Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 175025 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Historical Features of Garhwal, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Krishna Era of Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans -5

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 21   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-18                     
Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans -5    

                                          Bhishma Kukreti

                                 Uttarakhand in   Krishna Era or in Mahabharata era

Extension by Pandavas (Mahabharata) in Uttarakhand:  For amicability among Kauravas and Pandavas. Pandavas were given Indraprast region and Hastinapur kingdom was retained for Duryodhan . Pandvas expanded their kingdom. Bhim, Arjun, Nakul and Sahdev were given responsibilities to win over East, North, south and west respectively. Ghatotkuchh the son of giantess Hidamba and Bhim was given responsibility of expansion in Sri Lanka.
Arjun won the territories of Kulind, Kalkoot (Kalsi), and Tarai Bhabhar (plains of Garhwal, Kumaon).
पूर्व कुलिंदविषये वशे महीपतीन
धनंजयो महाबाहुर्नातितीव्रण कर्मण
आनर्तान कालकूटनश्च कुलिन्दाश्च विजित्य स: 
(Mahabharata, Sabhaparv, 26/3-5)
 Arjun got gems gifts from Khash, Jhas, Nadyot, Praghas, Deerghvenik, Pashup, Kulind Tangan, Parantngan communities of Uttrakhand.
मेरु -मदरयोर्मध्ये शैलोदाम नदीम I
ये ते कीचकबेणुनां  छायाम रम्यामुपासते  II
खशांझषांश्च नद्योतान प्रघसान दीर्घवेणिकान
पशुपांश्च कुलिंदाश्च तंगाण़ान परतङ्गाणान
रत्ना न्यादय सर्वेभ्यो माल्यततो ययौ    (Mahabharata, Sabhaparva, 28/6 and other shlokas)
              Gifts from Uttarakhandi Regional kings to Yudhistar
    After winning many regions, King Yudhisthara (Pandavas eldest brother) became Chakravarti King and he organized a huge celebration party (Mahan yagya). Hundred of kings attended the huge celebration party of Pandavas in Idraprasth. All kings gifted precious materials to Yudhisthar.
       Sumukh the Kulind king of a region of Uttarakhand snet many precious gifts to Yudhishthar (mahabharat, Sabhaparva, 28/6).
The regional kings of Uttarakhand as Keechak venu, Khasha, Jyoha (jauhari), ekasan, Deerghvenik (long hair) gifted precious materials as gold dust to Yudhishthar (Mahabharata, sabhaparv, 52/5-7).
The Uttarakhandi community kings offered gifts as various colored Chanvar, Himalayan Honey, various types of Himalayan gems for durable garlands, Ganga water, and various medicinal herbs.
The Brahmins from Garhwal, Uttarakhand as Dhyaumya , his bother Deval and Agystya Muni were also in Mah yagya of Yudhistar (mahabharat, Sabhaparva  51/7). 


Historical Features of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans to be continued…6
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 20/4/2013
****Reference for Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans.
B.D. Pandey, Kumaon ka Itihas, pages 157-179
Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 2, pages 283-319
B.D. Chatopadhyaya , 2003, Studying Early India: Archeology, Texts and Historical  Issues
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -22
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…19

References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Notes on Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Kali Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Dhyanirau in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Chaubhainsi Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Sor Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Seera/Sira Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Askot Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Faldakot Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Dhaniyakot  Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Chhakhata Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Bhawali Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Bhimtal Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; ; Historical Aspects of Kotoli Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Mahrudi  Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Tarai Bhabhar, Kota Bhabhar , Kota   Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans; Historical Aspects of Tarai Bhabhar, Kalsi Garhwal  in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans to be continued…




Bhishma Kukreti

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Historical phases of Garhwal, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Krishna Period of Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans -6
History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 21   
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-19                     
Historical Phases of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans-6    

                                          Bhishma Kukreti
           Dyutkreeda of gambling among Kauravas and Pandavas and Uttarakhand
           There is description in Mahabharata that Duryodhan the king of Hastinapur invited his cousin brother Yudhishthir for gambling. In gambling with cousin Duryodhan, the king of Indraprasth Yudhishthir lost his kingdom, brothers and wife Draupadi. Due to conditions of gambling law, Pandavas had to live into forests for thirteen years and one year Agyat vas.
          In those years, Arjun went to Uttarakhand and he collected divine weapons from deities from heaven. Arjun got divine weapons the Himalayan regions at the Ganges bank (Mahabharata, Vanparva, 40/41).
                   Pandavas as Pilgrim Travel in Uttarakhand   
 Pandavas, Draupadi along with Garhwali family priest and Lomas sage travelled to Uttarakhand as pilgrims and visited Usheerbeej, Mainak, Kalshail near Ganges bank (Mahabharata, Vanparva, 139/1). The Kulind king Subahu welcomed Pandavas (Vanparva, 140/25).  Pandvas travelled Badrikashram along the bank of Alaknanda River.
In Himalayan region of Uttarakhand (today’s Chamoli Garhwal) Pandavas met giants and Bhīma killed them. In Uttarkahnd Pandavas also visited Nar Naryan hills, Kailash, too. There is description in Mahbharata met Darad and Tushar communities of Kulind kingdom (Mahabharata, Vanparva 17715).
 Duryodhan came there in Himalayan region to insult Pandavas but was defeated by Himalayan Gandharvas and Gandharvas caught Duryodhan and jailed. Yudhisthir fought Gandharvas to free Duryodhan. Duryodhan felt insulted and wanted to kill himself. To sooth Duryodhan, Karna won the territories of Himwant and Nepal of central Himalayan region (Mahabharata, Vanparva, 254/5-6).
                    Great battle of Kurukshetra and Role of Uttarakhandis
 Mahabharata is more famous among general public because of Kurukshetra battle (Mahabharata means great battle).
 The Kulind king Subahu and his three sons participated in Kurukshetra battle the Mahabharata and Subahu supported Pandvas (Mahabharata, Karna parva, 85/4-19). Pashanyudhi (those use stones as weapon) Mlechh supported Kauravas and fought for Duryodhan (Mahabharata, Dronparva, 121/13-43).
  Nagkanya Ulipi was one of wives of Arjun and belonged to Gangadwar (Hardwar, Uttarakhand) and they had son Irwan. Irwan fought the battle with brevity (Mahabharata, Bhishma parva).
 Ghatotkachh was the son of Bhīma and Hidmba the mother of Ghatotkachh was a giantess of Garhwal, Uttarakhand. Ghatotkachh fought with great valor in great Kurukshetra battle (Mahabharata Dronaparva).
 When Pandavas won the war they decided to celebrate it by Ashwmedh Yagya. Arjun got resources from Uttarakhand (Mahabharat, Ashwmedhikparva 63-65)
  Gandhari, Kunti , Dhritirashtra and many went to Gangadwar (Hardwar, Uttarakhand) for paying /libation to dead ones (Mahabharata, Ashramvasik parva 29/32) . Kunti, Dhritrashtra ,Gandhari with Sanjay died by fire in Uttarakhand (Mahabharata, Ashramvasik parva 37).
 Pandavas went to Himalayan shrine of Uttarakhand and Yudhishthir entered heaven bodily.
 
                                     Krishna and Uttarakhand
  There is description of lord Krishna visiting Uttarakhand to meet Pandvas in Mahabharata (Vanparva, Dronparva ).
Krishna also visited Kalsi with Pandavas (Mahabharata, Sabhaparava)
Krishna also travelled Uttarakhand for getting blessing to get sons (Mahabharata, Anushasanparva).
The two mountains on Nar, Narayan back side of Badrinath are called incarnation of Arjun and Krishna respectively. (Mahabharata, vanparva).
 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 27/4/2013
****Reference for Historical Aspects of Garhwal & Kumaon in Epics-Mahabharata and Ramayana and Purans.
B.D. Pandey, Kumaon ka Itihas, pages 157-179
Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 2, pages 283-319
B.D. Chatopadhyaya , 2003, Studying Early India: Archeology, Texts and Historical  Issues
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -23
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…20

References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal , Central Himalaya
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal ,1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas, 
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
 S.s Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008,History of Earlier and Medieval India.
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Notes on History of Uttarakhand, Notes on History of Garhwal, Notes on History of Kumaon, Notes on History of Pauri Garhwal, Notes on History of Chamoli Garhwal, Notes on History of Rudraprayag, Notes on History of Tihri Garhwal, Notes on History of Uttarkashi, Notes on History of Dehradun, Notes on History of Haridwar/Hardwar, Notes on History of Udham Singh Nagar, Notes on History of Nainital, Notes on History of Almora, Notes on History of Champawat, Notes on History of Bageshwar, Notes on History of Pithauragarh to be continued….

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.)
History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 23   
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-20                     
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) part-1
   

                                          Bhishma Kukreti
                         The Kulindas or Kunindas Period
   Most or all the historians support the theory that there were kingdom /kingdoms of Kulindas or Kunindas in Saharanpur, Himachal, Garhwal, and Kumaon including Nepal before Buddhist period. Mahabharata throws light on Kulindas or Kunindas communities. There mentions of Kulindas and Kunindas in Panini’s Ashtadhyayi . The coins found in Behit, Sharanpour , Srinagar are having Kulindas words.  That suggests that Kulindas or Kunindas regime was till 300-400 BCE. Dr Dabral taking the clue from Mahabharata suggests the period of King Subahu of Kulindas or Kunindas was around 1400-1000 B.C.
Though there are least evidences but it might be said that Kulindas or Kunindas regime was from 1400-400 BCE.
 Mahabharata mentions that Pandavas travelled Uttarakhand with the help of Subahu the Kulindas or Kunindas kingdom.
                Kulindas or Kunindas Territories in Uttarakhand
   As per Mahabharata, King Subahu of Kulindas or Kunindas ruled the territories from Gangadwar (Haridwar/Hardwar) till Nepal (Vanparva 140/25). Historians found coins related to Kukindas or Kunindas from Satlaj (Punjab, Himachal) to Kali River (Kumaon).  According to Talmi (7/1/42) the Kulindas or Kunindas regime was from Satlaj to eastern part of Yamuna and source of Ganges Rivers (Uttarakhand).
                                     Mountain Shrines in Kulindas and Kunindas
      Mahabharata mentions the names of hills of Uttarakhand related to Subahu and Kulindas or Kunindas regime. These shrines are Ushirbij (hills near Kankhal), Kalshail ( Kalsi hills), Nagshat (Nagtibba hills) and Neelparvat ( eastern part of Neeldhara), Kailas shrines, badrikashram, Shwetgiri (might be Mana). Dabral suggests that Gandhmadhan of Mahabharata are the shrines from Shrinagar to Nar and The Narayan near Badrinath.
The shrines of nearby Hemkut of Mahabharata are Nanda Shrines. Mandarchal shrine of Mahabharata is today’s shrines from Ranihat to Kedar valley and still the name is Mandrachal.  Meru of Mahabharata is nearby shrines of Gangotari. There were Bugyal (pushpudyan or flower gardens) in Yamunaparvat. Harivars mountain of Mahbharata is near Nanda Devi Mountains.
Dabral suggest that Neelparvat, Kraunch Parvat,  Manas dwar, Malyvan, Munjpusht, Brishdansh of Mahabharata might be situated near India-Tibetan border. Dabral suggests that Malyavan shrine would be today’s Joshimath to Neeti shrine.
 
                     
               
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 28/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -24
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…21
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) to be continued…2 

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
S  S.s Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe


Bhishma Kukreti

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     Rivers of Uttarakhand in Kulinda/Kuninda Era
History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 24   
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-25                     
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) part-2

                                          Bhishma Kukreti
           Most of Historians accepted the existence of Kulinda or Kuninda kingdom in Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) due to finding of coins of Buddhist era. However, most of historians had to depend on epic as Mahabharata for the historical, geographical and cultural aspects of Kuninda or Kulindas kingdom. The historians also refer Bhav Bhavna (Jain literature), Kedarkhand , Mansakhand and kalidas’s literature.
             There are mentions of rivers of Garhwal and Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Adiparva, Vanparva, Dronaparva, Bhishma Parva, Sabhaparva, and Aunshashanparva of epic Mahabharata and in Bhav Bhavna (Jain literature), Kedarkhand , Manaskhand and Kalidas’s literature.
Mahabharata mentions Yamuna as auspicious River and one of seven rivers part of Ganges. Mahabharata cited the Rivers as Tamsa,Jala, Upjala  as associated to Yamuna River.
                     There are mentions of associated Rivers of Ganga in Mahabharata. The associated Rivers of Ganga of Mahabharata are Janhavi, Bhagirathi, Mandakini, and Alaknanda. Ganga, Yamuna, Sarswati, Rathstha (Today’s Ramganga), Saryu, Gomti, and Gandki were seven associated auspicious rivers of Ganga. There is mention of Chandrahrid river ton which Bhagirathi met. However, till date historians could not recognize Chandrahrid in today’s context.
         There are mentions of rivers as Ashwratha, Indratoya. Nanda and appar Nanda flew near Hemkut. Shailoda River flew in between Meru and Mandar hills. Perhaps Shailoda is today’s Dhauliganga. There were jungles of bamboo family. Rivers as Shailoda were very cold and deep.
  There is complete description in Mahabharata about Malini River near Kanwashram.
   
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 29/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal  – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -25
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…22
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) to be continued…3 

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
S  S.s Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
This chapter contains notes on Rivers of Garhwal and Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Tihri Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Pauri Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Chamoli Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Hardwar Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Dehradun Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Udhamsingh Nagar Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Pithoragarh Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Bageshwar Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Dwarhat  Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Champawat Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Almora Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Rivers of Nainital Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era.

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           Water Reservoirs of Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Kulinda s or Kunindas Era
History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 25   
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-22                     
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) part-3

                                          Bhishma Kukreti
 
There are descriptions of lakes, Ponds, Warm water reservoirs, and Glaciers of Uttarakhand in Mahabharata at the time of Kulinda kingdom.
Lakes /Ponds- There are mentions of lakes in Mahabharata (Adiparva, Bhishma Parva, Sabha Parva) as Indradyumn, Chandrhrid, Bindusar and Mansarovar. Dr Dabral suggests that Gauri Kund is Mahabharata Indradyumn or Chandrahrid.
Lakes described in Manaskhand /Skandpuran: B.D. Pandey provides references of Manaskhand a part of Skandpuran. Manaskhand describes sixty Lakes or Ponds in Gargisthal, Kumaon . Gargi River used to flow near Gargisthal. Gargi is supposed to be today’s Gaula River. The lakes of Manaskhand are Bhimsarovar, Rishisarovar (Nainital), Nachkon sarovar (naukuchiya),Nal sarovar, Damyanti sarovar , Ramsarovar (Khurpatal) and Sitahrid.
Glaciers- There is no mentions as Himani or glaciers in Mahabharata but there are descriptions of Himalayan regions that satisfy the description of glacier regions.
There is no mention of taptakund in Mahabharata. 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 29/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -26
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…23
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) to be continued…4 

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
S  S.s Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
This chapter contains notes on Water reservoirs/Lakes  of Garhwal and Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes s of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes of Tihri Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/  Lakes of Pauri Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/  Lakes of Chamoli Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes   of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Hardwar Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes   of Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Dehradun Garhwal in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes   of Udhamsingh Nagar Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Pithoragarh Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Bageshwar Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Dwarhat  Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Champawat Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/P Lakes  of Almora Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era; Water reservoirs/ Lakes  of Nainital Kumaon in Kulinda or Kuninda era.


Bhishma Kukreti

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Seasonal Changes in Uttarakhand at the Mahabharata Kulinda Era

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 26   
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-23                     
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) part-4
(All write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                          Bhishma Kukreti
 Mahabharata provides glimpses of seasons of different regions of Garhwal, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) at the time of Kulinda or Kuninda Era.
                 Mahabharata states that the small rivulets get dried in the plains (Bhabhar) of Garhwal and Kumaon (Uttarakhand). The animals used to feel the shortage of water and sun strokes. Many forest animals used to get delirious and used to run here and there too. It was difficult to get food for animals and birds due to dry season.  There was regular animal migration in summer season. There was always forest fire in summer season in Bhabhar forests (Mahabharata, Adiparv 39/26-27; 69/18; 124.6).
 The deeper rivers of Bhabhar were always with water in summer season. There were green trees with bloomed flowers around river beds. The whole fauna of Bhabhar were dependent on those deep rivers. In the hills there used to be spring season. There were tress Palas, mangos, Champa , tilak etc.
 There used to be regular summer storm in the hills of Himalayas. As soon as the storms stop there used to be heavy rain or hail storms.  There used to be dust storm too. It was invisible at the time of dust storm. The trees used to fell due to strong summer storms.   Cloud busting was common while it was raining in summer. The air was speedy (Mahabharata, Vanparva).
  The rivers were full in rainy season and the water was with full of dirt and sands.
In winter season, the rivers were calm and clean. The nights were very cold (Vanparva) .
The snow falling used to be heavy at peaks of Himalayas in winter.  Glacier sliding was common and there used to be snow caves in winter. At this period, the birds never flew round peak of snowy Himalayas (Adiparv).

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 1/05/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -27
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…24
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) to be continued…5 

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
S  S.s Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe


Bhishma Kukreti

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Flora and Fauna of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Mahabharata Kulinda /Kuninda Age

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 27   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-24                     
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) part-5
(All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                          Bhishma Kukreti

  Flora of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Mahabharata Kulinda /Kuninda Age
Mahabharata also describes the flora and fauna of Uttarakhand of Kulinda or Kuninda kingdom.
The epic tells various geographical aspects of Uttarakhand of Kulinda Age.
According to Mahabharata, there were Bel (Aegle marmalos), Khair (Acesia katchu), Bakli (Anogeissus latifolia), Kaith, Ank like trees in Bhabhar. In Bhabhar, the plants were not there on river sandy banks. 
  Mahabharata mentions the shrubs in many infertile places.
There were no fruit providing trees as Amaltas  (Cassia fistula), Ashok , kadamb, Karuanda, Devdaru (cedar), palas, pakad, paravat, papal, munjatak, Lakuch, Shal, Sheesham, Sral, Semal, Harr and Kshaudra.
The fruit providers trees of Uttarakhand  as Ambada, Anjir  (figs), Anar, Am, Anvala, Ingud, kathal, Khajur (chhakl), Gambhiri, gular, Jamun, Tun, Tal, Tinduk, Tendu , Neembu, pindkhajur, bheda, bargad, Ber, bel , Bhilava, Moch (Kela) are mentioned in Mahabharata.
The flowers of Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kulinda age of Mahabharata are  Ashoka, Indivar, Kaner, Kutz, Kurvak, Ketki, Kevada, Kovidar, Champa, tilak, patal, parijat, Punnag, bakul, mandar, shefaliki, Saptvarna, kamal etc. There is aflower mentined many times in Mahbharat is Kichakbenu.
The dehydration process of plants or leaves in this time was common.
The descriptions suggest that Bugyal were there and gardening was already developed at that time.
There are many trees those seemed to be fictional   as long trees of banana (kadli).   
Fauna of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Mahabharata Kulinda /Kuninda Age
 Mahabharata mentions the animals of Kulinda age as Monkeys, lions, tigers, leopards, deer, antelopes, cats, buffalos, snakes, bear, elephants, Yak, bore,.
Mahabharata mentions birds of Kulinda era as sparrow, Kadambh, Kukkut (chiken), Kurur, Kraunch, Chakrvak, Jalkukat, Puskokil, Priyak, Plava, Bak, Bhringraj, Madgu, Saras, hans, Madhumakhi, Mosquitos,

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 2/05/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -28
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…25
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) to be continued…6 

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
S  S.s Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.s Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Dr Rameshwar Datt Gaur, 1990, Madhya Himalaya ka Vanspatik Parichay, Garhwal ki jivit Vibhutiyan aur uska Vaishishthya page 145-150
Rakhi Rawat and D.P. Vashishtha, 2011, Common Herbal Plant in Uttarakhand used in popular Medicinal preparation in Ayruveda, International Journal of Pharmacology and Photochemical Research   3(3):64-73
Mahabharata, Adiparv (119/12-13; 69/17-18; 70/2;70/4;70/7;70/21;70/14;113/8;741/2;158/44-48;) Vanparv (158/51-52; 158/49-51; 158/55); Sabhaparva 28/6)
A.P. Singh, 2000, Birds of Lower Garhwal Himalayas, FORKTAIL, 16 (2000):101-123

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Social Structure, Social behaviors and Societies of Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Mahabharata Kulinda/Kuninda Era

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 28   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-25                     
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) part-6
(All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti
 Mahabharata describes anthropological, ethnographical details of Garhwal and Kumaon of Mahabharata Kulindas/Kunindas Era.
 Vanaparva (140/25’ 177/11); Sabhaparva (28/6..; 52/3) of Mahabharata provide details of various social structures, social behavior and societies of Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) of Kulindas /Kunindas Era.  There are descriptions of following Garhwali – Kumaoni social communities or inhabitants (Castes or Jati) of this Age (Dabral, 1968 and journal of Anthropological Survey of India, 2003, volume -52, page 52):
Ekasan or Sthirvasi or Stable Khas community or settled Khas jati;
Jyoha/ Johari Bhotantik  or inhabitants of Johar region;
Deerghvenik Pradar (People wearing plaited long hair) community;
Darad –The inhabitants of passes and were very strong;
Pushup Kirat (Pastoral Kirat or Kulinddas)-All over Himachal and Mid Himalayas;
Tangan and Pratanagan (Traders of Borax and horses);
          Since, the name for Janpad of most of the Uttarakhand territories was Kulinda the large population of Uttarakhand belonged to Kulinda. Today’s Kanet/Kunait/Kanait of Garhwal, Kumaon, and Himachal Pradesh are Kulindas of Mahabharata Age.
 Kulindas of Uttarakhand of Mahabharata Age were pastoral community or they were domestic animal owners and used to trade domestic animals. 
 Mahabharata also describes Subahu the Kulinda king as Kirat king. It means The Kirat community was as strong as Kulinda community in Uttarakhand.  Few Kirat communities were dependent on forest vegetations. Kirat used to put on leather dresses and were cruel or fearless in nature. Kirat women were great hunters.
           Historians recognize Jyoha community of Mahabharata of Uttarakhand / Kulinda as today’s Johari Bhotaiya community (Dabral, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas pt -2; Motichandra, Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India page-11).
    The people of Deerghvenik Pradar community were sporting long hair and are recognized as the communities of today’s Tibetians or Bhotias.  They have strange customs and culture than other Kulinda communities.
            Tangan and Paratanagan (Traders of Borax and horses) communities used to live nearby today’s Tanknaur Pargana, Tangni chatti, Tangniya regions. Today’s Tangniya Rajpur clans are said to be Mahabharata’s Tangan and Paratanagan (Traders of Borax and horses) communities.
    Khasas  (ekasan or Sthirwasi) were more urbanized that used to live in villages and used to perform agricultural activities.
          Darad were found from Dardistan to Nepal.
     Tushar communities of Kulinda region in Mahabharata are recognized as Kushan community.
             There were some communities those were as prehistoric communities and used to eat raw mutton and were ignorant about metal uses.
 There is mention of Brahmins in Kulinda Era in Mahabharata and used live of vegetation only. Sage like Vishwamitra used to be attracted by beautiful girls of Kulinda regions.
                      Abnormal Human communities of Kulinda Era of Mahabharata
 The Mahabharata details the abnormal human communities of Kulinda region. These abnormal communities were Gandharva, Kinnar, Yaksha, army of Kordhvas  Rakshas, army of Ghatotkach, Army of Rauda and Maira, Apsara,
There is mention of nag community residing near Hardwar (Gangadwar). 


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 2/05/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -29
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…26
Historical Aspects of Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) to be continued…7 

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
S  S.S. Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.S. Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Sukhdev Singh Charak,1979, History and Culture of Himalayan states
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
This chapter comprises social structure and social communities of Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Pithoragarh Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Dwarhat Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; communities of Champawat Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Bageshwar Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Almora Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Nainital Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Udham Singh Nagar Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Rurki Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Hardwar Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Dehradun Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Pauri Garhwal Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Rudraprayag Garhwal Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Chamoli Garhwal Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age; social structure and social communities of Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Mahabharata Age.










Bhishma Kukreti

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          Habits and Habitats of Kulinda/Kuninda people of Mahabharata Era
History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 29   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-26                     
Historical Aspects of Mahabharata Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) part-7
(All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti
Habitats - There are four types of inhabitant of Kulinda/Kuninda people in Mahabharata 
1-Villages
2-Towns
3-Piligrimage Places
4-Ashram or education centers
                                          Villages and Towns of Kulinda/Kuninda of Mahabharata

The villagers were two types
1-Stable village dwellers
2-Roaming villagers who used to change village according to season as happens today in Niti and Mana regions of Garhwal. These villagers used to live on high upper Himalayan hills in summer but used to migrate in winter towards southern parts. The herdsmen used to roam.
There were villages in Bhabhar near water sources. Nag communities used to live near Gangadwar (Hardwar).  There are mentions of palaces here in Mahabharata.
 The houses were built by wood, mud and stones. The roof used to be either of grass or stones.
Ekchakra Town- Ekchakra town of Vetrakiy kingdom seems to be important town of Kulinda people of Mahabharata. Pandavas lived here in their bad days. Ekchakra was hygienic city and was attractive. The city had thousands of inhabitants. The majority of inhabitants were Brahmin. People used to offer foods to Brahmins with pleasure.
The king of Vetrakiya was defeated by a Rakshsa and then Bhima of Pandvas killed that Rakshsa.
Kulindnagar- It seems Kulindnagar started from Hardwar and might be up to Rishikesh as chariots used to be driven there in that town.
Varnavat- Varnavat was also very beautiful city near Ganges bank. According to Kedarkhand, Varnavat was in Uttarkashi district.
Shonitpur- Shonitpur was the capital of Vanasur an Asur king. It seems Shonitpur was in Nagpur Badhan regions of Chamoli Garhwal District.

                     Pilgrimage, Sacred, Holy Places of Mahabharata Kulinda, Kuninda Region

                    Gangadwar (Hardwar), Kankhal, Kubjamrak, , Kushavart, nagtirth, Vilwak, were famous pilgrimage places for dipping into the reverend rivers.
Other pilgrimage, holy, sacred places of Kulinda or Kuninda region of Mahabharata were Agystvat, Agnishivir, Angarparn, Angriashram, Gangamahadwar, Balaka, Bhardwajteerth, Bhrigutirth, Bhrigushring, and Vasudhara.

           Education centers or Ashrama of Mahbharata Kunida or Kulinda Region

 Angirashram, Upamanyu Ashram, Badrikashram, Kanvashram, Devlashram, Bhrigu Ashram, Nar Narayan Ashram were famous education centers of Mahabharata Kuninda/Kulinda region of Uttarakhand.

                   Economy of Mahabharata Kulinda /Kuninda Region
Agriculture- Kulinda/Kuninda citizens were mainly dependent on agriculture, animal farming, and forest produces. The citizens used to produce food not only for them but for also for education providers. The cereals were rice, barley etc. There were many types of fruits and vegetations (already described earlier).
Animal farming- Mahabharata describes domestic animals of Kulinda/Kuninda region as cow, buffalo, Chnvar Gay(Yak), sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, and elephant. Perhaps people used to domesticate dogs too.
 Kulinda/Kuninda of Uttarkahnd had great identity for milk producing cows. Even the post Mahabharata writers as Panini and Kashika appreciated very much the productive domestic animals of Uttarakhand especially cows and bulls.
Badrikashram region of Kulinda Uttarakhand was famous for Chanvar (flippers) of wild ox and sheep and woolen dresses.
  In plains of Uttarakhand or Kuninda /Kulinda region of Mahabharata period was famous for beneficial horses and elephants.

                           Craftsmanship in Mahabharata Kulinda /Kuninda Region -
Woolen Products - The Uttarakhand or Kuninda/Kulinda region was very famous for woolen articles in Mahabharata era.
Honey Bee Farming or honey beekeeping - The people of Mahabharata Kuninda /Kulinda knew bee farming and they also used to collect honey from forest.
Flippers from wild ox- The flippers of whiskers from tail of ox were exported from Uttarakhand of Mahabharata Kulinda/Kuninda region. 
Mineralogy- Mahabharata states that mineralogy was very much there in Kulinda /Kuninda region. The region was having identity for its minerals mines, precious stones. The gold, silver and iron were exported to other parts.
 The metal pottery technique was very much developed in Uttarakhand region of Mahabharata Kulinda/Kuninda region. The metal appliances makers used to produce metal weapons, dishes, bowls, and vessels.
The hut and building technique were of supreme categories. People knew the uses of resins and other building materials.
Stone Appliances- Mahabharata mentions various stone appliances found in Kulinda/Kuninda region.
Wooden Appliances –Mahabharata describes various wooden appliances used by people of Kulinda/Kuninda region.
Weighing and Measuring Appliances- There is no mention of weighing and measuring application of Kulinda/Kuninda region in Mahabharata except Dron. Dron is equal to dun of Garhwali –Kumauni unit of weighing material. Dun or Dron is equal to thirty two ‘man’ or kilos.
                           Transportation facilities in Mahabharata Kulinda/Kuninda Region
Chariot in Plains of Uttarakhand- There are mentions in Mahabharata about horse cart or chariot being used in plains of Kulinda/Kuninda region as in Gangwadwar , Kanwashram.
Common people used to walk by foot. However, the rich or elite people used to sit on soldiers or back of strong slaves or servants. 
Rich and elite people also used Kandi (grass or wood box) on the back of servants for reaching from one place to other. 
The grass rope bridges were used to cross deep rivers.
People also used cot type of appliances to carry rich people.
People used to take various care and used to have arrangement of food etc while travelling in hills of Kulinda/Kuninda region.
             Social customs, Social culture in Mahabharata Kulinda/Kuninda Region

Loan /borrowing- the words Pitririn, Matririn, Gururin, Devrin, Rishrin , Manushyrin in Mahabharata suggest that there was some system of borrowing and loan too.
                      Marriage Types in Kulinda, Kuninda societies
      The son was a must for the couple as son was related to get heaven after death. Tarpan system also suggests that to have son was important aspects of life.
Due to load of agriculture, having many wives was common system in Kulinda/Kuninda people of Mahabharata Age.
Brahm type of Marriage- When marriage was fixed by analyzing the education, qualities and family traits the marriage was called Brahm marriage.
Asur Type of Marriage- When the groom family used to take the girl by force or without consent of girl or girl side, the marriage was called ‘Asur’ marriage.
Gadnhrva Marriage type-The love marriage or by consent of only girl and boy was called ‘Gandharva’ marriage. Gadnharva marriage was common but society used to resist such marriages or the society was not in favor of Gandharava marriage.
Choosing groom by bride- Among elite class, the Swayambar type of marriage was also common. The desirous grooms used to come in one place and bride used to choose her groom from them. There was dowry system.   
Widow marriage- There was widow marriage system too.
 Son- There is mentions of Niyog system or test tube bay producing type system in Mahabharata for producing sons.
                                       Sanskar
 There were many Sanskars (Rituals for various age) to be performed by people as birth celebration, thread ceremony, learning ceremony, hair cutting ceremony, counseling rite, marriage, cremation, shradh or paying tribute after death every year.
                                      Societies
Division of Labor- The human being was divided among Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra from the birth.
 Joint Family- joint family system was common.
Importance of Women- There was mother power system and father power systems together.   There was importance for women. However, there were many liberal and strict taboos for women too.
Sati system- There was sati system (woman burning with dead husband) in Mahabharata age.
Widows- There was many taboos and rules and regulations for widows many of those still prevail in Hindu –Jain societies of India.
Son-Son used to get main importance in the family
Daughter- There was importance of girl in the society. Many times girls were married for getting diplomatic benefits.
Woman as consumable item- Women were also used as consumable items as Draupadi was given to Duryodhan by Yudhisthar. 
Social behaviors- There were untold rules for people to obey as respecting orders, respecting teachers, obeying councilors or kings.
Getting education- the division of labors was started at that time. Therefore people of each caste were advised to take cast wise education. That is Brahmin will read, Rajput would take war and weaponry training and craftsmen would take training from family members for craftsmanship.
Social gatherings- There were various social gatherings and ceremonies as Bhoj, Nritya, sports, archery show, war show, gambling etc in the society.
Non vegetarianism – taking non vegetarian food was common.
Hunting-The hunting was common.
Slavery- There was slavery system
Four spans of life- The people used to obey four cycles of human life- Brahmcharya by twenty five years, grihsthashram by sisty years and vanprasth after sixty or so.
Yogi- There were Yogis in the society.
Worshipping deities- people knew the techniques of worshipping deities and even evil spirits.
Truthfulness- People used to pay attention on truthfulness.
Sin- People were afraid of doing sinful acts.
Astrology- There was importance of astrologers. People used to believe on supernatural powers, mantras, tantra etc

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 4/05/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -30
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…27
Historical Aspects of Mahabharata Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) to be continued…8 

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajaya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Imana Simha Cemjonga, 2003, History and Culture of Kirat People
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora

Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Mamta Chaudhari, 1977 Tribes of Ancient India
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C.Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
S  S.S. Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.S. Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Sukhdev Singh Charak, 1979, History and Culture of Himalayan states
Savita  Saxena, 1995, The geographical Surveys of Puranas
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe


Bhishma Kukreti

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  • Posts: 18,345
  • Karma: +22/-1
Governance and Public Administration in Mahabharata   Kulinda /Kuninda Kingdoms of Uttarakhand

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 30   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-27                     
Historical Aspects of Mahabharata Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) part-8
(All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti
                     Hundred Kingdoms (Guilds) n Kulinda/Kuninda Region of Uttarakhand
           The historians as Jayaswal (Hindu Raj tantra part-1), Dr Dabral, and Naval ET all had agreement that there were more than hundred kingdoms or Gansangha (republicans) of Kulindas of Mahabharata Age in Uttarakhand. Mahabharata states ‘Kulindshatsnklam ‘(vanparva 140/24).  The strong Kulindas used to administrate each Kulinda Gansangha and it seems each Gansangha administrator was called ‘Kulindaraj’ or ‘Kunindaraj’.
Administrative Unit of Kulinda Gansangha- The small unit was village. When there is more population the place was called ‘Nagar’. Many villages were called ‘Vishay’.  Probably the ‘Vishay ‘was country or nation.
The capital of Vishay or nation was called ‘Pur’ or ‘Nagar’.
 The smallest unit of village was family (kul).
Prosperity- According to Mahabharata, Kulinda or Kuninda Janpad was very prosperous region.
Education- the Brahmins and other upper class people were interested in educating their children.
Girl education- Girl education in Uttarakhand of Mahabharata Kulinda /Kuninda Age was common as said in Mahabharata about Shakuntala and daughter /daughter in law of Ekchakra Brahmin.
Rules Abiding People- Mahabharata states that people were rule abiding community. Even the Raksasas  or giant as Bakasur was rule abiding giant.
 Excellent Diplomacy with Neighboring Nations- Kulindas of Uttarakhand had excellent relationship with Pandavas at all time. That shows the nature of excellent diplomacy by Kulindas with neighboring nations.
                                  Armies and Ammunition of the Great King Subahu
          Mahabharata describes in depth about Subahu the Kulinda king of Uttarakhand region.
Armed forces- Subahu divided his army into infantry, horse riders, and elephant riders. There is mention about armies of chariots.
Weapons- The major weapons were arrow and bows. Trident was also common weapon.
Stone weapons- The armed forces were expert in throwing various types of stone weapons on enemies.
Bravery- the soldiers of Subahu the Kulinda king were brave.
                          Army of Giants
  Mahabharata describes in details about armies of giants of Uttarakhand in Kulinda regions.
 The weapons were club, sword, draggers, hammers, stone weapons, different types of axes, dust, sands, water, fire etc.
                             Training for learning Rajdharma or Public administration
 There is a story in Mahabharata that Bhima reached in one hill of Himalaya and met Hanumana. Hanumana was quite old and he preaches Bhima about general and finer parts of ruling and administration. This shows that in Mahabharata Kulinda age, there was a system for older and experiences personalities teaching and training to younger ones about administration.
  Hanuman discusses about general administration; battle or war tactics as defense, offence, surprise and deceptive war tactics; role of spies; role of judiciary; benefits to subjects etc.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 5/05/2013
(The write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -31
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…28
Historical Aspects of Mahabharata Kulindas or Kunindas Janpad of Uttarakhand (1400-400 B.C.) to be continued…9 

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajaya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Imana Simha Cemjonga, 2003, History and Culture of Kirat People
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora

Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Mamta Chaudhari, 1977 Tribes of Ancient India
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C. Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
Ram Naresh Pandey (A.S.I), Ancient and Medieval History of Western Nepal 
S  S.S. Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.S. Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Sukhdev Singh Charak, 1979, History and Culture of Himalayan states
Savita  Saxena, 1995, The geographical Surveys of Puranas
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe


 

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