Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 172661 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Incidents after Death of Shridev Suman

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -75
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 267 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1516
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
    Suman died at the age of 28 years, 2 months and 10 days.
    Chief Minister Maulichandra resigned after the death of Suman. Tehri State established committee for detailing the death of Suman and appointed retired Session Judge Surendra Nautiyal the head of the committee. Badri Datt Pande was heading the enquiry committee on behalf of Lok Parishad. The State Government established the death enquiry and at the same time, took action auctioning the properties of Suman for collecting a fine of Rs.200. Mother of Suman went to put her plea before the Lok Parishad committee in Dehradun. Tehri government terminated the local Malgujar for his incapability for stopping the mother of Suman to Dehradun.
 There was restlessness among freedom fighters at all India level. By that time, it was clear that Suman did not break his fast on11th July.  Jawaharlal Nehru criticized the killing of Suman by cruel Tehri authorities.
After studying the report of the Suman Death committee, the permanent committee of Lok Parishad reached the conclusion that the state government arrested Suman without any sound reason. The treatment by Jail authorities towards Suman was malicious, revengeful and totally inhuman. The Permanent   Committee found that jail authorities did not allow Suman to meet his relatives for 69 days.
 It was clear that King Narendra Shah was cruel in nature who did not stop his staff and he did not allow Suman to meet him in person.  Narendra Shah was totally opposite of Bolda Badrinath (Speaking Badrinath) but in reality, was a demon.
 
References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 73 -74
2- Bhakta Darshan, Suman Smriti Grantha p 153
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Personality of Shridev Suman

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -76
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 268 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1517
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 Shridev Suman lived in the world for only 28 years, 3months and 10 days. However, Suman is immortal in the hearts of every Uttarakhandi forever.
    Suman lost his father at the age of three. Therefore, Suman   had all experiences of poverty and difficulty of the common poor family in living.  Shridev Suman was a devotee of Tehri   King but King showed his cruelty in dealing with Suman. Suman loved the citizens of Tehri Garhwal more than his family. He died for the benefits of Tehri. Suman had full faith in Geeta. Shridev believed in non- violence. (2)
 Suman was a revolutionary man but was not a shrewd politician.
Nehru spoke about Suman as “Suman will be remembered for his courage and sacrifice for ever.”(2)
References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 75
2- Bhakta Darshan, Suman Smriti Grantha p 299
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Various Social Reform Acts in Tehri Garhwal

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -77
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 269
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1518
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 In Jaunsar and nearby regions, there was tradition of the polyandry system that is one wife and many husbands.  The Pratinidhi Sabha passed a bill for stopping the polyandry system.. Since, the tradition was suitable for the region and was there for many centuries.  There was another system that the father of a daughter used to take money from the groom side and in that system, many times father used to marry his daughter to an old or disabled man too. Many fathers used to sell their daughters to outsiders too.  The Pratinidhi Sabha banned girls marrying outside of Garhwal.
   In the above regions, there was a simple system of divorce. Pratinidhi Sabha regularised the rules for divorce and started charging Rs, 25 the Divorce Charge.
 Pratinidhi Sabha also passed a bill for stopping children marriages.
References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 76
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Tirtha Yatra Sudhar Vidhan (Pilgrimage Reform Bill )

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -79
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 271 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1520
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 Indians used to travel Garhwal as pilgrims in thousands. However, there was no suitable system for hospitalization of ill tourists.  Once, in  a year,  7146  pilgrims  died.  British Garhwal took step for establishing   hospitals and arrangement for medicines in the pilgrimage roads of British Garhwal after getting report of I C S officer G.F. Adam.  Adam or his committee members did not visit Yamunotri –Gangotri (as those were part of the Tehri state.
Princely state Tehri Garhwal passed a bill ‘Garhwal Rajya Tirtha Yatra Sudhar Vidhan’ in 1942. (20. The aim of reform bill was to administrate pilgrimage routs of Tehri.
 According to new reform bill, The  priests as Panda, Pujari, of pilgrimage place has to get a minimum Karmakand education. The Kingdom arranges inspection of pilgrimage roads and Chattis of Tehri Garhwal. (2)
 Chief Medical officer was made the in charge of Necessary arrangement for health of tourists.  Kingdom freed tax of a few villages for the Sadavrat (free food for pilgrims)  and ritual performances  of important temples.  Garhwal Kingdom made rules for Sadavrat too and put penalties for those not abiding rules.
New measures were taken for encouraging capable Pande and other priests of famous temples too. (4)
  .
References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 77
2-Garhwal Rajya Sudhar –Vidhan   p 1
3- Garhwal Rajya Sudhar -Vidhan  p 43-44
4- Durgadauti,  Narendraansha Kavya p304
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Badrinath temple Management

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -80
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 272 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1521
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 Garhwal King was called ‘Bolda Badrinath 'meaning 'Speaking Badrinath Deity’.  Up to 1497,  the Shankaracharya  Establishment used to manage Badrinath temple. However, in the Jaikrti Shah period,  Ghamand Singh started controlling Shrinagar palace and he killed Mahant of Badrinath and offered the management to  Gopla Namburi and made him Rawal. From that day, Rawal used to control the management and tax free villages.
 In  early British period, indirectly, Rawal was parallel King for those villages .Rawal took law and order subject in his hand too (court etc)  and started looting the temple assets . British Government   took action and handed over the management to a local committee (2) The head of that committee used to be DM. However, the said Committee left the management in the hands of Rawal.  Hindi people started a movement against Rawal’s wrong management and their looting. British Government handed over the management to the Tehri King. Tehri  King also handed over the real management of Sadavrat villages (tax free villages) in the hand of local committee. 
Tehri King appointed Rawal and Lekhwar for managing the temple and Villages. Since Tehri was far away from Badrinath and law and order was in the hand of British government it was not possible for Tehri King to administrate temples and Sadvrata villages. Again Lekhwar and Rawal became the real managers and they again started mismanaging and looting the temple assets  (2)
The conclusion is that there was mismanagement and  corruption among mangers of Badrinath temple (Sdavrata Villages income)
References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 77
2-Shaligram Vaishana ,  Shri Uttarakhand Rahsya p 149
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Badrinath Reform bill by United Province Government

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -81
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 273 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1522
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 On 15th February 1926, King Narendra Shah nominated (Teeka) to the deputy Rawal, Vasudev Namburi as full time Rawal of Badrinath temple. The Rawal had to give an affidavit that he would not marry till he was the chief priest of Badrinath temple as –
नमोस्त्वन्ताय सहस्त्रमूर्तये  सहस्त्रपादक्षि शिरोरूहावये: I
सहस्त्रनाम्ने पुरुषाय शास्वते सहस्त्रकोटियुगधाररिणो नम: II
 However, Rawal Vasudev forgot all hi vows. The Badrinath Temple administration started deteriorating. The people started criticizing the personal character of the Rawal.  United Province Government had to pass a bill ‘Badrinath Reform Bill’
  Government decided to appoint a Committee for administration of the temple and the Tehri King was nominated the patron of the committee.  The committee was having following patterns of the members-
President, Secretary, one member – nominated by U P government
Nominated by Tehri Court – two members
Nominated by Civil Society of Tehri -1
Nominated by British Garhwal District board - 2
Hindu members 
Tehri King had to nominate the Rawal and had to decide the opening and closing dates of Badrinath Temple.
 The first Meeting of Badrinath Committee was held on 5th March 1941 and attended by following members (Annual Administrative Report Tehri Garhwal 1940-41-
  President -------- Dr. Seetaram
Secretary – Pratap Singh Chauhan
Nominated by Tehri Court – Mauli Chandra and Indra Datt Saklani
Rajya Pratinidhi sabha (Civic Society )  Member –Yogendra Puri
District Board member   – Shankar Singh and Raghunath Singh
Hindu Representative ------V.G.Kharpade ,

References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 77
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Decision for Avoiding Epidemics

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -82
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 274 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1523
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 There was attack of smallpox in Garhwal in 1939 summer. The disease spread in villages with speed. There was a citizen meeting held on a Kotwali Maidan in Tehri and the people urged the government to take necessary action for avoiding the small pox. Government took necessary actions such as arranging separate arrangements for patients and cleanliness in the cities (2).
 Kirti Shah established a Kushthagrah for leprosy patients near Uttarkashi. Narendra Shah wanted to establish a Kushthagrah ( hospital and boarding house for leprosy patients )  at Semal Tappad or hilltop near Tehri. The citizens opposed the planning . 93)
.
References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2-Karmabhumi 29th May ,  1937
3Karmabhumi , 25th December 1939
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Bhishma Kukreti

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    Dissatisfaction among People

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -82
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 274 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1523
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 Tehri administration completed land settlement work in 1926 that was started in 1917. State was able to increase its income. In 1944, the state started inspection of land Settlement. Surprisingly, the state appointed the head of the land settlement that person was removed for the department earlier.   His salary too was increased.  That corrupt person appointed his old assistants.  There was acute feminine too in some part of Tehri  Kingdom.
 The people were eager to get ownership title for their land  (Under Kabjedar,  Khaikar or Sirtan). (2)
By 1923, there was a fees for regulating newly dug filed (nayi awad bhumi )  for Rs. 1. However, the fess was being increased year by year and in 1934, the fees was Rs. 160.
When the inspection work started the fees was as follows (2)-
The Rs.1 fees was increased for rs 240 for no fertile land
Fr normal fertile land the fess was Rs. 400.
 The farmers had to pay other fees too as – Wage fee, Ticket fee, Food for land settlement workers including Amin, gifts to land settlement officials, gifts to Rangers, Village council chairman, labour , clerks etc. Then only, the file used to reach upper cadre. There was total mess in measurement and recording too. (2)
 The people were totally dissatisfied by new land settlement schemes. They were waiting for movement against the administration. (2)

References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2-Karmabhumi 1st January, 1941
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Other Reasons for People’s Dissatisfaction

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -84
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 276 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1525
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 There were other reasons for people’s dissatisfaction in Tehri Kingdom.
 There was sizable increase in literacy.  There were 100 Government Primary schools and 160 private schools out of 260 Primary Schools in the state. It was essential for private school to register the school in beginning by paying fees for Rs. 15.  The villagers had to spend money for building etc. There was scarcity of teachers to. The state used to provide teachers with difficulty. (2)
           
Hard Rules for Land sales and Purchase-
There were very hard rules for land sales and purchase in the state.  The people had to pay hefty commission to the government and hefty bribery too for selling the land. Karmabhumi reported (3) that farmer had to pay 34 % the land selling price as commission to the state.

 There were taxes on wine production and gambling. The state was pleased for the sales increase of wine and turnover on gambling. . The state used to offer gambling on contract to outsider.
  Dissatisfactions among people by forest administration-
There high restlessness by new and newer rules about forestry.  The government used to sell tress at lower rates to the contractors than villagers. The Government used to take penalties from the nearby villages for forest the fire.  The same forest wood was costlier in Tehri Garhwal than Haridwar.
Government not supporting Famine  hit people 
 Garhwal has water sources but many times, there is scarcity of rainfall in the region that used to created famine.  In 1940, there was heavy hailstorm and people lost standing crops. The Tehri administration never too decision to support people in need. The Kingdom did not offer tax free too.
   Export and Import Tax –
 People were dissatisfied on export and import tax too.
  Government sold the road on contracts for running buses for public. The Bus contractors were more interested in increasing income than services to the travellers.
The state police was more active in catching the freedom activists than paying little bit attention of protecting the people.  There used to be murder in main centres but police never took those incidents seriously.
 The political agent toured Tehri Garhwal from 15th January to 18th January 1941 and 8th February to 11th February 1941. The police too care that dissatisfied people could not reach to the Political Agent of British government.
 Opening of High Court – The high court offered a punishment to a criminal for death by hanging .This was first decision by court to hang a criminal till death.
 Bara –begar or free labour for Officials.  As per government gazette the free labour from the villagers was stopped but in villages Patwari and police were regularly using villagers for labour. People were dissatisfied by the system too.
  Government was appointing outsiders on higher post of the state services. This was also a dissatisfying point. (1) 

References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2-Karmabhumi 31st March, 1941
3- Karmabhumi 31st March, 1941
4- Karmabhumi 1st November 1946
5- Karmabhumi 19th September  1939
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Freedom Awareness by INA men

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -85
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 277 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1526
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 In the early of 1946, the soldiers of Indian National Army (INA) reached Tehri Garhwal. It was a sorry face for them that they came as poor and defeated soldiers.  There were INA army men as Colonel Pitrishran Raturi and Lieutenant Himmat Singh Negi. Those soldiers )mostly from each patti)  spread the awareness of freedom among villagers.  In the president ship of Pitrishran Raturi, the INA members decided to pay tribute to Shridev Suman on his martyred day in Tehri city.  Government declared article 144.  However, the INA soldiers organised the tribute meeting on the day (2).
References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
4- Karmabhumi 1st November 1946
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