Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 174578 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Narendra Shah appointing Bhavani Datt Uniyal as Diwan and problems of Kuli Begar

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -19
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 211   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1458

By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

    Narendra Shah appointed Bhavani Datt Uniyal as Diwan .Uniyal had been personal secretary of Kirti Shah and secretary of Sanrakhsan Samiti..  Bhavani Datt Uniyal worked as Diwan of Tehri Kingdom up to 1923. 
             Kuli Begar in Tehri Garhwal
 Kuli Begar was tradition that villagers had to bear the expenses and arrange transportation of goods of government officers visiting the village. Villagers had to arrange loaders and food , shelter for the officers. Kuli Begar tradition was a tradition from the Shah Administration and Chand administration. British official kept the tradition alive. In Tehri , the villagers had to face Kuli Begar  for European men coming for private visits as hunting etc.  The villagers had to arrange transportation of officers and Europeans but also arrange for their food, milk, ghee  and fodder for horses of  officers too.
  British officials stopping Kuli Begar in Pauri Garhwal
 British Government stopped Kuli Begar from 1921 .
There was restlessness among citizens of Tehri Garhwal for stopping Kuli Begar.
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 14
2-Bhakta Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangat Bibhitiyan
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Abolition of Kuli Begar and New transport management in Narendra Shah period

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -20
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 212     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1459

By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

      Abolition of Kuli Begar in Tehri Garhwal:
  Inspired from British government abolishing Kuli Begar ( free loaders and free food from villager sides for Officers visiting village) system, Narendra  Shah announced abolishing Kuli Begar custom in Tehri Kingdom too in 1921. However, the Kuli Begar continued in Tehri till the death of Narendra shah. Patwaris were forcing villagers for offering free loading, lodging and boarding for government officers visiting the villages (2). Tehri Government published abolition of Kuli Begar in Tehri Gazette on 13th October 1941 only.
 Creating Transport department –
 Narendra Shah created Transport department.   The new construction works started from Pratap Shah Time and increased in Kirti Shah and Narendra Shah period.  For new construction works, there was need of mules for transporting iron rods, tin plates, cement and other house or construction materials from one place to others. Tehri kingdom used to hire labour and mules, horses. Pratap Shah and Kirti Shah paid attention for raising mules and horses for such works. Narendra Shah fixed daily wages for labours, mules - horses and reinforces new management for Transportation. Narendra Shah also arranged transport management for road repairing and new motor roads construction. (3)
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 19
2-Karmabhumi Kotdwara, 15-3-1942
3- Daurgadatti , Narendravanshkavyam p 183 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Narendra Shah establishing new Town Narendra Nagar

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -21
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 213     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1460 
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  King Narendra had ample assets to spend as compared to his predecessors. Narendra Shah decided for establishing a new Township where modern amenities and facilities would be  available as Motor road, new modern houses, electricity  etc.  There were towns as Tehri, Pratap Nagar, Kirti Nagar but it was difficult to construct motor road. Narendra Shah recognized Urhthali place for developing new Township in .Urhthali. Urhthali was just ten miles away from Rishikesh   and it was easy for constructing motor road from Rishikesh to Urhthali having height of 5000 feet. He named the town on his own name Narendra Nagar.   The work for new township development started from 1921 and continued for ten years (1).
 Narendra Shah started Sahashtra Chandi Path a ritual performance in November 1921 as starting ritual for establishing Narendra Nagar.  Jaya Datt Daurgadatti was chief priests for the ritual. Narendra Shah invited  many well acknowledged Karmakandi Brahmins from both the Garhwal for  Chandi Sahashtra Path .Daurgadatti mentioned following priests attending the Chandi  Path and following priests performed the ritual of Chandi i path –
Harinanad Ghildiyal, Sadanand Nautiyal, Kashivisheshwar Ghiliyal, Jagannath Pant, Medniidhar Dangwal,  Bhola Datt Shastri, Satya Prasad Bahuguna,  Medhakar Maithani, Govindram Uniyal, Visheshwarnanad Pande, vamdev Ghildiyal, Lalita Prasad Uniyal, Janhavi Prasad, Siddha Nand , Radhalrishna Maithani, Narayan Datt, Kishor Chnadra , Yongendra Krishna Daurgidatta , Mitra Nand pant, Gangaram naithani (2).  Duputy Collector Bhairav Datt Painyuli and Shriram Painyuli were chief managers.
 In 1924, Narendra Shah returned from England tour and he performed home entry ritual for New palace and from that day, King and King family members started living in the palace. The construction of secretirate and other government buildings work continued till 13th January September1942. The work of Holy Hospital in Narendra Nagar was completed by 1925. There were shops,  houses for government employees  wre also built in Narendra Nagar.  The total expenses was Rs, 30 lakhs  for establishing  the new township. (2) 
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 19
2- Daurgadatti , Narendravanshkavyam p 214-215 
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Motor Road Construction from Rishikesh to Narendra Nagar
H
istory of Tehri King Narendra Shah -22
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 214     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1461 
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
     For establishing a new town, it was essential that there was motor road for carrying heavy materials for constructing new building s and other infrastructures.  The road construction work started from 1921. The non-motor road widening work also started from Tehri to Rishikesh.  The villagers were engaged in construction of  the both the roads without any wages.  For dangerous works, outsider labour was called on payment.  Ultimately, common people were benefited by roads.

References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 19
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Judiciary and Banking Reforms by Narendra Shah

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -23
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 215     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1462 

By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

  Narendra Shah establishing Panchayat Raj (Village Councils)  -  Narendra Shah  experimented on reforming judiciary system  by establishing Panchayat raj in Chauras and Bhardar regions. The Sarpanch were Jaykrishna Daurgadatti and Singh Bartwal. Later on Narendra Saha established Panchayat in other parts of the Kingdom too. Those Panchayats were established for to look after small judiciary cases that small cases are settled at village level. The council heads were elites of villages and senior citizens.  Narendra Shah fixed budget for Panchayat Raj for  Rs. One lakh in 1936 (1,  based on paper available in Dyundi’s collection).
 Narendra Shah establishing Krishi Bank-   Money landers had been exploiting the farmers for centuries. In 1920, Narendra Shah established a Krishi Bank for offering loan and other services to farmers that they were free from money landers (1).
 Hajoor Court – There was High court of Hajoor court in the capital Tehri. However, kings did not attend the court. From 1920, Narendra Shah started attending Hajoor Court from 1922 (Dyundi. 1).  There was a chief court too in the capital and followingwere the judged of Chief Court (2) –
 Maheshanand Painyuli
Narayan Datt  Raturi
Sureshanand Nautiya
  For quick decision of judicial pleases, Narendra Shah divided Tehri Garhwal into six circles and each circle was headed by following regional judged-
 Tehri circle- Ummadatt Dangwal
Orathali ------ Bhairav Datt Painyuli
Ravayi --- Munshi Karim Khan
Barahat ----------- Nagdatt Raturi
Devprayag – Ramanand Uniyal
Kirti Nagar – Prahlad Das Bahukhnadi 



References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 20
2- Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) p 21
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Narendra Shah Promoting Education

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -24 
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 216     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1463

By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

   King Narendra Shah tok interest in promoting education in the princely state Tehri Garhwal.
The Sanrakshan Samiti started taking fees in Pratap High School from students. King Narendra Shah stopped taking fees from students. King Narendra Shah added a few primary schools . There were total 60 primary schools in Tehri at the time of Narendra Shah (1)
Narendra Shah also started scholarship trust for students in 1920. Dozens of students from the state were benefited taking graduating studies by help of scholarship.   A few students got education in Europe    by getting scholarship from education trust (1).
  King Narendra Shah also helped the students of British Garhwal.  In 1921, Narendra Shah donated for Rs. 4000 to Lansdowne school and Rs. 3000 to Karna Prayag school. In 1926, Narendra Shah sent Kundan Singh Gusain to England for getting Ph.D. degree (2)
 In 1934, The King donated Rs. One lakh to Banaras University and promised to give Rs. 6000 per year. Madan Mohan Malviya established ‘Sir Kirti Shah Chair of Industrial Chemistry’ for offering scholarship to chemistry students. (1)
  The King opened a public library in Tehri in 1923. In 1938, Maharaja Narendra Shah established a carpentry school in Tehri.  In 1940, the Pratap High School was upgraded up to Inter College. In 1942 , Narendra Shah opened a girls school  in Tehri and the Maharaja inaugurated the school on 20th August 1942.
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 21
2- Garhwali , 24th September 1926
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Narendra Shah caring public health and Census 

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -25
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 217     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1464

By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

     There were hospitals in Tehri , Devprayag, Rajgarhi, and Uttarkashi. Maharaja Narendra Shah increased the facilities by installing tools and machines and space. Narendra Shah established a hospital in Narendra Nagar.  The King opend a couple of Ayurvdic hospitals in Tehri Garhwal (2)
      There was mass counting (Census) in 1921 all over India. There was census in Tehri too. Deputy Collector Uma Datt Dangwal was in charge of Census of 1921 in Tehri Garhwal. The population of Tehri Garhwal in 1921 was found 3, 18,482 as against Census 19of 11 -3,00725.  (1)
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 22
2- Bhakta Darshan, 1952, Garhwal ki Divangat Vibhutiyan p320
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Forest Management in Narendra Shah Period

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -26
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 218     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1465
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  Forest department was cash cow . Narendra Shah paid maximum attention on Forest management.  Narendra Shah sent a couple of young men to Forest research Institute Dehradun for studying Forest management and later on appointed them in Tehri state Forest department.  Narendra Shah also sent young men to France and Germany for high education in Forest Management. Narendra Shah called a German forest expert Husky for preparing projects (2). By those efforts, officials also started taking interest in improving forest management. Narendra Shah sent a MSc passed boy Padma Datt Raturi to England for further studies on Forest conservation. Padma Datt Raturi returned in India on 18th July 1926. Narendra Shah appointed Padma Datt Raturi as head of Forest department.
 Getting back Thadiyar forests- Thadiyar (Ravain)  forest were dense Cedar forests and were spread in many square kilo metres. The region was potential cash cow .British too that region on lease in Bhavani Shah period.  By efforts of Diwan Bhavani Datt, Tehri Riyasat got back those renges of forests back and the deal  fetched good income for Riyasat.
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 22
2-Bhakta Darshan , Garhwal ki Divangat Vibhutiyan p 329
3- Garhwali , 24th July 1926
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Segregation of Old Records
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -27
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 219     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1466
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
   Segregation of Official Record papers-
 There were piles of files lying  in Record room of Tehri Riyasat from Sudarshan Shah Period.  Narendra Shah ordered to segregate those files and destroy worthless files (2). Care was not taken properly and many important records were also destroyed forever.
 
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 22, 23
2-Daurgadatti , Narendrakavyavansham p 200 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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King Narendra getting honours from various organizations
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -28
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 220     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1467
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  King Narendra Shah got honours from various organizations (1) .
  King Narendra Shah was honoured by British government by offering him honorary position of offered when he was student. In 1929, Narendra Shah was honoured as major by the British government. In 1931 British government offered him position of Sir and KCSI. He was decorated as Maharaja position. In 1921, he was honoured as CIE by British government .
  Bharat Dharma Mandal honoured him by Dharam Rakshak –Shiromani and Dharmavaibhav . In 1937, Banaras University honoured King Narendra Shah by the honorary degree of L.L.D. In 1937, Garhwal Rifle honoured him by honorary position of Lieutenant Colone.

References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 22
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