Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 176072 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Personality of Tehri Garhwal Queen Guleria
History of Administration by Tehri Queen Guleria – 5
  History of Tehri King Kriti Shah    5
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 178 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1424     
  By:   Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  Kirti Shah taking charge: - Kriti Shah too charge of the kingdom in 1891 after finishing education.  Kirti Shah was married with granddaughter of Nepal Prime Minster Jung Bahadur on 1st January 1892.
  Dowager Guleria handed over Kingdom to Kirti Shah on 17th March 1892.
          Life of Queen Guleria
 After Kirti Shah taking charge of Kingdom administration, queen Guleria spent her time in religious deeds. She was getting affixed amount monthly from Kingdom treasury. She used to donate money to poor women, scholars, . She used to donate fixed amount to many persons. She built temples as Badrinath, Rangnath, Ganga ji and Kedarnath in Tehri city below Purana darbar.
   Dowager Guleria also built a Dharmshala for tourists in Tehri city near those temples. Guleria used to pay temple expenses from her pocket money.
    There is praise for Gulria in sheet in Badrinath Temple Tehri.
 Kriti Shah went on Europe Tour in 1900 and queen Guleria took administration for that period. Narendra Shah (grandson of Guleria) went to London tour in 1924, she again too administration in her hand. (2)
   Therefore, it is clear that Guleria too Kingdom administration in her hand for three times. Queen Guleria died on 23rd August 1926 at the age of 70.
References
1-Dabral S.P, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 1 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 188 
2- Raturi, Harikrishna, Garhwal ka Itihas page 480
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Bhishma Kukreti

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General Administration of Tehri Kirti Shah -1
History of Tehri King Kriti Shah   - 6 
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 179 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1425     
  By:   Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  Kirti Shah took education in Bareli and Mayo School Ajmer. That means apart from getting book knowledge, Kirti Shah gained knowledge about happening outside of Tehri kingdom. Education outside of Kingdom made Kirti Shah broad minded. After taking charge of Kingdom at the age of 18, Kirti shah Kirti Shah took many projects in hand as agriculture and horticulture promotion , education promotion , medical facilitation and spiritual culture promotion  –
  Education Promotion:- Kirti Shah promoted primary school founded by his father Pratap Shah to high School in Tehri city. King Kirti Shah founded a Sanskrit school in Tehri. The state continued scholarship for students of Sanskrit school in Devprayag. As per Raturi, Tehri King Kirti Shah opened primary school in each Patti.  British government founded High School in Shrinagar.  Tehri King Kirti Shah built a hostel for that high School and donated Rs.13000 for the civil work.
   Queen Guleria was a visionary and due her endurances,  the Kinfamily members as Virendra Sahah , Shoorveer Singh and Yudhveer Singh (sons of Bichitra Shah ) could pass BA degree.
Kirti Shah Opening a Madrasa in Tehri:- Kirti Shah opened a Madrasa (Islamic primary school). There were 1500 Muslims in the kingdom, Most were bangle makers and bangle sellers. Those Muslims used to perform prayers of local deities as Nagraja, Narsingh etc. Initially, Scheduled caste children were also taking education in Madrasa. The Maulana of that Madrasa taught Garhwali Muslims not to perform prayers of local deities and they also did not allow scheduled cast children taking education in Maars as Scheduled caste children were Hindu. (Dabral, based on census report of UP of 1931).
1-Dabral S.P, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 1 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 189 
2- Raturi, Harikrishna, Garhwal ka Itihas page 481-82
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Couple of Progressive Projects by Kirti Shah

History of Tehri King Kriti Shah   - 7 
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 180 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1426   
 
  By:   Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

  Kirti Shah was a progressive and had experiences of city facilities to the people. Kirti shah took in hand many new projects and completed them.
Tehri King Kirti Shah establishing Tehri Municipal Corporation: -by the time, Kirti Shah took charge of Tehri Kingdom, Tehri was shaping towards township and it required local self-government for satisfying the need of the population.  Kirti Shah established Tehri Municipal Corporation for looking after the administration in the capital. The Tehri Municipal Corporation arranged better water supply and public utility light. Municipal Corporation established a separate division as Water works division in Tehri.
Kirti Shah built a guest house in the capital.  On the occasion of diamond Jubilee celebration of Queen Victoria Rule, Kirti Shah built a Clock tower in Tehri and opened it on 20th June 1897.(2)
 Kirti Shah established a bank as Bank of Garhwal in the capital.
 Repairing of Old Public roads:- Tehri King Kirti Shah reorganized the public works division and The new rejuvenated Public works department repaired roads  from Tehri to Rishikesh, Devprayag, Yamunotri, Gangotri ,Mussoorie, Pratap Nagar and Seem Mukhim, PWD also repaired many rope bridges. PWD also built a couple of guests’ houses and Dharmashalas.  (3) 
 Reorganizing Treasury administration:- Kirti Shah made changes in old rules of revenue department and improved them or made new rules for  accommodating  new needs. The King handed over the law and order administration and revenue collection to Patwari for each Patti
 King Kirti Shah established a school for training to Patwaris (3).
Kirti Shah made formal  laws for police department to follow. The Police was responsible for law and order situation in Tehri, devprayag, Pratapnagar, Uttarkashi, Gangotri and Jamunotri(1). 
References
1-Dabral S.P, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 1 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 190 
2- Raturi, Harikrishna, Garhwal ka Itihas page 110
3- Raturi, Harikrishna, Garhwal ka Itihas page 482
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Kirti Shah Reforming Judiciary and improving Healthcare system
History of Tehri King Kriti Shah   - 8
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 181 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1427     

  By:   Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

 Kirti Shah took many steps for improvement in judiciary.  Late King Pratap Shah built a Court building in past.  Kirti Shah established a chief Court or Supreme Court. When the citizens did not get satisfaction by decisions of lower court they used to apply Chief Court that was called as ‘Hajur Court’ too. The king used to hear the proceedings. King Kirti Shah used to give decision s too as per Hindu laws, as s per Garhwali customs and newer laws.(2).
  King Kirti Shah discarded old irrelevant laws too.  The fine was high at chief or ‘Hajur Court’ (1)
 Establishing new Hospitals
 At the time of Garhwal division, there were two hospitals in Yamunotri and Gangotri in Tehri region.
  Kirti Shah repaired the Pilgrim roads (Badrnath to Gangaotri ) and Roads from Rishikesh to angotri-Jamunotri. Kirti shah also opened hospitals on  those roads. (1)
References
1-Dabral S.P, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 1 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 190 
2- Raturi, Harikrishna, Garhwal ka Itihas page 110
3- Raturi, Harikrishna, Garhwal ka Itihas page 482
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Establishing Kushthashrama (Leprosy Hospital)
History of Tehri King Kriti Shah   - 9
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 182 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1428     
  By:   Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  Due to many reasons as excessive alcohol consumption, unhygienic life style and free * brought leprosy in Tehri Garhwal more than British Garhwal and Kumaon .Family members used to outcast Leprosy infected persons not only from family but from villages too. Leprosy infected people used to beg on the roads in pilgrim places as Rishikesh, Barahat (Uttarkashi) , Devprayag, Badkot, Tehri. They used to beg in groups.   (1)
King Kirti Shah was sensible about such social problems. King Kirti Shah opened a leprosy hospital in Uttarkashi as Kushthashrama where those infected persons e used to stay  and used to get medication too.
References
1-Dabral S.P, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 1 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 190 -191
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Bhishma Kukreti

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King Kirti Shah Reorganizing Public works department

History of Tehri King Kriti Shah   - 11
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 184 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1430     

  By:   Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

  Kirti Shah was a progressive person. King Kirti Shah had ability for recognizing the potentiality in a person.  Bhavani Datt Uniyal was teacher in Pratap Shah High School. Bhavani Datt Uniyal impressed the king in a formal gathering. King Kirti Shah appointed Bhavani Datt Uniyal as clerk in public works department. Later on Kirti Shah promoted Uniyal as Store Supernatant of PWD. Later on Kirti Shah appointed Bhavani Datta Uniyal as his Private Secretary (2).  Bhavani Datt used to be busy in various acts for the King.  King Kirti Shah used to dictate him the basic of the subject and Bhavani Datt used to prepare written order for Kirti Shah to sign.
 Kirti shah was impressed by the works of Bhavani Datt Shah and he mentioned it in his dairy too, (2).
References
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 1 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 190 -191
Bhakta Darshan (1952), published by Bhakta Darshan Lansdowne, page 187 (The book is available on Internet as free PDF)
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Kirti Shah establishing Garhwali Sappers, Founding Kirtinagar

History of Tehri King Kriti Shah   - 12
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 185 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1431 
   
  By:   Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

         Kirti Shah Establishing Army: British government established Garhwal rifle Brigade in Lansdowne. There was talk about bravery of Garhwali soldiers all over world due to their bravery.
 Kirti Shah established an Army brigade in Tehri as ‘Garhwali Sappers’.  The said organization helped in constructing public works department’s bridges etc. The said army brigade also helped British army (2).
     Kirti Shah establishing Kirti Nagar. ;-
Kirti shah founded a new township in Biloli village as ‘Kirti Nagar’ The place was /is opposite of Shrinagar Garhwal and near the village Maletha of Madho Singh Bhnadari.  Kirti Shah built a couple of public buildings there. (1)
 
References   
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 1 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 190 -193
Bhakta Darshan (1952), published by Bhakta Darshan Lansdowne, page 188 (The book is available on Internet as free PDF)
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Bhishma Kukreti

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King Kirti Shah honoring Scholars

History of Tehri King Kriti Shah   - 13
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 186 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1432     
 
  By:   Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

   Kirti Shah was well versed with English and Hindi.  He had knowledge of French and Sanskrit.  Tehri King Kirti Shah used to participate in religious rituals as satsanga, kirtn  or Conferences by Mahatmas
 King Kirti Shah established press in Tehri.  The press used to print government /official necessary subject.  Kirti Shah also started a fortnightly newspaper as ‘Riyasat Tihri Garhwal Darbar Gazette. The cost of gazette was Rs. 2 annual.
 Tehri King Kirti Shah was famous for honouring and sheltering scholars (1).
Hari Krishna Raturi- Hari Krishna Raturi was a brilliant scholar. He gained high position and was guardian of prince Kirti Shah when the prince was studying.  Harikrishna Raturi prepared a book Garhwal ka Itihas (history of Garhwal) in Hindi. Tehri king Kirti Shah arranged English version publication of the book from London. Before the book could take shape, Kirti Shah died.  Harikrishna Raturi lost his Hindi manuscript too. Harikrishna Raturi wrote again the book and published it in 1928 from Garhwali press Dehradun .  Harikrishna Raturi published a book ‘Narendra Hindu law” in 1917 and  that book worked as the  constitution for judiciary in Tehri Riyast.  In 1910, Hari Krishna Raturi published a book Garhwal Varnan .  Raturi expired in June 1933 (2)
Diwkar Sharma – Diwkar sharam was teacher in Pratap High school Tehri. Diwkar Sharma had interest in History especially Garhwal History.  Harikrihana Raturi used his collection about Garhwal history in his Book ‘Garhwal ka Itihas’. (1).
 Badri Datt Sharma Pandey- Badri Datt Sharma belonged to  Pandey family of Kumaon . His ancestors established in Tehri from Kumaon. Badri Datt Sharma was Sanskrit teacher and was famous  Mantric –Tantric too.  He was Sanskrit teacher in Sanskrit school in capital. Later on,  his son Haranand  ‘ Magna Pundit became famous tantric- Mantric too.
 Harikrishna Daurgidatta Rudola - Harikrishna Daurgidatta Rudola was born in Shrinagar. In 1855. His father Durga Datta t was famous scholar of astrology, Karmakanda and mantras.
 The Queen Guleria appointed learned Harikrishna Daurgadatti   Rudola as teacher in Pratap High School Tehri.  Harikrishna Daurgadatti was brilliant poet of Sanskrit, Hindi (Braj) and Garhwali.  Harikrishna Daurgadatti Rudola created epics and long poetries in Sanskrit. Maxmular appreciated his poetries. He also published Garhwali poetries in Garhwali magazine. (1) .Dr. Prem Datt Chamoli analysed and appreciated his Sanskrit works in ‘Sanskrit Sahitya ko Garhwal ki den’.


References   
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 1 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 190 -193
2-Garhwali Patrika Dated 11.6 1933 (from Garhwali press Dehradun )
3- Bhakta Darshan (1952), published by Bhakta Darshan Lansdowne, page 188 (The book is available on Internet as free PDF)
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Bhishma Kukreti

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         Tehri King Kirti Shah invented Hindi Key Board for Type Writer


History of Tehri King Kriti Shah   - 13
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 186 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1432     

  By:   Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

  Kirti Shah was multi talented and multi hobbies person. He used to take keen interest in technical aspect as in electricity, type writing and many more.  He had good collection of telescopes in his collection. He produced search light and bioscope himself. Kirti shah used to repair himself the electric wires and appliances himself.
 He used to take great interest in Typing and was frustrated that there was no Hindi type writer. According to philosopher, writer, freedom fighter, ex-Central Minister Bhakta Darshan,  the progressive Tehri King invented Hindi Typewriter first and tried many times. Later on Kirti Shah sold the right of Hindi Typewriter to Remington Rad Company. (2)
Hindi language lovers will always remember great king Kirti Shah for his invention of Hindi Typewriter
Great Historian Shiv Prasad Dabral praised the great acts by   Kirti Shah for inventing Hindi Type Writer first time in Typewriter History (1)
It is  great proud for  all Garhwalis  that King  Kirti  Shah invented Devnagari (Hindi)  Typewriter,
References   
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 1 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 195
2-- Bhakta Darshan (1952), published by Bhakta Darshan Lansdowne, page 190 (The book is available on Internet as free PDF)
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 Kirti Shah Tehri King: the great inventor of Hindi Typewriter; Kirti Shah   A Himalayan King: the great inventor of Hindi Typewriter; Kirti Shah   A Garhwali King: the great inventor of Hindi Typewriter; Kirti Shah   A North Indian King: the great inventor of Hindi Typewriter; Kirti Shah   A progressive King: the great inventor of Hindi Typewriter; A progressive Asian king Kirti Shah the inventor of Hindi typewriter

Bhishma Kukreti

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Sarva Dharma Sammelan Conference in Tehri
History of Tehri King Kriti Shah   - 15
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 188 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1434       
  By:   Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 King Kirti Shah was follower of Sanatan Panth . However, he honoured every religion and sect. Kirti Shah was keen in understanding the principles of all religions. Once, he caaled aconference of all religious pundits and representatives that is - islamik , sikh , sanatan , jain , Arya Samaj etc scholars attended the conference. Those scholars spoke about their religious principles.   The king  offered them a gift and honoured the,
References   
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 1 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 194
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