakhand started quite before Katyuri period. Dr Dabral informs that oldest sculpture in Uttarakhand is Lakulish Shivling. The Shivling is shaped by line drawing as penis.  The Shivling sculpture making tradition was there in Katyuri Kingdom too.
               There are evidences that making the long Booted Sun sculpture system of Shaka-Kushan era were in tradition in Katyuri period too.
                The classic way/Gupta era of sculpturing was very much sustaining in Katyuri period.
            The auras of deity sculpture of Kushan era were simple but in classical sculpture the Prabhamandal or aura of deity sculpture are found decorated. The striking features of classical temple are its external ornamentation. The head of sculpture is decorated by lotus, leaves, flowers, gandharva, etc.
            The Har-Gauri; Mahishmardani, Vakratund Ganesh, Kartikey and Durga sculptures of seventh and tenth centuries are best sculpture of Uttarakhand.  The Sheshnag-Vishnu sculpture making was started in this time. Barah incarnation, Nrisigh Barah, Trimukh of Vishnu and Narsingh sculptures were also moulded in this time.  In some Vishnu sculpture, Lakshmi is also seen.
                   The sculptors used brown stone for carving sculpture. The polishing is so marvelous that sculpture look like as if made by black stone. The polishing is so durable that till date the sculptures are erosion less. The stone was available in Uttarakhand.
                Lakhamandal, Haridwar (Mayapur), Barahat, Ranihat, Shrinagar, Adi badri, Joshimath, Baijnath, Jageshwar, Bageshwar were the main sculpture producing centers of Katyuri era.
 The Veerbhadra, Ganpati with Saptmatrika, Kartikey, Har-Gauri, Vishnu, Durga, lakshmi narayn and Alinganmudra sculptures are beautiful figures of this age.
                 The Samudramanthan sculpture of Jheenvarhedi village (Haridwar) is one of the best sculptures of Katyuri period. The emotions of demons and deities are clearly visible in the sculptures. The deities are shown as sages with long bearded and demons are shown as Shak with caps, low grown beard and bony face.
          According to Rahul, the famous Katyuri period Akhand Hari-Gauri sculpture of Kalimath temple is the best among all Akhandit Hari-Gauri idols. The beauty on these sculptures is emotional and fine as the sculptures of Ajanta. Shiv ia Chaturbhuj and Gauri is dwibhuj. Shiva is in Lalitasnasth and Guari is Bhudharsuta forms. 
                        Difference among Other Sculptures of this Era
               The sculptures of Khajuraho, Bhuvneshwar and Kangda of this Age are erotic but the sculture of Katyuri Age are completely religious.
  The saddest part is that the marvelous craftsmen did not mention their names on any sculptures.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 9/8/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -118
Early Asian Medieval History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued…29
        (Oriental Early Medieval History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)
Xx                 xxx                xxxx
Notes on Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures of Early Middle Age l Asia ; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Joshimath Garhwal of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Kalimath Garhwal of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Chamoli Garhwal of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Rudraprayag Garhwal of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Tehri Garhwal of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Uttarkashi Garhwal of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Adibadri Garhwal of North Indian Early Middle Age l Asia  Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Shrinagar Garhwal of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Pauri Garhwal of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Lakhamandal Garhwal of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures inDehradun  Garhwal of North Indian Early Middle Age al Asia; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Beerbhadra Garhwal of North Indian Early Middle Age l Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Haridwar  of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Baijnath Kumaon  of North Indian Early Middle Age l Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Jageshwar Kumaon  of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Bageshwar Kumaon  of North Indian Early Middle Age  Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Pithoragarh Kumaon  of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Champawat Kumaon  of North Indian Early Medieval Asia epoch; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Nainital Kumaon  of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Almora Kumaon  of North Indian Early Medieval Asia Era; Salient Features of Katyuri Sculptures in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon  of North Indian Early Middle Age  Asia period

 

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