Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 176079 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Marriage of Narendra Shah
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -7
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 199   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1446       
  By:   Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 Narendra Shah was studying in Mayo College Ajmer when he married .  At the age of 18, he was married. Sanrakshan Samiti decided that Narendra Shah should be married. Narendra Shah was married to Kamlendumati and Indumati (both the princesses of Vijay en the king of Kyunthal, Himachal) on 2nd February 1916 (1).

References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 7   
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Planning for land Settlement
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -8
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 200 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1447
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
       There was land settlement in the time of Pratap Shahs from 1873-1875. The land settlement process was based on Jyula Paimaish or Najar Andaj (based on guessing 0n whatever is seen basis) Paimash (2) .
Khannu Bhnadari of Hinvadav and Baijram Gairola of Daldhung of Badnar were the convenors of Land Settlement.  The land settlement was based on past tributes (cash, goat, Pithayi, ghee, grains etc) from the village that tributes were converted into amount and the amount was then distributed to  families. (2).
 There had been increase in the farm land .Sanrakshan Samiti decided to plan land settlement in Tihri  Kingdom (3).
   
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 7   
2- Daurgaudatti Narendravanshakavya page 53
3-Settlement Report Uttarkashi p 13 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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 Appointment of Jodh Singh Negi as Land Settlement in Charge
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -9
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 201 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1448
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
   Sanrakshan Samiti Tihri Kingdom requested the United Province (UP) Government for deputing Jodh Singh Negi for executing land Settlement jobs in Tehri Garhwal.  U.P. Government agreed and deputed Jodh Singh Negi as Land Settlement In Charge in Tehri Garhwal. (1)
   Past Experience of land settlement by Jodh Singh Negi in British Garhwal –
  Jodh Singh Negi had a long experience of land settlement in British Garhwal. In 1880’s settlement, Jodh Singh Negi was assistant of Deputy Collector Dharma Nand Joshi. In 1886’s Kumaon land settlement, Jodh Singh was assistant to chief Land Settlement In Charge.  Later on, British Government promoted Jodh Singh Negi as Supervisor of Amins. When the Kumaon land settlement was completed in 1902, the Government promoted Jodh Singh as Tehsildar of Tarai Bhabhar region.  That means, Jodh Singh had long experience of Land Settlement (2 and 1) .
                   Sada Nand Kukreti as assisting In Charge of Land Settlement
   When Jodh Singh Negi reached to Capital Tehri in 1917, Sanrakshan Samiti appointed him In charge of Land Settlement and Revenue member. Sanrakshan Samiti gave free hand to Jodh Singh for appointing competent assistants.  Sada Nand Kukreti had a good reputable name in Pauri Garhwal as editor of Vishal Kirti in Pauri city. He was honest and a man of strong character.  Sada Nand Kukreti used to support the common men and used to criticise administration.  Local administration never liked the writing of Sada Nand  Kukreti and his courageous behaviour.  Jodh Singh Negi appointed Sada Nand Kukreti as his chief deputy for land settlement. Sada Nand Kukreti worked in Tehri as Deputy of Land settlement in charge for four years. .  Sada Nand Kukreti used to fret from the word ‘Rishvat’ or bribe’. The Land Settlement staff were always fearful about ‘the fret for bribe ‘by Sada Nand Kukreti. Even then, the land settlement staff used to take bribe. Sada Nand Kukreti never took bribes in his life. Later on Sada Nand Kukreti founded Silogi School (2)
   Amar Singh Rawat and Ram Prasad Dobhal –
  Jodh Singh Negi appointed another deputy for him. His name was Amar Singh Rawat. Amar Singh Rawat had a  hobby inventing something rom common products. Jodh Singh Negi appointed ram Prasad Dobhal as in charge of recording/documenting the matters of land settlement.
  Jodh Singh worked as a settlement  in charge up to 23rd march 1920. Jodh Singh Negi worked very hard and with competency. There were disputed among the members of Sanrakshan Samiti.  In 1919, When Narendra Shah took the real charge for administration, the members complained about Jodh Singh. There was  fierce dispute between Jodh Singh Negi and Diwan Bhavani Datt Uniyal that Jodh Singh had to leave Tehri.  Hari Krishna Raturi took ove the position of Land Settlement in charge in place of Jodh Singh Negi. Later on , Mahan and Raturi took over the charge from  Hari Krishna Raturi . Ram Prasad Dobhal had been officer for recording and documentation of the land settlement department  .
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 9
2- Bhakta Darshan , Garhwal Ki Divangat Vibhutiyan page 387
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Dori Paimash /land measurement by Rope  in Land settlement
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -9
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 201 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1448
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
    The methods used in land settlement by Jodh Singh Negi were appreciated. The Jodh Singh Negi method of land settlement is called ‘Dori Paimash’ or measurement of land by rope. In this method, the farm was considered one unit. Hari Krishna Raturi and Maha Nand Raturi followed the land settlement method of Jodh Singh Negi. (1)
 The farm was measured by rope and then the area was calculated (length X width). The measurement was done of only those farms that were being utilized for farming. Then the maps were prepared (2). There was a separate register for each village that was called ‘Sarhad bandi Register’ or boundary demarcation register.
  Definitely the method had flows but it was better than past land settlement methods. This was the first settlement where the field was one unit.
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 9
2-Settlement Report Uttarkashi p 13
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Troublesome days for Citizens in Land Settlement Period
Land settlement in Tehri Garhwal Kingdom – 3
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -12
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 204 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1451
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
    The people of Tehri Kingdom faced many difficulties from government official sides in Land Settlement period. That was also a period of great famine. People were finding difficulties in getting food for a time and on those days, whenever land Settlement officials used to visit the villages they used to create trouble for the villagers.  The dozens of land settlement workers used to call Patwari (area Revenue officer) for arranging rice, flour, milk ghee, tea, spices , salt etc. from that village where settlement work was being done .  Patwari used to order Padhan (Village Chief) for levying all the items from each village families. Dozens of such workers used to stay  in the village for dozen days and each day the villagers had to supply the items for settlement workers (2) . Usually another batch of officials used to come after first batch leaving and  at the last higher officials used to visit the village. Usually, villagers had to supply 200 -3300 kilo grams rice and floor and same way other items for land settlement workers and those nasty officers used to a rupee or  four to Padhan . It was just a big exploitation from the government official’s sides. Those officials used to charge their daily allowances s from government too. The bribery was common and bribery fees  from each farmers as Najrana (gift), Dakhil Kharij or dakhil (Entry in register  fees) was common bribery and was a accepted norms (this , still exists today) . (2) . 

References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 10
2- Karmabhumi, Kotdwara, 1st January 1947 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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British Administrator Exiling Raghvendra Rao
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -13
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 205 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1452
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  Ghana Nand Khanduri earned money from forest contracts and he spent money on social welfare too. Ghana Nand Khnaduri had opened   Schools in Uttarkashi in the name of Kirti Shah as ‘Kirti Sanskrit Pathshala’ and Kirti Kanya Pathshala. 
        Ghana Nand appointed Raghvendra Rao a Mahrashrian scholar as Principal of Sanskrit Pathshala. Raghvendra Rao administrated Pathshala well. Raghvendra Rao was a nationalist and he started promoting national and Khadi concepts among nearby villages.  People complained to Shamiyar , the chairman of Sanrakshan Samiti  and Shamiyar   called Rao in Tehri from Uttarkashi.  When Rao Sanrakshan Samiti Chairman, Rao impressed Shamiyar with his sound and profound knowledge .  Chairman of Sanrakshan Samiti Shaimiyar order Rao  to leave g Tehri Riyasat immediately. Rao as a Raghvendra baba started promoting national movement in plains. (2)
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 10
2- Bhakta Darshan  Garhwal Ki Divangat Vibhutiyan pp 387   
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Tibet Boundary Settlement
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -15
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 207   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1454
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

 Tibet Boundary with Garhwal had been always a disputable matter. Even today, it did not end. 
A few Jad families from Bushehar Himachal settled in Harsil, Nelang =Jad –Naga vallyes.   That community was trader community and used to do trading of selling Tibetan products  (Wool, salt , borax, gold dust etc.)  to Indian traders in Haridwar, Dehradun and Saharanpur and used to sell Indian products  to Tibetan markets as Pulling, Tholing and Daba . Those jad traders used to bring Tibetan products from Daba etc. to their villages in Jad- Nelang- Harsil valleys . And they used to sell the same in Indian plains etc. in winter season (1).
In Gorkhali period , there was hurdle in trading I those valleys. By the time Sudrashan Shah took charge of Tehri ,there arose some disputes on the border lines between Tehri and Tibet. Sudarshan Shah sent a deputation to Chhaprang in Tibet. Then the Tibetan government did not respond on settling border issue with Tehri Garhwal Kingdom.  Tibetan government gave an excuse that the Tibetan government would take advice from Chinese government and alter on would respond back to Tehri   King (2).
 The Tibet Government again raised the border dispute as Today Chine does time to time. Tehri Administration in charge Sanrakshan Samiti felt the need  of settling  the border issue with Tibet.  Samiti sent Ghana Nand Khanduri to Tibet. Ghana Nand Khanduri toured Tibet on his expence and settled the issue satisfactory(2).
     Establishing Dunda Village for Jad and Nelang valley inhabitants-
 Nelang –Jad –Harsil valley propel had to face stiff problem of  living in Jad-Nelang- Harsil valley in sharp winter season . With the efforts of contractor Ghana Nand Khanduri , Tehri  administration accepted  to offer a place for thse Jad – people to stay in Dunda in winter (gunsa - as winter camp) (3)
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 12
2- Bhakta Darshan, 1952 Garhwal ki Divangat Vibhutiyan , Bhatkadarshan Dehradun page 212
3- Bhakta Darshan, 1952 Garhwal ki Divangat Vibhutiyan , Bhatkadarshan Dehradun page 213
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Publication of Narendra Hindu Law
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -16
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 208   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1455
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 Sanrakshan Samiti chairman Myur came to know that there is no uniform law 9written) for judges and judges or Padhan etc. had been  giving judgement by customary social laws or by whims.
 By inspiration of Myur, Hari Krishna Raturi (Second in command member of Sanrakshan Samiti) wrote a Hindu Code law book in the name of Narendra Hindu Law. Hari Krishna Raturi had vast knowledge of judiciary system and social norms in Garhwal. Tehri Riyasat published the book ‘Narendra Hindu Law’ on 23rd August 1917. The book was  having details but Raturi used heavy Persian and Urdu language in Devnagari script  . Common people did not understand the language (1).
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 14
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Bhishma Kukreti

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British Government Appreciating Sanrakshan Samiti  and Citizens Criticizing

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -17
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 209   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1456

By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

 Kumaon Commissioner and other officers appreciated works by Sanrakshan Samiti.  In Samiti period, more than one thousand, youth joined British –Indian army. The expenditure on those soldiers in war time  for Rs. 3, 80, 000 was born by Tehri Kingdom. Tehri Government paid for Rs. 7500  expenditure for ambulance services to British government. Tehri government paid for Rs. 200 per soldier, per month the expenditure on injured soldiers (2)
 Apart from above expenditure, Tehri government paid Rs. 1, 50, 000 to British Government as war debt.   Tehri people also contributed Rs. 7500 in war welfare.
 British Government wanted to reward Diwan Bhavani Datt Uniyal for Ray Bahadur, Uniyal refused to take the award and requested to offer award to king Narendra Shah. (2)
 Sanrakshan Samiti took all actions to please British Government but did not correct the bad administration of own officials. 
-------Citizens Criticizing Sanrakshan Samiti –
The British officers came on deputation were totally failure on stopping administrators harassing citizens. So was Sanrakshan Samiti.
 There was a public meeting in Tehri on 25th September 1918. Young Chandra Mohan Raturi (came her after passing LLB first year from Allahabad) was presiding the meet. Chandra Mohan Raturi criticized Sanrakshan Samiti from left and right and requested British government for handing over the administration to Narendra Shah from Sanrakshan Samiti.  Meeting passed a resolution of requesting British to hand over administration to Narendra Shah. The copies of resolution were sent to British high authorities. Sanrakshan Samiti warned Chandra Mohan Raturi. Chandra Mohan Raturi went to Kathmandu with his brother. Chandra Mohan Raturi returned Tehri after Narendra Shah took the kingdom charge.
  Many elites as Ghana Nand  Khanduri were perusing the matter that Narendra Shah should take charge. Narendra Shah took Kingdom charge in 1919 (3)
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 14
2-Daurgaditi , Narendravanshakavya p 165
3-Bhakta Darshan , Garhwal ki  Divangat Bibhitiyan p 197
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Narendra Shah Taking Charge of Kingdom administration

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -18
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 210   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1457

By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

 Sanrakshan Samiti led by Myur handed over the Kingdom Charge to the King Narendra Shah on 4th October 1919.  British Indian government political agent Windham attended the Charging ceremony.  Windham announced the government message and presented the British Government’s honorary position lieutenant medal to Narendra Shah.  (1).  Most people felt  happiness for Narendra Shah getting an honorary position from British Government. After getting information of Narendra Shah taking charge Chandra Mohan Raturi and other personalities, those who went on exile in Sanrakshan Samiti’s administration returned to Tehri. Narendra Shah ruled long after Sudarshan Shah who ruled Tehri the longest period.  Narendra Shah did not complete many projects for those he planned because Narendra Shah spent most of his time touring foreign countries and other Indian Kingdoms.
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 14
2-Bhakta Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangat Bibhitiyan
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