Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 172659 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Opposition of land Settlement by farmers

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -86
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 278 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1527
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 When the land settlement started in Dangchoura Kirti Nagar, the villagers opposed the land settlement activities with vigor. In famine time, it was difficult for farmers to arrange money for r Bara tax for Land settlement. Farmers led by Dada Daulat ram of Kadakot and Nagendra Saklani stated agitation against the land settlement activities. The farmers group reached to  secretariat at Narendra Nagar  for showing their opposition to the administration(2)
 Farmers led by Daulat Ram put following demand before the King) 2) –
“1-Governemtn should not take land tax due to famine 
2-Government should not take gifts and fees on new land settlement
3- Government should stop taking Prabhu sew a, Bara begar system and   pauni tuti taxes
4-There must be forest reform as per peoples acceptance and benefits
5- Government must end corruption
6- Government must build schools, roads  and hospitals
7- Stop Registration act for social organization
8- The election system of Rajya Pratinidhi Sabha should change”
The administration or the King refused to  buzz and put agitating farmers into  Tehri jail. That time, a state solder  Khimsingh  also supported the movement (2) 
References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
4- Karmabhumi  26 January  1956
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Tehri Government Suppressing Reform Movements

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -88
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 280 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1529
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 At one side ,  there was talk that the Government was going on with Prajamandal and other regions and the reform  movement was spreading very fast . On 24th 1946, Police caught Paripurna Nand Painyuli and put him into custody. Police also caught Reform activists such as Shrilal Thapliyal and Prem Lal Vaidya who were marching from Devprayag to Tehri .
Lakshman singh and his group was marching to Tehri for releasing Daulat ram dada. Police caught an ex INA soldier  Lakshman Singh  and his group (80 activists )  and put him into jail. (leader , 10th September 1946)
 Administration caught tens of activists from various areas (1).
References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2- Karmabhumi 26 January 1956
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Repetition of Suppressions by Tehri Administration 
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -90
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 282 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1531
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  Tehri administration was playing a double game with the activists.  On 21st August 1946, Prajamandal  was allowed registration and on 22nd August , administration put Parasharam  Badoni the brother of Shridev Suman,  Guruprasad Uniyal along with other  activists into jail. (2).  In jail, jail authorities  tortured the land settlement activist  prisoners. Out of 29, 26 prisoners requested for pardon and got free.  Dada Daulatram , Paripurna Nand Painyuli, Nagendra Uniyal  did not request pardon.  The health of Painyuli  was deteriorating .
From 13th September, Paniyuli started hunger strike and put following demands
Stop registration act
The voting power to adults
A Public committee for finding suppression by police
  Prem datt Dobhal declared to speed up the movement.
References
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2- Karmabhumi 1st September 1946
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Effects of Hunger Strike by Paripurna Nand Painyuli

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -91
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 283 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1532
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  From 13th September 1946, Painyuli  started a hunger strike in Jail.  Along with Painyuli, Indra Singh , Teekaram, Bhudev Lakheera, Dad Daulatram and Nagendra Datt Uniyal also started the  hunger strike.  Slowly, Painyuli lost weight by 17 Ponds.  Jail authorities put Painyuli into the same cell where Suman died.  Karmabhumi sneta telegram to the Chief Minister but CM did not respond . Then Jaya Narayan Vyas sent a strong language telegram.   Tehri administration freed Parushram Badoni, Guru Prasad from jail (2). As per request by Vyas, Painyuli and others ended the hunger strike on 22nd September (2).
 Tehri administration started breaking the accepted conditions demanded in accord. The Tehri administration started harassing Prajamandal members. The administration started insulting Prajamandal Members too. The Tehri administration did not allow the prisoners to take aid from outside lawyers for the case in the court.
 Administration started applying same old methods of suppression
References
 
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2- Karmabhumi 1st October r 1946
3- Bhakta Darshan , Suman Smriti Grantha p 257-58
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Bhishma Kukreti

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King Narendra Shah retiring from the Crown

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -93
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 285 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1533
 Due to Suman being martyred the People were against the King Narendra Shah. There was no such respect for the King in the hearts of Tehri Garhwal people as it used to be for the crown. The Reform agitation was speeding up in Tehri. On 26th May 1946, Narendra Shah declared his retirement from the Crown ship.
Narendra Shah handed over the crown to his eldest son Manvendra Shah on Vijayadashmai- 5th October 1946.
Manvendra Shah was the son of younger queen Indumati but used to be called as ‘Adopted son of Eldest Queen Kamlendu Shah. .
 Death of King Narendra Shah in motor accident -
  On 4th February 1934, the younger queen Indumati died in a motor accident near Meerut. The king Narendra Shah was going to Tehri from Narendra Nagar, the motor got in an accident and Narendra died in an accident there in 1949. He died at the age of 52.
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2- Karmabhumi 1st October r 1946
3- Bhakta Darshan, Suman Smriti Grantha p 257-58
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Family and Personality of Tehri King Narendra Shah

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -94
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 286 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1534
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
             Family life of Tehri King Narendra Shah –
   King Narendra Shah  had many wives. He married Kamlendu Shah and Indumati Shah and they were sisters. The Khvasins  (official keeps) were Gulbadan ji, Bishtayn ji and Dobhalyan ji . There were more than 50 dasis  (personal maids and as good as keeps) of Narendra Shah.  Narendra Shah had many sons and daughters from queens, Khavasins and Dasis.
 Manvendra  Singh was the eldest son from younger queen Indumati.  Narendra Shah paid full attention to the studies of his sons.
  Narendra Shah was a work lover, used to work from 9 Am to 5 Pm in the court. He believed in simple living and usually used to be away from entertainment activities as his contemporary Kings were indulged.   Narendra Shah did not take alcohol.  He had amicable relationship with shcolars and spiritual leaders as Dr. Radha Krishnan, Miss Meera ben, Swami Gyana Nand and Goswami Ganesh Datt.He used to donate to public societies
Narendra Shah was forward looking,  a progressive person but was mean to the reformers too.  Narendra Shah tried to provide comforts to his subjects by opening schools, establishing hospitals, constructing roads and motor roads. Narendra Shah also founded a new township, Narendra Nagar.
 There were two black spots on the administration of Narendra Shah – Tilari firing on people incident on 30th May 1930 and Suman martyr on 25th July 1945.  (1) 
References -
Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Prince Manvendra Shah taking Charge as King

History of Tehri King Manvendra Shah-1
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 288 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1535
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 The Crowning of twenty five and half years old Prince Manvendra Shah took place on 5th October 1946 .  Narendra Shah paid attention on the education of Princes Manvendra Singh and Shardul Vikram. Both the princes got education first from Indore and then Mayo College Ajmer. 
 Manvendra Shah was married to princes of Bansvada state ,  on 4th February 1939 .His queen delivered a baby girl in 1940. Manvendra Shah got trained for army education and I.C.S. in 1940 (2) .
  The state celebrated crowning of King Manvendra Shah with zeal. There were guests from all over. The state  called prostitutes too. The Punjab Political agent represented the Viceroy of India and attended the function and declared Manvendra Shah as authorised King. 
   The family priests performed Puja for Crowning and Badrinath Rawat put the Crown on the head of Manvendra Shah.
   On the same day, Prajamandal called a meeting and its Secretary Shankar Dobhal congratulated the new King and expected that he would release the political prisoners.
  A rebellion Bhatt distributed posters related to freedom and reform in the city. The administration tolerated the activities of Bhatt due to auspicious day for the Kingdom. 
References -
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2- Karmabhumi, 15th October 1946
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Restless among People

History of Tehri King Manvendra Shah-2
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 289 
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1535
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  Manvendra Shah got a rich kingdom but a restless Kingdom (dissatisfied People).  The Kingdom was in a shaky state. If there had not been the support of British Administration the Tehri Kingdom would have gone to other hands.
There was restlessness due to unemployment, famine, least agriculture aids from the state, low agriculture production, migration for employment, the outsiders being on high posts and Garhwalis were appointed for low cadre posts; high corruption at all levels especially in land settlement department and forest department (both related to the public dealing).
   Manvendra Shah got the state where the administrative body was stronger than the King and the high level officers were not ready to listen the people’s grievances. From the time of Narendra Shah the administrative officers were anti people.
References -
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2- Karmabhumi, 15th October 1946
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Punishing the   Political Activists

History of Tehri King Manvendra Shah-3
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 290   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1536
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 It was a hope that the administration under new King Manvendra Shah would release the political activists but it did not happen the way was expected.  Manvendra Shah lost the opportunity for amicable relation with the subject by not releasing the activists. On the contrary of people’s hope, administration declared punishment for anti-land settlement activists and reform activists as –
Paripurna  Nand Painyuili was sent for 11/2 years jail and a fine for Rs. 500.
Avatar Singh – Five years rigorous jail and rs.800 fine
Mehtab Singh – three years rigorous jail and Rs 700 fine
Same way, the court announced the  jail and fine for Dad Daulatram  and other activists.- 
References -
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2- Karmabhumi, 4th December 1946
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Paripurna Nand Painyuli Escaping from Jail   

History of Tehri King Manvendra Shah-5
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 292   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1538
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
   Paripurna Nand Painyuli was the most innovative and enthusiastic activist in Jail. Paripurna Nand Painyuli planned escape from the Jail. In Tehri Kingdom history, it was first incident that an activist escaped from jail on 10th December 1946.
   Paripurna Nand and his brother Sachchida Nand from outside used to communicate in a specialised manner. Sachchida Nand used to climb on a mango tree outside the jail and used to communicate with each other. One day, Paripurna Nand informed Sachchida Nand that he would escape from the jail and instructed Sachchida to inform a couple of  freedom activists of Kanpur, Lucknow and Delhi. Before Sachchida Nand could inform other activists, Paripurna Nand escaped.
   Paripurna Nand asked the work in the Printing press as a loader. At noon, on 10th December Paripurna Nand Painyui went as a loader to outside Printing press and escaped from the press through a street and he went to Bhilangana river. Later in the evening the authorities came to know that Paripurna Nand had escaped. Paripurna Nand escaped only in a Langot and blanket.  Administration put police force  on the roads towards Rishikesh, Devprayag, and Shrinagar from Tehri. Painyuili guessed that and hid in a shrub near Bhilangana. He changed his dressing as a sage and marched towards Kalsi.  Paripurna Nand Painyuli crossed Bhilangna , Yamuna and Bahgirathi in December. It was a deadly job in December to cross those snow bound rivers. Painyuli reached Delhi as Rameshwar Sharma.  Bhgawan das Multani and a couple of friends knew the reality. That is why; there was rumour in Tehri that jail authorities killed Painyuli in Jail as they killed Suman    Tehri authorities fine dfor rs 100 each to the composers of Printing Press.
 
References -
1-Dabral S.P. Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 80
2- Karmabhumi, 4th December 1946
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