Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 172657 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Awareness among Students of Tehri Garhwal

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -57
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 250   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1497
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 Suman had maximum influence on the students of  Tehri Garhwal. Suman used to meet the students of Pratap Inter College and used to give them awareness literature (freedom related) .  The nationalist thinker Satya Prasad Raturi, a teacher and member of Balsabha, started making students aware about the National Movement.
When in 1940, the Pratap Inter College opened after summer vacation, the students put demand before administration for establishing a student Union. The College administration denied the demand of the students. The college students started a general strike.    The administration used pressure practice and broke students' strike.  Administration fined Rs. 25 on  five students and Rs. Five of two students. Administration pardoned two students and terminated two students’ leaders- Dayaram Uniyal and Prem Datt Dobhal from the college. Suman reached Tehri and encouraged the students. Suman arranged studies fro terminated students in Banaras and published the story in various periodicals.
Influenced by Suman,  a student Ram Chandra Uniyal started publishing articles about  the suppressive administration of Tehri Kingdom. The students started sticking posters at night against administration for increasing fees. The college administration was very strict on collecting fees If fees were not submitted The students stuck a poster showing that – Our college collects the fees so effectively that the government does not collect the tax. If you don’t pay fees by 15t the name is cut from the register, , there  is fine on late fee payment, fine on not buying books , fine on every crime .The name of college should be Jurmanalaya (House of Fine).
The Tehri government administration was shocked by the students' activities and especially did not like the poster. General Minister Maulichandra Sharma tried to make e students understand but students were not influenced by Sharma. The Tehri r Government started catching students of Tihri and students studying outside Tihri.  Government sued Ram Chandra Uniyal and Ram Prasad Bahuguna in the court. Court sent Bahuguna and Uniyal to prison for one year each. (2)
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  63
2-  Article by Sundar Lal Bahuguna , Karmabhumi 12 August 1972
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Freedom Awareness Centers outside Tehri Garhwal
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -58
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 251   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1498
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
Dr Dabral offers following description of various centres outside Tehri of awareness about ‘suppression in princely state Tehri Garhwal’-
  The state officials thought that by suppressing the students’ movement, the administration was able to suppress awareness movement. However, the movement spread outside Tehri more than it was guessed by Tehri state administration. The migrated Garhwalis of Lahore and Dehradun established a school; Sarswati School ‘in Lambganv.  Khushal Singh and Ramswarup Raturi of Lahore joined   Purushottam Raturi for teaching in Lambganv school. The ‘Veer library established by  Suresha Nand dangwal, Jaykrishna Uniyal, NathuSing Kashyap the Tehri Migrants in Lahore became the centre of spreading awareness against suppression in Tehri.  The poet Dayram Bhatt started visiting villages for spreading wareness against King’s suppression. Anand swarup Raturi, Brahmdev Sirswal, Shiv Prasad Joshi and Kushla Nand Gairola started making kulis aware in Mussoorie. The Balsabha of Saklana and Krishna Library of Devaprayag became awareness centres.  A young journalist Vidyadhar Bhikhari from Devaprayag started sending and publishing the newss of suppression in Hindustan and  Deshdut. Bhagwan das Multani of Rishikesh used to visit Tehri for spreading awareness among people . Multani also used to distribute Indian Freedom movement literature and Khadi, Charkah  in Tehri. Multani usd to visit Tehri as soap seller or as son in law of afamily.
 
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  64
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Paun Tuti Bill in Tehri Garhwal

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -59
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 252   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1499
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 There was a tax called ‘Paun Tuti’ levied on trading export and import. That tax was there from Shrinagar period.  There were Chungi Ghar or octroi posts to collect Paun-Tuti tax. The kingdom auctioned the Chungi Posts. The contractor men used to open the bag of exporter or importer with insulting behaviour. Even the citizens of Tehri had to pay tax on their new dresses . That time, people started feeling the crunch (2).
 Income Tax Bill- In 1941, There was an assembly session in Narendra Nagar in Holi festival for two days. General Minister Maulichandra Sharma put the income tax bill. There was provision for income tax on the income of more  2000income Rs. 2000. The bill was passed with a majority 17:13. Then, the rich people also started supporting Prajamandal as they felt the pinch. Seth (rich man) Khemraj Bahuguna resigned from Rajya Pratinidhi Sabha (King controlled assembly ) . Suman called a special conference of Prajamandal in Dehradun on 19th March 1941. The Conference requested Rajya  Pratinidhi Sabha members for resigning from the Sabha. Prajamandal officiated Shankar Datt Dobhal and Suman for strengthening the Prajamandal organization in Tehri. Mahatma  Gandhi’s representative Rajkumari Amrit Kaur  gave free hand to Suman for  working as per situation in Tehri.
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  64
2-Karmabhumi , 1940 first Issue.
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Government expelling Suman from Tehri

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -60
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 253 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1400
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

 Shridev Suman decided to start the movement of Prajamandal in Tehri Kingdom.  Suman went to his village Jaul from Muni Ki Reti ( Rishikesh). And from Jaul, Suman reached Tehri on 3oth April. Police was with Suman from Muni ki Reti. Shridev Suman was successful in inspiring 4 members of Pratinidhi Sabha resigning from the Pratinidhi Sabha.. On 9th May, Police kept Suman in custody in a nearby village of Tehri city.  For two days, Police kept Suman imprisoned in the house of a police Inspector. During that period, Political agent was on tour of Tehri. Administration wanted no odd incidents before The Political Agent. On 11th May, police took Suman in a bus and took him to Muni ki Reti. In Muni ki Reti, Police handed over the expelling order for Suman. The order was banning Suman’s entry for two months. On 1st July, Suman tried to enter Tehri territory and police arrested him . After release, Suman reached Narendra Nagar. At night, police arrested Suman in Narendra Nagar. Police took Suman to Kirti Nagar (near Shrinagar) and expelled him from the territory.
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  64
2-Karmabhumi, 1940 first Issue.
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Government expelling Suman from Tehri

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -60
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 253 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1500
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 Shridev Suman decided to start the movement of Prajamandal in Tehri Kingdom.  Suman went to his village Jaul from Muni Ki Reti ( Rishikesh). And from Jaul, Suman reached Tehri on 3oth April. Police was with Suman from Muni ki Reti. Shridev Suman was successful in inspiring 4 members of Pratinidhi Sabha resigning from the Pratinidhi Sabha.. On 9th May, Police kept Suman in custody in a nearby village of Tehri city.  For two days, Police kept Suman imprisoned in the house of a police Inspector. During that period, Political agent was on tour of Tehri. Administration wanted no odd incidents before The Political Agent. On 11th May, police took Suman in a bus and took him to Muni ki Reti. In Muni ki Reti, Police handed over the expelling order for Suman. The order was banning Suman’s entry for two months. On 1st July, Suman tried to enter Tehri territory and police arrested him . After release, Suman reached Narendra Nagar. At night, police arrested Suman in Narendra Nagar. Police took Suman to Kirti Nagar (near Shrinagar) and expelled him from the territory.
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  64
2-Karmabhumi, 1940 first Issue.
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Imprisonment of Shridev Suman

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -61
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 254 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1501
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
Congress passed a resolution of “Angrejo Bharat Chhodo movement on 8th August 1942. British Government arrested Mahatma Gandhi, Azad and Nehru on the same day. The standing committee of Desi Rajya Lokparishad  held a meet in Mumbai from 8th August to 12th august 1942. The standing Committee meet passed a resolution asking princely states to breakdown relation with British and establish the accountable administration in the state.
  Suman reached to Dehradun on 18th August 1942.
The Government had been arresting Congress leaders continuously. There was restlessness among Indians all over India. People burnt government properties, broke the  rail and motor bridges. Indirectly, there was military rule in India.
  Tehri unit of Prajamandal had meet in Mussoorie on 25 and 26th August 1942.  The met passed a resolution that princely state Tehri should break relation with British and should establish the  accountable administration and the meet decided for movement in Tehri Garhwal.
   On 29th August 1942, Suman reached to Koti near Devaprayag. Police arrested Suman and took him to Muni ki Reti. Suman was kept as Nazarband and later on, he was handed oer to Police (1)  On the same day, police arrested Prajamandal members as Professor Bhagwati Prasad Panthari, Shiv Prasad Painyuli, and Raghubeer Prasad Painyuli.in Mussoorie. They were kept in jail in Dehradun with Suman.  Later on , Tihri administration arrested freedom activists as Anand Sharan Raturi . Shyam Chand Negi and Shankar Datt Dobhal too.   
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  64
2-Karmabhumi, 1940 first Issue.
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Tehri Government Arresting Freedom and Reform Activists
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -62
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 255 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1502
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
   Shridev Suman influenced the students more than the other sections of the society. The students from Tehri, Saklana, Devprayag, Muni ke Rat, Mussoorie, Ramoli, Jaunpur, started the freedom and the accountable Tehri administration awareness movement among people. Therefore, the Tehri Garhwal administration arrested Veerendra Datta Saklani,  Prem lal Dobhal, Dinesh Chandra Saklani, Vanshi Lal Pundir, and Shiv Prasad Nautiyal from Tehri.  Administration arrested Mohan Lal Shriman from Saklana. Lakshman Singh from MunikiReti and Lakshmi Chandra from Mussoorie started the procession towards Tehri city. Government arrested them too.   Government captured reform lovers and activists from the state and kept them in Tehri jail.  Government increased the police force around Devprayag and other important places.  In many areas, the government established new police stations. The Tehri Chief Officer of Police Sardar Hukum Singh (Ex-Police officer of Punjab was instructed by the King and his immediate subordinates. Radar Hukum Singh used many cruel methods and strategies for suppressing the movement in Tehri Garhwal. People used to call him Kop (Cruel and curse). He used to arrest and keep the person just a doubt only.
References
1-Dabral S.P.,, Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  64
2-Karmabhumi, 1940 first Issue.
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Suppression in Devprayag by Tehri Garhwal government

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -63
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 256 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1503
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 The Tehri Government accused Krishna Library of illegal reasoning that the library  is not registered. Taking registration fees for Rs.15 and registering the Library, the police superintendent   locked the library.  Police arrested Library secretary Ramdayal and Vidyadhar Dangwal and sent them to Tehri prison. Police found the book Gandhi  ki Atmkatha (autobiography of Gandhi) in the house of Vidyadhar.  Police arrested Deviprasad Kothiyal and his son Ghanshyam and sent them to Tehri prison. Police locked their houses and women were asked to get out from houses. However, Deviprasad was King devotee.  Government dissolved the Devprayag Panchayat (local self-Government Devprayag assembly).  Ramdayal was released after three months due to death of his father guarantee of rs.5000. Others were kept in jail for three years.  The locks of the house of Deviprasad were opened after three months of his release. (2)
Police Inspector earned huge money by corrupt methods and by fear tactics. It is said that when he came to Devprayag his wife had silver ornament but when she returned from Devparayag she had numbers of golden ornaments. (2)
References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 64
2- Shrilal Thapliyal, Karmabhumi dated 26th January 1956
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Tehri Prison: where Cruelty was First Priority 

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -64
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 257 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1504
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 There was a very high wall of the Tehri Prison. There were small and dirty cabins for prisoners.
 As soon as the prisoner reached the prison, all his articles used to be submitted in the office. Prisoners were allowed only a shirt, langot and half paint.  Prison officials used to beat the prisoners without reasons (3).   Prisoners used to be pushed into a cabin. The prisoner used to be tied by an iron chain of 25 kilo.  Authorities used to provide two blankets for covering and a bed sheet. There were no additional facilities in the winter season.
 Prison authorities used to provide only two litre water for the whole day in summer too. There were no facilities for a healthy body and healthy mind. The Tehri Prison was disgraceful for human beings.  (2) There was no arrangement for ill prisoners.
References-
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 68
2- Shrilal Thapliyal, Karmabhumi dated 26th January 1956
3- Tehri  Government, Annual Administrative report 1942-43
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Movement suppressing activities by Government

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -64
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 257 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1504
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  Natthi Singh Kashyapa from Lahore reached Tehri. Government arrested Natthi Singh Kashyapa. Movement activists handed over the charge of movement spread to Parushram Badoni the brother of Shridev Suman. The Tehri Administration arrested Parushram too. Administration put Badoni and Kashyapa in Tehri jail.
 Jail authorities took all the clothes of Badoni and Kashyapa excluding pyjama and shirt.  They were pushed into a cabin with a jug and tasla.   Lakshman Singh was already there in that cabin . Prison authorities instructed them not to talk at all. All used to be in cabin without any talk and physical activities . They were allowed to out from cabin for toileting only. On day, jail authorities caught Lakshman, Kashyapa and Badoni talking each other. Authority canned all three.
The brad used to be cooked by flour mixed with sand, husk and coal tar. If due to bad sameel, any prisoner used to  refuse taking meals he was canned very badly. One day, the scorpion bate finger of  a prisoner Dinesh Chandra Saklani. Cruel jail doctor cut the finger. (2)
 
References-
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 68
2- Bhakta Darshan, Suman Smriti Grantha p 114-116
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