Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 170324 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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  Uttarakhand after Great Kuruksetra Battle of Mahabharata in Kuru Kingdom 
History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 31   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-28                     
Historical Aspects of Mahabharata part-8
(All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti
              When the great Kuruksetra battle was over and Pandavas went to heaven via Uttarakhand, Himalaya, Parikshit the son of Abhimanyu took over the Kuru rule. Parikshit was thirty five –six years old at the time of getting crowned. 
 Dr Dabral suggests that it seemed that Uttarakhand (Kulinda kingdoms) was under Parikshit.  The Takshak Nag killed Parikshit.
Janmajey was the elder son of Parikshit. Janmajey was child when his father died. Janmajey killed millions of Nag (snakes0 for taking revenge of his father killing by Takshak Nag. However, Takshak was protected from Janmajey.   
 Janmajey performed Ashwamedh Yagy (winning other kingdoms).   According to Shatpath Brahman (13/5/4/1-3) and Arthshastra (3/5/2), Janmajey travelled Himalayas.
 According to Kedarkhans (61/85-86), Janmajey listened the story of Mahabharata from Vyasa at Badrikashram  , Uttarakhand.
 After the death of Janmajey, the Kuru kingdom started declining.  This was also time, that the rule of Kuru dynasty ended in Uttarakhand. 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 5/05/2013
(The write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -31
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…28
Historical Aspects of Mahabharata to be continued…9 

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajaya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Imana Simha Cemjonga, 2003, History and Culture of Kirat People
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Mathpal, Yashodhar, 1998, Kumaon Painting: A Story of Living Tradition of Painting in Kumaon 
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Mamta Chaudhari, 1977 Tribes of Ancient India
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C. Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
Ram Naresh Pandey (A.S.I), Ancient and Medieval History of Western Nepal 
S  S.S. Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.S. Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Sukhdev Singh Charak, 1979, History and Culture of Himalayan states
Savita  Saxena, 1995, The geographical Surveys of Puranas
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe


Bhishma Kukreti

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                 Uttarakhand in Pauranic Literature /Shruti Sahitya
History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 32   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-29                     
 (All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti
   There was total destruction due to Great War of Kurukshetra. Millions of people were killed in the Great War.
          Vyasa the real grandfather of Duryodhan –Kauravas and Pandavas was in very distress. He went to Uttarakhand near Badrikashram. There in a cave (Now, above Mana village is called Vyasa Udyar  or Vyasa Pustak) he did Tapsya.
             There in the cave (today’s Vyas Gufa above Mana village), Vyasa created orally Mahabharata (it is said that Vyasa dictated and lord Ganesha wrote Mahabharata). Panini (600 BCE) was aware about Mahabharata (Jay or Bharata).
 Vyasa narrated Mahabharata to his disciples as sages Shukdev (Vyasas’s son), Sumant, jaimini, Pail and Vaishyampan  I Vyasa cave or Vyas Gufa above Mana village near Badrkashram.
  It is said that Vyasa created Purans too. However, most of the Purans are created after first century. It means Vyasa was a title who used to create (Shruti) history.
  Historians as Rapson, Ram Das Gaur, suggest that there are mentions of the land in a couple of Upnishdas and Puranas that was either in Uttarakhand or nearby Uttarakhand.
  There is description of purity of Ganges in Upnishads. There are mentions of Badrikashram, Nar Narayan Mountains, in Vrihadeanykupnishad. 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 5/05/2013
(The write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -33
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…30

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajaya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Imana Simha Cemjonga, 2003, History and Culture of Kirat People
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Mathpal, Yashodhar, 1998, Kumaon Painting: A Story of Living Tradition of Painting in Kumaon 
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Mamta Chaudhari, 1977 Tribes of Ancient India
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C. Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
Ram Naresh Pandey (A.S.I), Ancient and Medieval History of Western Nepal 
S  S.S. Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.S. Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Sukhdev Singh Charak, 1979, History and Culture of Himalayan states
Savita  Saxena, 1995, The geographical Surveys of Puranas
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
The following Classic Sanskrit Literature cited for Uttarakhand in Pauranic Literature
Mahabharata
Kedarkhand
Manaskhand
Ashtadhyai
Ashwalayan grih sutra
Panini sutra
Chhandogey Upnishad
Shatpath Brahman
Vrihadkarnyaupnishad
Jaimini Brahman
Arth Shastra
 


Bhishma Kukreti

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 Uttarakhand descriptions in Buddhist Literature- Jataka Sangrah
History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 33   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-30                     
 (All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti
           Mahabharata started for writing old historical details and sayings of elites and intellectuals.
          The disciples of Gautama Buddha wrote the sayings of Buddha after his death in story styles. These old literature is called generally Jataka Literature. Jataka Sangrahas are oldest Buddhist literature and are in Pali language. The writing time of f Jataka Sangrahas are said to be from 150BCE to 400AD (Bharat Singh Upadhyaya, Pali Sahitya ka Itihas, reprinted 1994).
            The Jataka Sangrahas discuss more about the regions of Bihar, upper Madhya Pradesh and eastern Uttar Pradesh.
        There is more descriptions of words ’Himvant’ and Uttar Himvant’ in Jataka literature.  Historians state that Himvant word was more for Nepal and Uttar Himvant was for Uttarakhand.

 Hills of Uttarakhand in Jataka Literature: The places as Adhong, Ushirdhwaj, Yamun, Gandhmadan and Vipul shrines described in Jataka Sangrah were part of Uttarakhand.
Fauna of Uttarakhand in Jataka Literature- An oldest Jataka literature ‘Mahavessantrajataka’ describes peculiar l plants of plains of Uttarakhand (Dabral).  Jatak Literature described and appreciated tress of Uttarakhand as Kutaj, Salal, Mango, Kosamb, Dhav, Shal, Ashwakarna, Khadir, fandan, Maluva, Padmini.  Mahavans a Jataka literature describes tooth brushing plants, Anvala, Haritaki etc.

Fauna of Uttarakhand in Jataka Literature-There is description of animals of Uttarakhand as wild dogs, tigers, lions, leopards, different kinds of dear, elephants, foxes, jackals, wild ox, rhinoceros, wild cats, monkeys, bear, pigs/bore, rabbits, and other domestic animals in Jataka literature.
The Jataka literature tell us   about the birds of Uttarakhand as peacock, chickens, chakor, crows, cuckoos, owls, parrots etc

Hunting- Jataka literature reveals that the plains of Uttarakhand were famous for hunting. Hunters from Banaras used to come in Uttarakhand.
Inhabitants of Uttarakhand in Jataka Literature- Jataka literature state that Kinnars were inhabitants of Uttarakhand. Kinnara communities of Uttarakhand were simple, were very happy and beautiful.
Slavery- Jataka literatures show that there was slavery custom in that time. People used to come to buy slaves in Uttarakhand.

Trading- Jataka literatures throw light on trading system of plains of Uttarakhand.

Education centers of Uttarakhand- Himalayan region were famous for education centers /Ashrmas in Jataka Literatures.
There is description of visiting of Ram pundit, Lakhan kumar and their sister Sita to Uttarakhand (Dashrath Jataka).
There is mention of Shravan Kumar and his old blind parents in Sam Jataka. Sam Jataka states that banaras king Piliyakh killed Shravan innocently.
There is mention of Vessantar Kumar of Shivides visiting Gandhmadhan shrine (Mahavessantarjataka).
There are stories about monkey and crocodile happened in Ganges in Sansumarjataka. 
There is description of great Monkey –Mahkapi of Himalaya in Mahakavijataka.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 6/05/2013
(The write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -34
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…31

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajaya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Imana Simha Cemjonga, 2003, History and Culture of Kirat People
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Mathpal, Yashodhar, 1998, Kumaon Painting: A Story of Living Tradition of Painting in Kumaon 
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Mamta Chaudhari, 1977 Tribes of Ancient India
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C. Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
Ram Naresh Pandey (A.S.I), Ancient and Medieval History of Western Nepal 
S  S.S. Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.S. Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Sukhdev Singh Charak, 1979, History and Culture of Himalayan states
Savita  Saxena, 1995, The geographical Surveys of Puranas
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe

Bhishma Kukreti

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Jainism in Ancient Uttarakhand
History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 34   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-31                     
 (All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti

  Jainism is one of the oldest religions or way of living life in India. The Jainism discarded the God or abnormal invisible powers cited in Vedas etc.  Rishabhdev, Brishabhdev  or Adinath was first Teerthankar and Mahaveer was last or twenty fourth Teerthankar in Jainism.
  There are proofs of Jainism spread or preaching Jain priest visiting plains of Garhwal and Kumaon around first BCE.
 Dr Dabral states that the Jain sages did Tapsay around Badhapur (Bijnaur district). Atkinson claimed that researchers found Jain idols of first century B.C. in the fields of Badhapur , Bijnaur. Though, in Mordhwaj, (Bijnaur) there are ruins of Buddhist culture and king  but researchers also found Jain idols of first century. Dr K.P. Nautiyal and his fellow scholars as Khanduri, Rawat ET all are experts of Mordhwaj era.
 Those researches and Jain literature (Awshyakchuni) show that Jain preachers used to come in Uttarakhand for spreading and preaching Jain philosophy.  There was effect of Jainism (around first century and before)in plains of Uttarakhand but not on hills of Uttarakhand.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 6/05/2013
(The write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -35
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…32

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajaya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Imana Simha Cemjonga, 2003, History and Culture of Kirat People
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Mathpal, Yashodhar, 1998, Kumaon Painting: A Story of Living Tradition of Painting in Kumaon 
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Mamta Chaudhari, 1977 Tribes of Ancient India
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C. Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
Ram Naresh Pandey (A.S.I), Ancient and Medieval History of Western Nepal 
S  S.S. Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.S. Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Sukhdev Singh Charak, 1979, History and Culture of Himalayan states
Savita  Saxena, 1995, The geographical Surveys of Puranas
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe

Bhishma Kukreti

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Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) during the Time of Buddha and afterwards Buddhism

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 35   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-32   
    Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) during the Time of Buddha and afterwards Buddhism part -1               
 (All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti
         Buddha was born as a Sanatani/Vedic 9Hindu) prince in Kapilvastu (Nepal) in 563 B.C. Buddha was married and has son Rahul. Buddha left home at the age of twenty nine in search of the real truth. Buddha provided the revolutionary philosophy to India. Buddha got awareness at Bodhgaya. Buddha preached many parts of North India. Buddha left the body in 483B.C.
      Buddha never created any religion or sect but long after his ‘nrivan’ created Buddhism.
      Dr Dabral and dr Saklani informed with references of old Buddhist literature that Buddha visited Uttarakhand at  Ushigiri, Kankhal (Haridwar).  Buddhist literature Divyavadan stated that Buddha also visited Shatrughna Nagar of ancient Uttarakhand.
    There was spread of Buddhism in plains of Uttarakhand (Bhawar). It seems that the rulers of Uttarakhand provided support to Buddhism. The Ashrams near Gangadwar (Haridwar)  were now Buddhist math around 300 B.C. The Buddhist preachers of Uttarakhand solved many disputes among Buddhist preachers in Maghada or elsewhere. The inhabitants of Gangadwar, Morgiri, helped humanly and monetarily in construction of Bharhutstup. Many Uttarakhandi kings carved Buddha in their coins and helped constructing Buddhist Stupa in Mathura.
Kedarkhand  (40/28-29)states a hill of Uttarakhand as Budhachal. There was definitely effect of Buddhism in Uttarakhand from 500 B.C to 600 B.C. especially plains of Uttarakhand (Saharanpur and Bijnor too). 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 7/05/2013
(The write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -36
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…33
Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) during the Time of Buddha and afterwards Buddhism to be continued…part -2               

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajaya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Imana Simha Cemjonga, 2003, History and Culture of Kirat People
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Mathpal, Yashodhar, 1998, Kumaon Painting: A Story of Living Tradition of Painting in Kumaon 
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.C.Joshi, 1978, the Khasas in the History of Uttarakhand, Swasti Sri, edited by K.V.Ravi , p.10),ND
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Mamta Chaudhari, 1977 Tribes of Ancient India
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C. Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
Ram Naresh Pandey (A.S.I), Ancient and Medieval History of Western Nepal 
S  S.S. Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.S. Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Sukhdev Singh Charak, 1979, History and Culture of Himalayan states
Savita  Saxena, 1995, The geographical Surveys of Puranas
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
History of Buddhism in ancient Uttarakhand; History of Buddhism in ancient Rishikesh, Uttarakhand; History of Buddhism in ancient Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of Buddhism in ancient Kankhal, Uttarakhand; History of Buddhism in ancient Bhabhar/Bhawar, Uttarakhand; History of Buddhism in ancient Mordhwaj, Uttarakhand; History of Buddhism in ancient Bijnor, Uttarakhand; History of Buddhism in ancient Jaunsar Bawar , Uttarakhand; History of Buddhism in ancient Lakhamandal, Uttarakhand; to be continued….

Bhishma Kukreti

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                Kulinda Janapada of Uttarakhand (400-300BCE) of Panini Time

                  History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 36   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-33   
    Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) during the Time of Buddha and afterwards Buddhism part -2               
 (All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti
                                                Janpada Age
            Before Maurya or Maghad Kingdom Era, there were hundreds of smaller Janapada in India. There were Ganaparishad or Sangh( Republic ways of rule).  The Chakravarti Samrat as Yudhishthir used to win Janpadas but the existence of Janpada never demolished.
             Major Janpada of North India from 500-400 BCE
             Panini (480-410BCE) provides the details of north Indian Janpada of his life time (Agarwal, Panikalin Bharatvars, p.57). There were following Major North Indian Janapada those had relation with Uttarakhand.
 Madra Janpada-Southern –was in eastern of Takhshila (today’s Syalkot).
Shvi-Ushinagar- was Southern of Madra Janapada
Trigart Janapada – was at hills of Satluj, Vyas and Ravi Rivers (Kangra to Chamba of Himachal).
Bharat Janapada- was at present Thanesar, Kaithal, Karnal, Panipat.
Kuru Janapada - was near Delhi and Meerut.
Pratyagranth Janapada- was at plains of in between Ganga and Ramganga.
Kosal, Kashi and Maghad Janapada- were in western Bihar to eastern Uttar Pradesh.
  Kulun/Kulinda Janapada- Kulinda Janapada was spread from east to Satluj, to Yamun, Ganges up to Kali Ganga.  Historians found Kulinda/Kuninda/Kulun coins from Western Satluj to Kali Ganga regions.
Kulinda-Ushinagar- Historians divide Kulinda Janapada and state as Kulinda -Ushinagar the region of Uttarakhand of Kulinda regimes.

                      Provinces or Regimes under Kulinda Ushinagar Janpada of Uttarakhand (500-400BCE)

   According to Dabral, the Kulinda Ushinagar Janapada was divided into major six provinces, rules/regimes or parts.
Tamas – The Janpada adhyaksha or king of Tamas was Ushinagar. Tamas was spread on the hills of Satluj, Tons (Tamsa) rivers. The other smaller rivers in the region were Jala and Upjala (Rupi, Supi  of Himachal).
Kalkut , Kalshail(today’s Kalsi) - The area of Kalkut comprised of southern Yamuna, Kalsi, Dehradun and Shatrughan Nagar. The region was famous for black color Eye ointment (kala Anjan) production in Mahabharata.
Tangan- the Bhotiya regions .Tibetan border of present Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Rudraprayag and Chamoli was called Tangan.
Bhardwaj Janapada- the region of Present Pauri Garhwal and Tihri, earls Uttarkashi and Haridwar was Bhardwaj region of Kulinda Ushinagar Janapada. 
Ranku- Present boarder of Tibet or Bhotiya region of Pithoragarh was called Ranku in Panini literature. Ranku region of Kulinda /Kuninda Ushinagar was famous for blanket and ox in Panini time. A few inhabitants of Pithoragarh of this region still speak Ranka language.
Atrey or Govishan region- The Govishan region of Kulinda Ushinagar is today’s Almora, Nainital, Bageshwar, Champawat, Udham Singh Nagar and southern Pithoragarh.   

               Human colonies in Kulinda/Kuninda Regimes of Uttarakhand in Panini Time (500-400BCE)

               The Kulinda region of Uttarakhand was full of dense forests. The hunters from various foreign regions were regularly coming for hunters in the region.
   There were important human colonies in the plains of Kulinda/Kuninda regions of Uttarakhand (Bawar region0 and there were colonies on hills too.
Katrinagar of Kulinda of Palini time-There are two capitals mentioned in Ashthdhyayi of Panini-Katri and Kalkoot. Samudragupta mentions Katripura in his Prayagprasasthi. There is mention of Kartikeypur the capital of Katyuri kingdom in Katyuri scripts. Agarwal suggests that Katri, Katripur and Kartikeypur are same.
Kalkootnagar- the capital of Kulinda kingdom (400AD) was Kalkoot (Kalsi).  Even Kalkut was having importance at the time of Asoka too.
The ‘arm’ suffix used to be added for calling a place. Still there is a village name ‘Kubjamrak’ near Rishikesh (Dabral).
Kulinda /Kuninda Villages- There were villages. Ashthadhyayi mentions names of two villages of Bhardwaj Janapada (Garhwal region) –Krikarn and Parn. Patanjali mentioned two villages Ainik and Saunsuk of Bhardwaj Janapada.
      There were Ashrams /Kutirs/Sangha/Matha of Bikshuks near villages. The villagers provided food etc to Bhikshuks.
         Where there were crops the farms were the properties of owners. However, when there is no crops the farms used to be the properties of villages. The same system persists today in Garhwal, remote Dehradun and Kumaon; as soon harvesting is completed in the field the villagers can use farms for grazing the cattle till next seeds sowing.
Houses- The mud, stones, wood and grass were use for constructing huts. The huts were in clusters for protection purpose. The people used to plaster of red and white mud. There were signs that the bricks and lime were used in construction of building, hut etc in plains of Kulinda /Kuninda region (Bawar).
    Dabral provides the references of Chullbag and informs that people used wooden utensils/appliances, earthen pots, sticks utensils/appliances, grass vessels and stone utensils/appliances. The mats were made by grass and ropes and other sticks.  The leather boxes, cucumber dry empty fruits were common things for carrying materials.
Beatifying Items- The Kulinda people of Panini time used to put ‘langoti’, Kacchaa, or Ghuttnna, Dhoti, and cotton or woolen upper garment as blankets or chadar. Turban was common.
People used to do make up on lips and face. The Yamuna valley coollyrium(Eye Anjan) was very famous and the communities used to export the same.  The metallic or plants ornaments were common.
Food- The food items were same as of Kulinda of Mahabharata time.
Medicines and Health care- The health care practices was developed.  Herbal medicinal plants and medicines had heavy demand.
Arm men as occupancy- There was heavy demands for the Kulinda youth for army from foreign regions and youth used to earn by serving in army of Kulinda king or foreign king.
Looting and dacoit acts were very common.
 Exports from Kulinda Uttarakhand- Bawar /Bhabhar or plains of Kulinda Uttarakhand had wholesales markets. The people used to export grass, grass materials, mats, salt minerals, figs, ropes, fibers produces, flowers, dry fruits and flowers, medicinal plants, herbal medicines, wool and woolen items, leather from various animals, leather items, milk, milk products, honey , Gangajal, elephant tusk, etc.
There were ores and Kulinda people used to export ores or metal. The Kulinda people used to export precious stones, borax, skulls, and other items too.
Roads in Kulinda Region-  Bawar or plains of Kulinda was the transition centers for trading. The roads were comfortable in plains of Kulinda.
 However, the roads in hills were very difficult and were named Kupath. The  Pali language Mahaniddes booklet  classified the roads of hills of Kulinda of Panini time as-
1-Venuoath- rope road,
2-Ajpath- Road for goats,
3-Mendupath,
4-Sankupath-,
6-Chhatpath
7-Banspath, (Bamboo jungle)
8-Musikpath
9-Sakunpath
10-Dariptha
11-Vettcharpath
People had to make preparation for walking on those raods and had to take many articles to walk. There were gras rope bridges to cross rivers as Ganges.
Social Customs- The custom of keeping relation or family name on ‘moolgaon or mool purush’ (Original village and Original family person) was very strong and still the custom persists.
Languages- the common men used to speak local languages and elite used to speak Sanskrit.
 The other social customs and structures were already described in previous chapters.
Administration- The kings or regional rulers used to take help of councils of ministers. There were court priests, prime ministers, chief of army, crown prince, princes and other counselors to look after administration.
Taxation-There were taxes as land taxes, octori, river crossing taxes, sales taxes, mineral taxes and forest product taxes. 
 
 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 7/05/2013
(The write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -37
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…34
Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) during the Time of Buddha and afterwards Buddhism to be continued…part -3               

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajaya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Imana Simha Cemjonga, 2003, History and Culture of Kirat People
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1989, Morphogenesis of Kunindas, Cir 200B.C.-cir A.D.300
Mathpal, Yashodhar, 1998, Kumaon Painting: A Story of Living Tradition of Painting in Kumaon 
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.C.Joshi, 1978, the Khasas in the History of Uttarakhand, Swasti Sri, edited by K.V.Ravi , p.10),ND
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Mamta Chaudhari, 1977 Tribes of Ancient India
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Nitya Nand Mishra, 1994, Sources Materials of Kumauni History, Shri Almora Book Depot.
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C. Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
Ram Naresh Pandey (A.S.I), Ancient and Medieval History of Western Nepal 
S  S.S. Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.S. Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Sukhdev Singh Charak, 1979, History and Culture of Himalayan states
Savita  Saxena, 1995, The geographical Surveys of Puranas
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Uttar Pradesh District gazetteers, 1989, Volume-23
Plant, Richard, J., 1979, Greek, Semitic, Asiatic Coins and how to read them
R.C Majumdar, Ancient Colonies in the Far East
Shiv Pad Sen, 1988, Sources of History of India , Volume -5
 Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology
World Archeological Bulletin ,1989.p 18

Bhishma Kukreti

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Pashand/Pakhand Era: Different Religious Sects in Uttarakhand in Mauryan and Gupta Eras (500-300BCE)

History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 37   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-34   
    Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) during the Time of Buddha and afterwards Buddhism part -3               
 (All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)

                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti

  In fifth or fourth century before, there was flooding of various religious sects in India. There were great influences of old and newer religious sects in Uttarakhand.
  Pashand means different religious faiths. Today, Pakhand means false doctrine. In 500-300 BCE, the words had two meanings – doctrine of faith and doctrine of false faith.  Asoka and Yagyavalkya used Pashand words at various places.
There were three major sects of Pashand
1-Theist or Believers on god, life after death
2-Non believers on god and life after death
3-Those believed on luck
Ashrams- There were Ashrams in Uttarakhand in this Age where sages/ascetics used to get penance. Backsides Badrikashram, Upmanyu Ashram, Kanwashram, Bhrigu Ashram, Kankhal Ashram there were hundreds of Ashrams at Ganges, Yamuna,Sharda, Rathstha (Ramganga), Kaliganga  and other rivers banks in Uttarakhand.  Ganges bank was the main centres of establishing Ashram.
 The father of first teerthankar of Jainism King Nabhi visited Kailash. The first teerthankar of Jainism Rishabhdev retires in Kailash. Jain literature state that there were Jain worshipping places in Gandhmadhan hills of Uttrakhand.  One of Uttarakhandi (Kailash/Gandhmadhan near Badrikashram) Vidyadhar became disciple of Jainism.
Buddhist of Uttarakhand in Pashand Era- There was notable influence of Buddhism in plains (Bawar) of Uttarakhand. The archeological sites of fifth century and coins found in Uttarakhand are proof of notable influences of Buddhism in plains of Uttarakhand. There were Buddha Bhikshus who obeyed the doctrine of Buddhism related to dresses, eating, living and worshipping methods. There were Buddhist sanghs in Uttarakhand.
Bhakti Puja- Uttarakhandis started believing on Vedas and started Vedic worshipping or performing Vedic rituals.
The common men were worshiping Yaksha, Vriaksh dev (tree as deity0, nag (snakes as deities). Indra, Kuber, Vishnu, were other deities. Mother, village, also became deity.
Nag puja- snakes were also worshipped as deities in every sect of sanatan sects including Jainism and Buddhism. There are snake deities s on the coins of Kulinda kings.
 Grah and Gan were also worshipped.
Worshipping of forefathers was common.
Shaivism also became common sect
Vaishnivism came after Mahabharata and became popular in this age.
Pilgrimages in Uttarakhand- There were many famous pilgrim centers in this age in Uttarakhand. Many rivers, ponds, lakes, hills, shrines and Ashrams became pilgrim centers. 

 There were various kinds of ascetics in Kanwashram (Malini River bank, Kotdwara, Bhawar, Garhwal). There were ascetics those were living only on fruits, bulbs and roots or plants. There were ascetics living on smoke of Yagya and sun rays. Many ascetics lived only on milk. Many sages used to live on grasses.
People of urban centers and villages used to listen the preaching of knowledgeable. The custom of donating to saints, preachers, Brahmins, Kulpurohit , sages, Tapswi, Bhikshus, knowledgeable.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 9/05/2013
(The write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -38
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…35
Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) during the Time of Buddha and afterwards Buddhism to be continued…part -4               

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajaya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora

Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Imana Simha Cemjonga, 2003, History and Culture of Kirat People
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1989, Morphogenesis of Kunindas, Cir 200B.C.-cir A.D.300
Mathpal, Yashodhar, 1998, Kumaon Painting: A Story of Living Tradition of Painting in Kumaon 
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.C.Joshi, 1978, the Khasas in the History of Uttarakhand, Swasti Sri, edited by K.V.Ravi , p.10),ND
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Mamta Chaudhari, 1977 Tribes of Ancient India
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Nitya Nand Mishra, 1994, Sources Materials of Kumauni History, Shri Almora Book Depot.
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C. Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
Ram Naresh Pandey (A.S.I), Ancient and Medieval History of Western Nepal 
S  S.S. Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.S. Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Sukhdev Singh Charak, 1979, History and Culture of Himalayan states
Savita  Saxena, 1995, The geographical Surveys of Puranas
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Uttar Pradesh District gazetteers, 1989, Volume-23
Plant, Richard, J., 1979, Greek, Semitic, Asiatic Coins and how to read them
R.C Majumdar, Ancient Colonies in the Far East
Shiv Pad Sen, 1988, Sources of History of India , Volume -5
 Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology
World Archeological Bulletin, 1989.p 18

Bhishma Kukreti

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             Soldiery as Profession (Ayudhjivi) in Ancient Uttarakhand (500BCE to 1 AD)
                         History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 38   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-35   
History of   Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) during the Time of Buddha and afterwards Buddhism part -4               
 (All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti
 There were various warriors’ communities and looting communities too in each region in ancient India.
         
                        Looting, Thieves Robbery, and Dacoit Communities in Ancient Uttarakhand 
                 Not only in other parts India but looters, thieves, snatchers, deceivers and dacoit communities were there in Uttarakhand especially in plains. The reasons behind no or scanty population of looters, thieves, snatchers, robbers, deceivers, highwaymen, pirates, extorters,   and dacoit communities in hills of Uttarakhand was that people couldn’t/ can’t  live in hills without friendly, cooperative, honest, coordinative, interdependent behaviors. 
          In Janpada or Gan Sangha Age, there was unseen or unheard or unimaginative heavy, fast growth in economic, wealth accumulation, trade or industries in India. India became biggest exporters. The road constructions by Janapada king or people brought new creativity among craftsmen and there was heavy production of crafts. The unseen or unheard or unimaginative heavy, fast growth in economic, wealth accumulation, trade or industries brought the new culture of accumulating wealth by deceiving, theft, looting, robbery, dacoit, in Indian plains. History is repeating in India after economic reforms (1991AD). Now, from 1991- 2013the Indians have been witnessing newer ways of thefts/loots (scams) in India.
        There were dense forests around the Indian villages or cities. The looters, dacoits, thieves, snatchers, deceivers used to hide there and used to loot/snatch, rob, burgle; steal, pirate, extort, by all means from the traders and villagers/citizens. Tens of Jatak Samhitas, Arth Shastra of Kautilya, Panini provide the details of robbers, looters, thieves, pirates, burglars, snatchers and their activities in Ancient India (500 BCE-fist AD). 
                 As far s plains of Ancient Uttarakhand are concerned looters, thieves, snatchers, robbers, deceivers, highwaymen, pirates, extorters,   and dacoit communities used to have colonies in Shivalik hills (including Pilibhit, Bijnor and Saharanpur) and plains and Bawar plains.  These male ‘Utsedhjivi ‘(those whose occupation was looting etc) communities were also gang rappers.
                The citizens and armed forces of Janpada were afraid of these communities. There was a system of taking introduction from an armed man, “Are you army man of thief?”
                                        Demand of Uttarakhandi Soldiery community
                    The Janpada were failure in protecting citizens from ‘Utsedhjivi’ and people or rich men had to depend on soldiery communities for their own protection.
                The neighboring Janpada or tribes were fierce competitors for forest produces, mines and mineralogy, water etc. The Janapadas used to have battles on day to day basis. Due to non-violence preaching of Buddhism and Jainism, there was lethargy among soldiers to become killers or violent. Therefore, the demand for soldiery community (Ayudhjivi) from non Buddhist or non Jainism affected regions. 
          From the time of Mahabharata, there were high and respectful demands for the soldiery communities from Uttarakhand hills. The following soldiery communities of ancient Uttarakhand hills are praised in Mahabharata, Markandey Puran,Vayu Puran and Vaman Puran-
Huja Soldiery community
Uttarkuru Soldiery community
Khas (including Kirat, Kol, Mund) Soldiery community
Kunt or Karn Soldiery community
Pravaran Soldiery community
Darad Soldiery community
Tangan Soldiery community of Taknaur,Ttanganichatti  and Joshimath

         The smaller Janapada rulers or bigger Janpada (Maha Janpada) rulers (kings) of North Indian plains specialty from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar started hiring on contract basis these Soldiery community of Uttarakhand. The rulers started offering god salaries and comforts to these Soldiery community of Uttarakhand.
                                 Magadha Kingdom
     Ajatshatru established Magadha dynasty and his capital was Patiliputra. Some historians suggest that ShishuNag  (430BCE) one successors of Ajatshatru was son of a Soldiery community from Uttarakhand.
   The Important Historical dates of Uttarakhand Soldiery community Era are (Dr Dabral)
Mahaveer (599-527BCE)
Buddha (App. 563- 483BCE)
Panini (480-410 BCE)
Shishunag (430 BCE?)
Establishment of Nanda vans dynasty in Magadha (364 BCE)

   







Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 9/05/2013
(The write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -39
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…36
History of Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) during the Time of Buddha and afterwards Buddhism to be continued…part -5               

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajaya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
Gyan Swarup Gupta, 199,India: From Indus Valley civilization to Mauryas
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Imana Simha Cemjonga, 2003, History and Culture of Kirat People
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1989, Morphogenesis of Kunindas, Cir 200B.C.-cir A.D.300
Mathpal, Yashodhar, 1998, Kumaon Painting: A Story of Living Tradition of Painting in Kumaon 
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.C.Joshi, 1978, the Khasas in the History of Uttarakhand, Swasti Sri, edited by K.V.Ravi , p.10),ND
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Mamta Chaudhari, 1977 Tribes of Ancient India
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Nitya Nand Mishra, 1994, Sources Materials of Kumauni History, Shri Almora Book Depot.
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C. Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
Ram Naresh Pandey (A.S.I), Ancient and Medieval History of Western Nepal 
S  S.S. Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.S. Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Sukhdev Singh Charak, 1979, History and Culture of Himalayan states
Savita  Saxena, 1995, The geographical Surveys of Puranas
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Uttar Pradesh District gazetteers, 1989, Volume-23
Plant, Richard, J., 1979, Greek, Semitic, Asiatic Coins and how to read them
R.C Majumdar, Ancient Colonies in the Far East
Shiv Pad Sen, 1988, Sources of History of India, Volume -5
 Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology
World Archeological Bulletin, 1989.p 18


Bhishma Kukreti

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              Historical Aspects of Uttarakhand in Nanda Dynasty Time (421-320 BCE)
                         History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 39   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-36   
History of   Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) during the Time of Buddha and afterwards Buddhism part -5               
 (All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti
  Mahapadma is said to be the founder of Nanda Empire in Magadha. Mahapadma destroyed Khsatriyas and won Panchals, Kasis, Haihayas, Kalingas, Asmakas, Kurus, Maithalis, Saursenas and Vitihotras. Mahapadma dethrone the Shishunag dynasty and Shishunag is said to be an Uttarakhandi soldiery occupant. 
 The Nanda rule was extended from Bengal to Punjab, up to Vindhyachal range.  Mahapadma is said to be creator of empire in India. He had big armies composed of 2lakh infantry, 2o thousand cavalry,2 thousand war chariots and 3 thousand war elephants. 
Many historians have opinions that Mahapadma was an Uttarakhandi soldier and he killed the Shishunag king. The reasons are given for Mahapadma being as Uttarakhandi are –
1-Kulinda the word Nanda came from Kulinda .Since ‘Ku’ word was inauspicious Mahapadma might have deleted ‘Ku’ word from Kulinda . One of kings from Nanda dynasty had been Govishanaka. Govishan was region of Uttarakhand (today’s Kumaon) in that time.
2-The historian Edward James Rapson (1923) writes in his Cambridge History of India (Volume -1, page 280), “As to origin of the Nandas, we have no certain information, but the name is probably tribal, and it may be connected with the Nandas, who lived near river Ramganga between Ganges and the Koshi in Himalyan region……It is possible that the Shishunag and Nandas may have been the descendants of the mountain chieftains who won the kingdom of Magadha by conquest.”
 
There were twelve kings of Nanda dynasty.
Mahapadma (424 BCE?)
Pandhuka
Bhutapala
Rashtrapala
Govishanka
Dasasiddkhaka
Kaivarta
Mahendra
Dhana Nanda or Ghana Nanda (321 BCE?)
There are distinct views about relationship between Uttarakhand and Nanda dynasty. If Mahapadma was Khas (so called Shudra from Sanskrit pundit point of view as Panini) of Uttarakhand then there is probability of some or complete part of Uttarakhand being part of Nanda dynasty.  Chandra Gupta Maurya and then Asoka ruled over Uttarakhand but history is silent over Chandra Gupta or Asoka attacking Uttarakhand regions. That shows that Nanda dynasty founder Mahapadma was Uttarakhandi and he was ruler of complete or some part of Uttarakhand.
Mahapadma the believer in monopolistic way of ruling- Mahapadma believed in monopoly for ruling
Mahapadma as great donor- since, Mahapadma was Shudra  (Khas from  Uttarakhand) the Brahmin history scholars did not provide him respects, however, Mahapadma was great donor. 
Measurment Units- The measurement units came in existence first time in India in Nanda dynasty.
Paying Attention on Agriculture- Mahapadma paid maximum attention on agriculture development and he inaugurated first ever Indian way of water management system in Orissa (Jayswal – Kharwel ka Shila lekh)
Respecting scholars- Mahapadma and his successors used to respect scholars.
Army and Armed force Management- Mahapadma and his successors brought modernity in war management and strategies that Alexandra the great was afraid of attacking India.
Taxation- Mahapadma also developed taxation system to suit the empire management.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 11/05/2013
(The write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -40
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…37
History of Kumaon and Garhwal (Uttarakhand) during the Time of Buddha and afterwards Buddhism to be continued…part -6               

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajaya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal history of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
Gyan Swarup Gupta, 199,India: From Indus Valley civilization to Mauryas
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Imana Simha Cemjonga, 2003, History and Culture of Kirat People
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1989, Morphogenesis of Kunindas, Cir 200B.C.-cir A.D.300
Mathpal, Yashodhar, 1998, Kumaon Painting: A Story of Living Tradition of Painting in Kumaon 
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.C.Joshi, 1978, the Khasas in the History of Uttarakhand, Swasti Sri, edited by K.V.Ravi , p.10),ND
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Mamta Chaudhari, 1977 Tribes of Ancient India
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Nitya Nand Mishra, 1994, Sources Materials of Kumauni History, Shri Almora Book Depot.
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C. Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
Ram Naresh Pandey (A.S.I), Ancient and Medieval History of Western Nepal 
S  S.S. Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.S. Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Sukhdev Singh Charak, 1979, History and Culture of Himalayan states
Savita  Saxena, 1995, The geographical Surveys of Puranas
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Uttar Pradesh District gazetteers, 1989, Volume-23
Plant, Richard, J., 1979, Greek, Semitic, Asiatic Coins and how to read them
R.C Majumdar, Ancient Colonies in the Far East
Shiv Pad Sen, 1988, Sources of History of India, Volume -5
 Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology
World Archeological Bulletin, 1989.p 18
Radheshyam Chaurasiya, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000 AD
R.K. Nehra, 2010, Hinduism and Its Military Ethos
Chapters on African Presence in Early Asian Civilizations: A Historical Overview, Journal of African Civilizations, August 1995, Vol .X No.X pages 21-121
Radha Kumud Mukarji, 1988, Chandragupta Maurya and his Time
Om Gupta, 2006, Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
Edward James Rapson, 1923, Cambridge History of India (7 Volumes)

Bhishma Kukreti

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  • Karma: +22/-1
 Historical Features of Garhwal- Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Mauryan Age Part-1
History of Kumaon, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 40   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-37   
(All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)
                                         By: Bhishma Kukreti
                     Historians agree by the references of Puran, old Buddhist literature, Jainism literature, Sanskrit literature, Greek literature that with the aid of his Guru, mentor Kautilya or Chanakya, Chandra Gupta Maurya destroyed Nanda dynasty in Magadha and established Mauryan dynasty (321 BCE).

            There are less definite records for letting knowing the childhood of Chanakya and Chandragupta Maurya. It is said that Chanakya saw a boy as slave with a hunter in forest and watching boy’s wise and strategic capability, Chanakya made him hi disciple and made the boy (Chandragupta) ready for being king.
  Chanakya sent Chandragupta to Takshila University. On that time Alexander attacked India and Chandragupta had hand experiences to watch the battles of Greek supremacy under Alexander.   
Attack by Alexander- Winning Iran and other parts of Arab including Persian territories, Alexander attacked India (327BCE). Due to internal infighting and jealousy among Indian chieftains Alexander easily defeated the western Indian kings. Alexander also defeated Porus the strongest chieftains of western India. Alexander reached up to Vyasa River. It is believed that Alexander knew the strength of Dhana Nanda and that is why he did not attack on Nanda Kingdom.
                Alexander returned from India around 325 BCE and died in Greece in 323 BCE.
                                            Kathait

     In the Panwar dynasty history of Garhwal, there is importance of Kathait caste. Kathait came to Garhwal from Himachal. There is mention words Cathael in Greek literature while describing the short Alexandrian rule on India. A historian Vevan connected this word with Khsatriya. The Sangal fort in Himaachal of that time is connected to Kathait. Dabral supports that the connection of Sangal with Kathait as suggested by Rapson.   
                                              End of Greek Rule from India

  Before returning to Greece, Alexander left his governors for ruling in Indian territories.   Alexandra rule or Greece Rule came to an end India by 312-317BCE.  Chandragupta Maurya was the conveyor of ending Greece rule from India by various Indian chieftains. By this acts, Chanakya and Chandragupta became famous state persons.
             Taking Help of Soldiery communities of Mid Himalayas by Chanakya and Chandragupta Maurya

             After taking education, Chanakya went to Dhana Nanda court in Magadha for serving the court. Magadha king insulted Chanakya. Chanakya took vow to end Nanda dynasty.
        Chanakya and Chandragupta Maurya gathered (on contract?) took help of low family traits solders as Pratirodhak, Mlechh, Kirat Dasyudal, Atvik etc to attack on Magadha.
 Parvateshwar  (Himalayan Hill chieftains) who helped them the much was the chief  and under him the armed forced were –Kulut chieftain, Malay chieftain, Kashmir chieftain, sindhu valley chieftain and Khasa, Yavan, gandhar , Shak, hun too.
   Chanakaky had agreement with Parvateshwar that after winning Magadha Parvateshwar would be given half of the kingdom.  Parvateshwar had leading army of Khasa and other soldiery communities of hills (Himachal, Uttarakhand?)  With the main help from Parvateshwar Chandragupta-Chanakya   won the Mgadha Dhana nand and destroyed Nanda dynasty. Chandragupta Maurya established Maurya dynasty (321BCE).
  With sound conspiracy, Chanakya killed Parvateshwar. The whole hill armed forced of Parvateshwar came under Chandragupta. The army of Dhana Nanda came under Chandragupta. Chandragupta Maurya extended his rule far than Nanda regions. Chandragupta Maurya extended Magadha till  Bengal, Uttarakhand, Mysore, Konkan and Punjab, Takhsshila, Kashmir, Himachal. 
                    Was Chandragupta Maurya son of Uttarakhandi Khasa?

               There are many theories and suggestions among historians about the paternal family tree.
         Most of historians agree that Chandragupta had relation with Buddha Age Moriya Khsatriya family of Pippliyavan. Having Peacock on the sculptures/pillars on Asoka sculptures support the theory.
                  The theories of Chandragupta being the son of Dhana Nanda with Mauri maid servant are now not agreed.
        There is another suggestion from historians (basing Mudrarakshas Sanskrit play) that Chandragupta had blood relation with Parvateshwara. That is the reason that Chandragupta performed ‘Tarpan’ in the ‘Shradh’ ritual of Parvateshwar. Without direct blood relation with Parvateshwara, Chandragupta Maurya would have not offered ‘Tarpan’ in the ‘Shradh’of Parvateshwara.
         There is no-disagreement no agreement or no proof for Parvateshwar was from Western Himalaya or from Mid Himalayas (Garhwal –Kumaon). Since, the play ‘Mudrarakshasa’ mentions each kingdom of western Himalaya and Khasa for mid Himalayas it is sensed that Parvateshwar was from Uttarakhand. It is surprising in the early Sanskrit literature including Puran that Chandragupta attacked every corners but not Uttarakhand. Was it because Parvateshwar was from Uttarakhand? Or was Chandragupta having blood relation with a chieftain of Uttarakhand? There was no attack on Uttarakhand from the decedents of Chandragupta Maurya but it is also sensed that Uttarakhand was under supervision rule of Maurya kings.
                                     Mauryan Administration
         The ‘Arthshastra’ book is the sound proof of good and innovative administration of Maurya Age.
 Even under the Chandragupta or under his successors there was not much difference than past in administration in Tamas, Kalkut, Tangan, Bhardwaj, Ranku and Atrey or Govishan (Garhwal and Kumaon. These comminutes were having their own chieftains and just Guptas might be supervising.
Chandragupta Maurya banned Pakhand sectarian activities. There was freedom  of worshipping.

                           Uttarakhand in Arthashastra

           ‘Arthashastra ‘a Sanskrit classic by Chanakya or Kautilya mentioned about brave hill soldiery communities. 
There are mentions of forest wood of Uttarakhand as-  Sal, Sheesam; Various bamboo varieties; bent, barks of various trees; fibers plants;  rope making plants; flowers; roots, bulbs; medicinal plants and herbs; poisons; color making plants.
 There were mineral exports from Uttarakhand at the time of Chandragupta and Chanakya. The horses of Kumaon and Chamoli Garhwal were famous.  The people of Mid Himalayas were exporting animal leather, blanket and other crafts.     
            The Uttarakhand used to export army men too in the time of Chanakya and Chandragupta.
  Chandragupta retired from the court and became a Jain. Chandragupta Maurya died around 297 B.C.E.
Bindusar the son of took over the rule of Magadha in 297 B.C.E. Bindusar ruled till 274 B.C.E.
 It seems Asoka displaced Bindusar.
  Read in next part about Uttarakhand in Asoka Age 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 11/05/2013
(The write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -41
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…38

 
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Ajaya Rawat, History of Garhwal
Alexander Cunningham, 1996, Coins of Ancient India: From Earliest times down to the Seventh century 
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
B.P. Kamboj, 2003, Early Wall painting of Garhwal
C.M Agarwal , History of Kumaon
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1992, Kulinda Janpada
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
D.P Agarwal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, 1995, Cist Burials of the Kumaun Himalayas
D.P Agarwal, J Kharakwal, 1995, Kumaon Archeology and Tradition, Almora Book, Almora
Gyan Swarup Gupta, 199, India: From Indus Valley civilization to Mauryas
G.P. Singh, 2008, Researches into History and Civilizations of Kiratas
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Imana Simha Cemjonga, 2003, History and Culture of Kirat People
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
J.C. Agarwal, S.P.Agarwal, S.S. Gupta, 1995, Uttarakhand: Past, Present and Future
John Whelpton, 2005, History of Nepal (page 22 , Khasa)
Khadak Singh Valdiya , 2001, Himalaya: Emergence and Evolution , Uni Press, Hyderabad,  India
Khemanand Chandola, 1987 Across the Himalaya through Ages: a study of relations between Central Himalayas and Westren Tibet
K.P.Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1997, Him Kanti (page 85 for Khasa)
Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, 1969, The Archeology of Kumaon including Dehradun
K.P Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, 1991, Emergence of Early culture in Garhwal, Central Himalaya
Lalan Ji Gopal and Vinod Chandra Shrivastava , History of Agriculture in India  (up to 1200AD(article of Dr K.P Nautiyal et all – Agriculture in Garhwal Himalayas o to 1200AD, page 162)
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) : An Essay in Historical Anthropology, Shri Almora Book, Almora
Maheshwar Prasad Joshi, 1989, Morphogenesis of Kunindas, Cir 200B.C.-cir A.D.300
Mathpal, Yashodhar, 1998, Kumaon Painting: A Story of Living Tradition of Painting in Kumaon 
Minyan G. Singh, 199, Wooden temples in Himachal
M.C.Joshi, 1978, the Khasas in the History of Uttarakhand, Swasti Sri, edited by K.V.Ravi , p.10),ND
M.S. S Rawat (editor), Himalaya: a Regional Perspective
Mamta Chaudhari, 1977 Tribes of Ancient India
Narendra Singh Bisht and T. S Bankoti, 2004, Encyclopedic Ethnography of the Himalayan Tribes (Page for Khasa – 736)
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Nitya Nand Mishra, 1994, Sources Materials of Kumauni History, Shri Almora Book Depot.
O.C. Handa, 2003, History of Uttaranchal (Page 22 for Khashas)
O.C. Handa, 2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand
O.P Kandari and O.P Gusain, 2001, Garhwal Himalaya (Pages for Khasa- 309/360) 
Parmannad Gupta, 1989, Geography from Ancient Indian Coins and Seals
Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon valley Down the Ages, Dehradun, India 
R.C. Bhatt, K.P. Nautiyal, 1987-88Trans Himalayan Burials, visa vis Malari, an Assessment, JOSHARD, Vol11-12 (pp 95-101)
R.C. Naithani, 1999, Radiant Himalayas,
Ram Naresh Pandey (A.S.I), Ancient and Medieval History of Western Nepal 
S  S.S. Negi, Back and beyond, Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture and Society   
S.S.S. Negi, Himalayan Rivers, lakes and Glaciers
Sukhdev Singh Charak, 1979, History and Culture of Himalayan states
Savita  Saxena, 1995, The geographical Surveys of Puranas
Surendra Singh, 1995, Urbanization in Garhwal Himalaya: a geographical Interpretation
Upinder Singh, 2008, History of Earlier and Medieval India.
Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology, State Museum, Shimla , Pages 3,5 and 65)
H. Sarkar, A.Banerji 2006, Hari Smriti , Chapter ‘ The Kunindas and their Archeology in Garhwal  Himalaya (pages-391-398).   
Http://www.thefreeliberary.com/cist +burial+Himalayas-a017422774
New cultural Dimension in the Central Himalayas, region of Uttarakhand, an Archeological assessment:
http://opar.unior.it/664/1/5/Annali 1986 (f1)K.p.nautiyal-B.M.Khanduri 
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Uttar Pradesh District gazetteers, 1989, Volume-23
Plant, Richard, J., 1979, Greek, Semitic, Asiatic Coins and how to read them
R.C Majumdar, Ancient Colonies in the Far East
Shiv Pad Sen, 1988, Sources of History of India, Volume -5
 Vishwa Chandra Ohri, 1980, Himachal Art and Archeology
World Archeological Bulletin, 1989.p 18
Radheshyam Chaurasiya, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000 AD
R.K. Nehra, 2010, Hinduism and Its Military Ethos
Chapters on African Presence in Early Asian Civilizations: A Historical Overview, Journal of African Civilizations, August 1995, Vol .X No.X pages 21-121
Radha Kumud Mukarji, 1988, Chandragupta Maurya and his Time
Om Gupta, 2006, Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
Edward James Rapson, 1923, Cambridge History of India (7 Volumes)
              References for Mauryan Dynasty History
Shastri, K.A.N, 1988, Age of the Nandas and Mauryas
Bharcava, Purushottam, 1996, Chandragupta Maurya
Gergal Tania, Michael Wood, 2004, Alexander the Great 
Bose, S.C.1968, Land and People of the Himalayas
Various Sanskrit Literatures

 

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