Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 176083 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Sher-E-Hind and Shahid –E-Bharta of Garhwal
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -47 
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 240     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1487
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  Indian National Army appointed Captain Pitrisharan Raturi of 5/18 Garhwal rifle as Lieutenant Colonel of Subhash brigade in INA. L. Colonel Pitrisharan Raturi showed great bravery in the Arakan battle.  Subhash Chandra Bose presented ‘Sher –E- Hind’ Award to l. Colonel Pitrishran Raturi himself. Later on Raturi was transferred to personnel staff of Subhash Chandra Bose.(2)
Subedar major Padma Singh Gusain of 5/18 Battalion of Garhwal rifle was promoted as major in 3rd Battalion of Subhash Regiment. The Third Battalion reached Assam through Burma. However, the battalion did not receive battle materials. The battalion had to return from Assam.  On 27th may 1945, the battalion marched to meet Subhash Chandra  Bose in Bangkok.  However, Padma Singh Gusain died in the way . Padma Singh Gusain was awarded ‘Shahid ‘E –Bharat’ after death  (2)
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  57-58
2-Bhakta Darshan, 1956, An article , Karmabhumi 26th January 1956 issue
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Bravery by martyred Gyan Singh Bisht
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -48
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 241     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1488
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 Havldar Gyan Singh Bisht of Garhwal Rifle was appointed as Second Lieutenant in INA.  INA handed ove him to head on with British Army in Irwadi front. In that front, on 17th March 1945, there was Taugzin place where ,Second Lieutenant  Gyan Singh had only 18 soldiers for attacking a well-equipped  British army .  As per Major General Shahnawaz, Gyan Singh Bisht concluded that his army could not attack with their rifles to British army equipped with Machine Guns, hand grenades, automatic guns. Bisht was aware that if his troops sit into trenches, British army could  kill or catch them. By all means, there was defeat for the INA force.  Commander Gyan Singh ordered his force to attack with aggression on British army as in any case, death was there for INA soldiers.  Shouting ‘Neta Ji Jindabad, ‘Inqualab Jindabad’ led by Gyan Singh Bish t, INA army soldiers attacked on British army .There was a struggle for two hours.  British force had to go back, However, Gyan Singh Bisht got gun fire on his head and he martyred there only.
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  57-58
2-Bhakta Darshan, 1956, An article , Karmabhumi 26th January 1956 issue
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Self-Immolation of Mahendra Singh Bagri and other soldiers
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -49
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 242     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1489
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
References
 Subedar Mahendra Singh Bagri of 2/18 Garhwal Rifle was appointed as Captain in Indian National Army. Mahendra Singh Bagri was made Commanding in charge of  3rd   battalion of second infantry regiment. On 22nd April 1945, when the Battalion of   Mahendra Singh was returning aback from Popa ( in Burma) , British tanks surrounded the battalion . The battalion led by Mahendra Singh Bagri did not have weapons and strength for defending the tanks. They had options for self-immolation or surrendering. Mahendra Singh army choose the self-immolation. The sliders of Brigade led by Mahendra Singh Bagri tied hand grenade nad petrol bottle on their chest and attacked on the tankers of British army. Those brave soldiers destroyed many tanks. The soldiers including Bagri did self-immolation bur destroyed enemy’s tanks. Shah Nawaz Khan appreciated the bravery of Mahendra Singh Bagri and his soldiers and cited Mahendra Singh Bagri him as  ‘The Bravest Soldier’ of INA.  (2)
 When the World War ended and when INA soldiers returned to Garhwal , people welcomed INA soldiers with high zeal.
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  57-58
2- History and Culture of  Indian People vol. 11 p 684 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Praja Mandal: A Social Awakening Organization

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -50
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 243     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1490
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
     Indian princely State Kings   took various steps for offering various facilities to the people in the field of education, health, transportation, employment, electrification etc. Narendra Shah took a few  steps for improving the lifestyles of Tehri Garhwal. However, as compared to British Garhwal and Dehradun, the situation in Tehri was dim. For awakening people for understanding their rights and as a pressure group people founded ‘Rajya Praja Mandal). Since it was dangerous for organize against the king , the Tehri people founded  branches of Praja Mandal outside the Kingdom. 
In Dehradun, people founded the branch of Praja Mandal on 23rd January 1939 . The first election of Praja Mandal administration Committee was held on 23rd April 1939. (2).
 By that time, there were branches of Tehri migrants in Delhi, Lahore, and Mussoorie too. The Tehri branch passed a resolution ‘Registration of Association’ for keeping control on activities of other branches. The Dehradun Branch of Praja Mandal became the central Branch.
Shankar Datt Dobhal the General Secretary of Praja Mandal Dehradun started sending demand to newspapers etc. for improvement in Tehri. Following three demands were from Praja Mandal Dehradun (2)-
Abolishing Puani Pithayi tax
Stopping Bara Begar 
And accountable governance in Tehri Garhwal
 
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  60
2- Karmabhumi 30 November 1939   
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Shridev Suman as active member of Prajamandal
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -51
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 244     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1491
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 Shridev Suman took membership of Prajamandal Dehradun in 1939.  Before Shridev Suman entered into Prajamandal organization, outside of Tehri, the organisation used to pass suggestive resolutions for Tehri Garhwal region. Suman revitalized the organization.
           Early days of Shridev Suman
    Shridev Suman was born in Jaul village of Bumund Patti of  Tehri Garhwal on 15th may 1916.  His name was Shridatta Badoni.   His father’s name was Hariram Badoni who was a farmer and Ayurveda doctor. Shridatta Badoni had two elder brothers and a n younger sister . His father Hariram Badoni worked hard in the Cholera epidemic of 1919 for saving the patients .Hariram used to travel here and there from one village to another village. In that epidemic Hariram died. By serving people.  At That time, the age of his eldest brother was 9 , the age of Shridatta was 3 and the age of younger sister was 1 . His mother Tradevi did hard work raising the children and paid attention to their education.
  Shridev Suman (Shridatta)  did primary education from Tehri Garhwal. Shridatta went to Dehradun for further studies and took admission in Sanatan School.  Shridatta Badoni went to Lahore and Delhi for education. 
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  60
2- Karmabhumi 30 November 1939   
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Shridev Suman Coming in Contacts with Nationalists

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -52
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 245     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1492
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 After reaching Delhi, Suman came in contact with Bhai ParmaNand. Bhai ParmaNand offered Suman the post of librarian (stipend Rs.10 per month) and offered a room to live in Hindu Mahasabha library.  Matiram Bhatt and Mahidhar Prasad Barthwal founded an organization Garhdesh Seva Sangh for migrant Garhwalis. The office of Garhdesh Seva Sangh was in the residence of Matiram Bhatt at Ibbotson Road.  Matiram Bhatt was working with the central government as peon and Mahidhar was working with a German Insurance company. Garhwalis used to meet at the residence of Matiram for discuss the social causes of Garhwal.   Shridev Suman came in contact with Matiram Bhatt and started taking keen interest in Garhdesh Seva Sangh.
While working with Garhdesh Sangh, Suman came in contact with Dr. Zakir Husain and Kaka Kalekar. In Wardha, Suman came in contact with Purushottam Das Tandon. In 1937, in a  Hindi literature conference at Shimla , Suman met many literature creators. In 1938, Suman married Vijay Lakshmi . Suman arranged for her education initially , in Wardha Mahilashram and then later on at Kankhal. (2)
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  61
2- Bhakta Darshan , Suman Smriti Granth p 88 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Shridev Suman attending Shrinagar Political Conference

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -53
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 246     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1493
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 There was a political conference of Uttarakhandi elites in Shrinagar Garhwal on 5th and 6th May 1938. Pratap Singh Negi was the president of the political conference. The Conference organizers invited Nehru, Vijay Lakshmi Pundit and Hathi Singh for attending the conference. Shridev Suman too attended the conference.  Suman was a literature creator and not a political activist on that time.  The conference decided his future course of actions in his life. The conference was a turning point in the life of Shridev and Tehri Garhwal. Suman put a resolution about the pain of people in the princely state of Tehri. The Conference passed the resolution unanimously.     Suman explained the pain and bad administration in princely state of Tehri to Nehru and Vijay Lakshmi.  Nehru announced the Tehri administration as the cruellest administration. By the speech of Suman, the Congressmen of British Garhwal came to know in details about the pain of Tehri citizens.    Suman too took a vow to change the situation (2) .
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  61
2- Bhakta Darshan, Suman Smriti Granth p 89 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Shridev Suman Entering into Desi Rajya Lok Parishad
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -54
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 247     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1494
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
   The convenor committee of Tehri Prajamandal handed over the responsibilities of Publicity secretary  to Shridev Suman.  Suman had to open branches of Prajamandal.  The conference of Desi Rajya Lokparishad ( People’s Social groups in Indian princely states ) was held on 17th and 18th February 1939 in Ludhiana. Jawaharlal Nehru presided the conference. Suman attended the conference as representative of Tehri Rajya Prajamandal.  Shridev Suman delivered the speech about the pain of Tehri citizens and passed the resolution. As per advice of Nehru, The Lok Parishad appointed Suman as member of Standing Committee. The Parishad also appointed Suman as chief of Himalayan committee. The age of Suman was 24 at that time. (2).
  At that time, the weekly Karmabhumi publication also started from Lansdowne. Shridev Suman got place in editorial board as representative of Tehri.
 In March 1939, Suman attended the Tripura Congress conference and attended the meeting of standing committee of Lokaparishad.  After returning from Tripura, Suman met the King. Suman briefed te King about pain of the citizens.  On 2nd April 1939, there was Conference of Himalayan Praja Parishad in Delhi. Bhula Bhai Desai presided the conference.  The Conference created subcommittee and Badri Datta Pande was appointed the president of subcommittee and Suman was appointed as secretary.  Garhdesh Sewasangh organized Conference of Parvatiya Sammelan in Delhi on 19th April 1939. Hridaya Nath Kanjaru presided ove the conference.  Matiram Bhatt, Mahidhar Sharam and Suman worked hard for organizing the successful conference.

References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  62
2- Bhakta Darshan, Suman Smriti Granth p 89 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Firing in Dhami princely state in Himachal

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -55
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 248     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1495
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
Dhami was small princely state in Himachal near Shimla. The people procession was proceeding towards the capital for letting the Rana (King) know about pain and problems of the Dhami subject. As per order from Rana, the police fired on procession and two persons were killed and dozens were injured in Dhami firing. Shridev Suman immediately informed about firing to Gandhi ji and Nehru and he reached  to Shimla for serving injured. Lokparishad established a enquiry committee for detailing the incident. The president was Dunochand MLA (Punjab) and Shridev Suman was secretary of the committee.  The enquiry committee’s report attracted Indians about the suppression and exploitation of princely states of Himalaya. There was a conference of Hill people in Delhi on 1939. Suman told about pain, suppression, oppression and exploitation in the princely states of Himalayan region. There was conference of Himalayan workers in Delhi in November and in December, there was conference of Himalayan states parish . In both the conferences, Shridev Suman told about pain of people of Himalayan princely states
  The name of Garh Seva Sangh was changed to Himalaya Seva Sangh in that conference. It was end of both the organizations.
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  62
2- Bhakta Darshan, Suman Smriti Grantha p 89 
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Tehri Government banning Suman for delivering public speeches

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -56
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 249   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1496
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 In February 1940, Shridev Suman attended the permanent committee meet of Lok Parishad. There, he discussed about movement in Tehri Garhwal. . In April 1940,Suman  presided over the meet of  Garhwali Pravasi praja in Delhi. Gandhi ji started the freedom movement Satygraha. Shridev Suman decided starting movement in Tehri too. In May 1940, Suman reached to Dehradun. And from there he reached to Narendra Nagar. Suman met General Minister and Chief Secretary in Narendra Nagar. Suman requested to lift the ban on public meetings. Nothing was done from government side.
   Suman reached to Tehri and organized a public meeting but the magistrate banned Suman for public speech. Shridev Suman travelled many villages in Tehri and made people aware about freedom and suppressive methods by Tehri regime.  Suman reached to Mussoorie. From Mussoorie, Suman  reached to Tehri city and again the magistrate dbanned his speech in public meeting .  Shridev Suman had  to return from Their.
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  62
2- Bhakta Darshan, Suman Smriti Grantha p 89 
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