Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 173297 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Administration, Society, Culture, Religion, Dress/Costume, ornaments/Jewelry in Kushan Period



History of Garhwal, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) - Part 50   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-47   


(All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti



                                     Kushana ways of Administration

           The Kushan Empire was extended from Balkh, Khotan to Patliputra, Punjab, at least south of Uttarakhand and Himachal and till Vidisha region around Vindhyahal.  Kushana Adminsitrative structure stands between the Greek Shaka and Pahlavi and Gupta regime administrative systems.
             The inscriptions and coins suggest that Kushana kings used impressive powerful titles such as Maharaj, Raj, Rajatiraja. The Mahraja title is Indian and Rajatriraj seems to be Parthian. Shahnushai title by Kushan kings on Allahabad Prasasti is taken from Shaka.
          There was great influence of Rome on Kushan, Kanishka adopted title as Kaiser. However, Kushan took clue for governing administration from Indian Kings as Mauryas. Kushana appointed regional governors as Kshatrapal or Strups. The Sarnath Kanishka inscription shows that there was duel governorship system for check and balance. This duel system was also there before. Kushana also proclaimed association of divine element with the ruler. Kushan took the system of Devkulas from Romans and Roman took this custom from Egyptians. Kushan also took idea of King as Devputra from Chinese as ‘King the Son of Heaven’.
    The Kshatrap title was limited to relatives of Kushan or from Kushan cult. Same way, Dandnayak, Mahdandnayak or Prachand dandnayak / chancellor/deputy chancellor etc titles were also reserved for Kushan blood. The village councilor titles were left for Indians.

                                  Multicultural Empire and Multicultural Society

               The Kushan kings and their armed forces themselves were of multicultural administrators and people. Kushana adopted elements of Hellenistic culture of Bactria. Kushans adopted Greek alphabets to suit their language.  They used Greek legends and Pali legends on their coins that show inclination of Kushans for multicultural social structure and merging into Indian social composition.
  Kushan Kings were predominantly were Zoroastrians and later they became Buddhist. Vima Kadphises was Shaivya.  That shows that Kushan Kings followed wide varieties of faith.

                            No changes in Indian Caste System
     
                      Indian history is witness that rulers might have adopted their own faith and might have pushed their faith but they were always either failed to abolish caste system from India or the Indian rulers including British never worked hard to abolish caste system.         

               Brahmins were given prime importance in the time of Kushan regime. The Kushan inscriptions indicate that these Kushan kings or Kushan governors used to offer ‘Dakshina’ or ‘food’ to Brahmins.
  Joint family system was the social system in Kushan rule. Multiple wives by men was common. There was no ‘Parda’ or ‘Burka’ system in the society. Offering ‘Pitardan’ /Shradh was very common among kings and society.
                                                       
                                                   Kushan Deities

       The Kushan deities were varied as Indian deities as Buddha Bodhitsava, Mahasena, Skand Kumar,Shakyamuni Buddha, Avestyvayu, Shiva , Ganesha,  and Iranian deities as Ashi Vanghui, Asha Vahista, Atar, Khwarenah,  Drvaspa, Vohu Manha, Mah,Mithra, Mazda, Vata, Oxus, Ahura mazda, Tir, Verethranga, Aredvi Sura Anahita.
                             Costumes in Kushan Period
                       There are five major types of Kushan costumes of dresses (taken from Kushan Coins and inscriptions and ruins and other literature)
1-Antariy, Utriya and Kaybandh by indigenous people
2-Red brown ‘kanchukiy’ by harem of indigenous guardians 
3-dress by foreign Kushan rulers and their entourage
4-Other foreigners as ambassadors, traders
5-Mixture of indigenous and foreign dress or clothing
   The periodical dress and clothing also show the Indian regional influences on foreign invading ruling communities and influence of foreigners on Indian communities. The dressings on coins at different places also show regionalism in dress.
 Lanhga and choli by women was common. The women were naked on upper part.
Courty lady used to put on Keybandh, Antriya, Mekhla, hara,Kantha, Keyura, valay,Kundal, Nupur, Angulya, Mukta.
Milkmaid of Mathura put on Ghaghri, kantha, keuyra, valya/chudi, kundal and she had headrest (deelu) for keeping Matki on her head
Female guardian of Gandhar put on Kushan type of Tunic, Keybandh, Antriya, Mekhla, hara,Kantha. The hair is divided into three portions.  He holds spear and shield.
The Gandhar Yakshaior female door keeper put on Antariya, Utriya, Hara, Mekhla, and Tunic.
 There are clear differences among the women of different regions and different occupation.
The Gandhara donating Brahmin put on Antariya, uttariya, Kantha, Dhoti and hair style is double knot on head.
King Kanishka put on Chunga, Chalana, tunic,
Gandhara soldier put on Antriya, Armor, tunic, Mauli and equipment (sword, sword belt, chest strap,
                  Ornaments and Headgear of Hairstyle by women in Kushan Period

The women used to be bare headed. The omen used Ratnavli or net. The women used to put foot ornaments, ear ornaments, neck ornaments, hand ornaments but not nose ornaments. Flowers had importance in ornamenting. 
 There was greater refinement of jewelry in Kushan period than Mauryan period.



Read about Historical Religious, political, administrative, social and cultural aspects of Kushan Era…..in History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) - Part -51


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 22/05/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -51
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…48
Notes on Administration, Society, Culture, Religion, Dress/Costume, ornaments/Jewelry in Kushan Period from  Ayodhya archeological materials; Administration, Society, Culture, Religion, Dress/Costume, ornaments/Jewelry in Kushan Period from Mathura archeological materials; Administration, Society, Culture, Religion, Dress/Costume, ornaments/Jewelry in Kushan Period from inscriptions from Balakh, Batesvra, Bazitkhel, Begram , Bhita, Belvadaga, Bhorgarh Bras, Butkhara archeological materials; Administration, Society, Culture, Religion, Dress/Costume, ornaments/Jewelry in Kushan Period from Chahar Bagh, Charsada, Chhat, Dasti-I Nawur, Dat Nagar, Daulatpur, Dhalewan, Jamalgarhi, Ganwariya, Ganghundar, Harigaon, Harsh ka tila, Hastinapur, Hulashkhera, Jodhpur, Kashmir, Afghanistan, archeological materials; Administration, Society, Culture, Religion, Dress/Costume, ornaments/Jewelry in Kushan Period from  Khokarkot, Kosam, Muhamadnagar, archeological materials; Administration, Society, Culture, Religion, Dress/Costume, ornaments/Jewelry in Kushan Period from Panda, Kila e Shahi, rangmahal, Ranighat, Rohtak, Shari Bahlol, Sanghol,  archeological materials; Administration, Society, Culture, Religion, Dress/Costume, ornaments/Jewelry in Kushan Period from  Sankara, Sarnath, Sahr-i-Banu, Shivaki, Singh Bhagwapur, Siswaniya, Shravasti, Gorakhpur, Shringaverpura, Sunet, Surkh Kotal, archeological materials; Administration, Society, Culture, Religion, Dress/Costume, ornaments/Jewelry in Kushan Period from Taxila, Tulumba, Vaisali, Viratgarh, Wazirabad archeological materials; Administration, Society, Culture, Religion, Dress/Costume, ornaments/Jewelry in Kushan Period from Virbhadra, Dehradun archeological materials; Administration, Society, Culture, Religion, Dress/Costume, ornaments/Jewelry in Kushan Period from Tehri Garhwal archeological materials; Administration, Society, Culture, Religion, Dress/Costume, ornaments/Jewelry in Kushan Period from Kashipur , Kumaon archeological materials…

Bhishma Kukreti

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Characteristics of Kushan Art

History of Garhwal, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) - Part 51   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-48   
Historical Religious, political, administrative, social and cultural aspects of Kushan Era Part- III


(All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabra,S.K.Kalal)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
     

                                        Two Distinct Schools of Kushan Art

                        Kushans were great patrons of Art. The sculpture making principles were formed at the Kushan period. Kushan Art principles had been influences the Indian art for many centuries. Before, Kushan period, the artists used to show Buddha by symbols of lotus and footsteps. However, it was first time that the Kushan period artists showed Buddha in human form. The Jain and Hindu artist of Kushan (definitely, Kushan Kings did patron) Age also started showing their deities and legends in human forms.
  The Kushan era artists and sculptors created two distinct schools of Art- Gandhara School of art and Mathura School of art.

                                       Gandhara School of Kushan Art

                There was enormous influence of Greek art and other western art on the artists and sculptors in making Gandhara art coins, and sculptures, architecture and paintings.
             The subject was Indian but artist were foreigners. The deities were Indians but the shape, style and their dressings were totally Greek. The Gandhara images of Buddha of Kushan time are in Greco-Roman style. The Buddha images resembled with Greek Apollo.
                                  The Gandhara textiles are witness of local crafts with western connection. There are effects of Iran, Greek and Rome on Gandhara art of Kushana period. Chinese effect is also not barred. Textiles on sculpture are definitely northern-western innovation.
 The cities were constructed on Hippodamian pattern with Greek, Persian influences.
            The Gandhara sculptors used grayish schist stone and stucco.
  The Gandhara School of art had centers as Kapisa (modern Begram), Gandhara region, Nagarhara (Modern Hadda), Bamiyan, Fondukistan and Kashmir.
 
                            Mathura School of Kushan Art

  Mathura artist of Kushan period took influence from indigenous images, folk culture, folk legends, folk deities and folk goddesses. Mathura Art of Kushan period is famous for representing female beauty. The females are beautiful, sensuous and voluptuous. The Mathura artists and sculptors created ideal Indian beauty with females have oval face, ample breasts, slender waist and broad hips. The men in Mathura school of Art of Kushan period are sophisticated and urbane.  There are daily life acts.  Hindu deities and goddesses, folk legends are sculptured in story telling styles. The artists and sculptors also illustrated Jain deities and legends with fish, flag, and jewel box. Mathura school of art sculptors used mottled red sand stone of Agra region.  The paintings of Brahminical art are also specific in nature.
  There are definitely Greek effects on Mathura art, sculpture and architects.
  The Hindu art started from Mathura School of Art of Kushan period.
 Mathura School of art and Gandhara School of art of Kushan period influenced each other too.       
                          Effects of Mathura Art in Himalayan Hills
       The writings of Cunningham, Coomarswamy, Vogel, S. Konow state that under Kushan period, the Indian plains art started penetrating Himalayan hills. The structure found in Panduwala, (Laldhang, Kotdwara),  Veerbhadra of Dehradun district  are proof that Mathura art of School influenced Himalayan Art at Kushan period and at later ages too. 

               
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 23/05/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -52
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…49
Historical Religious, political, administrative, social and cultural aspects of Kushan Era to be continued in … Part-4

Bhishma Kukreti

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Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Uttarakhand in Kushana Period
                                                      &
Charaka Samhita and other Sanskrit Literature Development in Kushan Age in Context with Uttarakhand
 

History of Garhwal, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) - Part 52   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-49   
Historical Religious, political, administrative, social and cultural aspects of Kushan Era Part-IV


(All the History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, S.K. Kalal, K.P. Nautiyal)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                      Charaka Samhita Enhanced Ayurvedic medicines and medicinal herbs Export from Garhwal –Kumaon

       The Kushan period is famous for mixing of Indian Vedic Botany knowledge and Greek science.
          Though, historian don’t have record for birth of Charaka the father of Ayurvedik medicines but it is sure that Charaka was there around Kushan period (Atridev, Ayurved ka Itihas) . A few historians state that Charaka Samhita was created in Gupta period.
  Charaka Samhita has eight sections and one hundred twenty two chapters (120). The eight sections of Charak Samhita are-Sutra Sthana, Nidan Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sanra Sthana, Indriy Stahan,Chikitsa Sthana, kalpa Sthana, Sidhi Sthana.


            Herbs and Herbal Medicines Exports from Uttarakhand at Kushana Period
                  Uttarakhand was famous for medicinal herbs (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, buds, bark etc). The Ayurvedic scholars as Charak used to recognize the Himalayan herbs and used to collect with the help of Kirats of Garhwal-Kumaon- Himachal.  The Ayurved medical scholars used to come and roam village to village; shrine to shrine. The Ayurved medical scholars used to extract many herbal medicines in Garhwal and Kumaon. That means the Kirats or other local inhabitants of Kushan Age were also experts for extracting Ayurved medicines from plants, packing and selling. The local people of Kumaon and Garhwal were versed with the technique of dehydrating certain medicinal plants or roots.
  There was demand for certain plant spikes, animal horns for using surgery.
  The Uttarakhandi inhabitants used to export animal parts used for certain Ayurved medicinal uses. The bones, dehydrated intestinal parts of stages or deer was one the major Ayurved medicinal raw materials for export from Uttarakhand in Kushan age.

Export of Jatamasni or Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamasni) from Uttarakhand - There was huge demand for Spikenard in Jeruselam,Israel; Egypt; Greece and Rome. The plant was a luxery plant for the cited region. The plant was a manufacturing ingredient for high priced perfume ‘nardinum’ in Rome.
The Egyptians and Greeks used the plant or extract for perfume and other uses.  The Greek and roman elites used Spikenard as spices or aromatic for food.
 Israel people used Spikenard for religious purpose.   

Export of Bach, Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus) from Uttarakhand –Dried rhizomes were used in Ayurvedic medicines for epilepsy, ailments, mental diseases, chronicle diarrhea and dysentery.   There was a regular demand for dehydrated rhizomes of Sweet flag from Rome and Greece.  The collectors and medicinal exports used to supply the same to Mandi (Wholesale markets in Kalkut or Srughna).   

Export of Motha or Coco Grass (Cyprus rotundus) from Uttarakhand: The farmers of plains of Uttarakhand used to export this grass. The grass was used for micturitive; strength and vigor; skin diseases; menstrual disorders.

Export of Guggul or Bdellium gum (Commiphora mukul) from Uttarakhand – The plant and its ingredients were exported from Uttarakhand. The creation of Shusruta Samhita increased the export of this plant from Uttarakhand.  The herb was used medicines for obesity and Vat disorder diseases.

Export of Musk or Kasturi from Uttarakhand: In Kushan Age, Musk export was common in Uttarakhand.

Export of Mitha Vish, vikh, ativish, Nilo Vish, Vatshnabh (many toxic plants or poisonous plants)- From Uttarakhand: Many poisonous toxic plants and their toxic ingredients were exported to Greece, Egypt and Rome. The plants, plant parts or medicines were used for many purposes. Many Tibetan, Kumaoni, Garhwali and Nepali business men used to come to Kalkut/Kalsi, Kankhal, Veerbhadra, Vehat and sold these plants or plant products to wholesalers.  It shows that the Garhwali, Kumaoni collectors of Kushan Age had alchemist knowledge about plants, uses and medicine manufacturing devices.

Export of Timru (Xanthxylum armtum) from Uttarakhand: Ashoka used to import toothbrush of Timru from Uttarakhand. Timru had other medicinal values too. It is clear that export of Timru was there from Uttarakhand at Kushan period. 

                            Ayurvedic Gurukul in Uttarakhand in Kushan Age

          Since, there was a high demand for herbal plants, dehydrated plants, low lasting plants, animals, animal parts from Uttarakhand; it is definite that there were Ashrams of disciples of Ayurvedic scholars as Charaka and Shushrama in plains of Uttarakhand too.   

***Historical Religious, political, administrative, social and cultural aspects of Kushan Era to be continued in … Part-5

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 24/05/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -53
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…50
Brief notes on historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Uttarakhand in Kushana Period; historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Haridwar, Uttarakhand in Kushana Period; historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Dehradun, Uttarakhand in Kushana Period; historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand in Kushana Period; historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Kushana Period; historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Kushana Period; historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Kushana Period; historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Kushana Period; historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Pithoragarh, Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Kushana Period; historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Alora Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Kushana Period; historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Nainital Uttarakhand in Kushana Period; historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Champawat, Uttarakhand in Kushana Period; historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Bageshwar, Uttarakhand in Kushana Period; historical aspects of Herbs and Ayurvedic Medicines Exports from Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand in Kushana Period

Bhishma Kukreti

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Commerce/Trade/Mercantilism in Garhwal-Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kushan Age 


History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 53   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-50   
Historical Religious, political, administrative, social and cultural aspects of Kushan Era Part-V


( History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, K.P. Nautiyal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                      The Rise of Mercantile Community in India before Kushan Era

    No doubt, the Indian political condition after Mayrya or even at the time of Mauryas was in bewildering and confused state. However, the trade gave continuity and consistency. The Kushan period saw more development and innovation in mercantile activities. The Mauryas opened sub continent by building roads and a uniform general administration. Shaka, Parthians and Kushan brought mid Asia orbit with Indian trade and encouraged trade with China. The trader community prospered and in turn they encouraged religious and literature activities by charity donations.
   The Guild became more important aspect in Indian urban life. The craftsmen joined Guilds as the individual craftsman was unable in competing the Guild production.
  Kushan dynasty had political connection with Rome, Sassanid Persia, Greek and Han China. This political diplomacy was an accelerating factor for export from India to these countries.  Kushan connected India with Silk Road.
 There was well connected trade rout in the time of Kushan in India and abroad as well. The vast trade centers were at strategic places those were enable exchange, storing and distribution of goods. 

                              Major Trade /Commercial Centers of Uttarakhand of Kushan Age

  Uttarakhand had unique products to supply in India and western world in Kushan time. Therefore, there were trade or commercial centers in plains of Uttarakhand.

Tibetan Border of Uttarakhand: The Tangan community from Tibet regions used to bring various exotic spices, herbs, animal parts, stones, gold dust, woolen produces, chanvar etc to the wholesale markets of Uttarakhand. The wholesalers used to sell those Tibetan products to other wholesalers for other territories. There was great demand for Tibetan Dogs in Persia and Rome.   The Tibetans (Tangan)  had to come through Uttarakhand for their supply. 

Kashipur (Kumaon):  Govishan (Kashipur) is situated in plains of Kumaon. The historians found Kushan period gold coins from Kashipur (Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon). Dr. K.P. Nautiyal suggested these gold coins of Vasudev second. This clearly suggests that  today’s towns as Kashipur, Jaspur, Gosukuan, Rudrapur were trade centers those used to connect  producers of Kumaon, Nepal and Tibet with Ayodhya, Patliputra, Haridwar , Shrughna, Mathura traders. 

Gangakhandar /Tip ka Tila Bijnor: The gold coins were found in Gangakhadar, Bijnor (Puri, India under Kushan page 69) that suggests that Gangakhadar, Bijnor, (now in Uttar Pradesh)   was one the wholesaling centers of Uttarakhand in Kushan Period.
Moradhwaj (Bijnor): Moradhwaj region was also a remarkable trading centre in Kushan and later period.

Veerbhadra (Dehradun near Haridwar):    Veerbhadra (Dehradun) was one the major trade centers of Uttarakhand in Kushan era.

Danda Lakhaur (Dehradun): was also a trade centre of Kushan Era.

Kankhal (Haridwar): The suggestions by historian are clear that Kankhal did not lose its importance in Kushan time.

Ladhang (Pauri Garhwal and Haridwar): It seems that there was township in this area and that would be one of trade centers of Kushan Era.

Kalkut (Kalsi, Dehradun) –The western Dehradun was the major most centre of Trade of Uttarakhand in Kushan Regime.

                           Exports from Uttarakhand in Kushan age

         Apart from herbs and medicines, Uttarakhand was major source of Borax (bought and brought from Tibet). The other items of Tibetan origin were sold through wholesalers of Uttarakhand markets were minerals and precious stones.
             The Uttarakhandis used to export minerals, woolen goods, hemp produces, various fibers products and fibers; animal skins, animal parts, precious stones, wooden items; Gangajal.   

Pilgrim as income source: The pilgrim places were also source of trade and income.

  Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral writes that there was increase and speedy development in trade activities in Uttarakhand in Kushan period.
***Historical Religious, political, administrative, social and cultural aspects of Kushan Era to be continued in … Part-6

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 25/05/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -54
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-50   
This chapter is part of History of Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of Laksar, Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of Sultanpur, Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of Rurkee, Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of manglaur, Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of Jabarhera , Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of Bhagwanpur, Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of Kankhal, Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of Sakrauda, Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of Jwalapur, Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of Biharigarh, Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of Mohad, Haridwar, Uttarakhand;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Various Religious Sects Progress in Haridwar, Kumaon, Garhwal in Kushan Age 

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 54   

Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-51   
Historical Religious, political, administrative, social and cultural aspects of Kushan Era Part-VI


(History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Rahul Satyankritan, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, K.P. Nautiyal, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                       
                                         Kushan Age:  The Secular Era
               All Kushana Kings were secular kings. Kanishka was Buddhist and Vasudev as a ‘Shaivya’ but they all Kushan Kings respected all religions and sects. The Kushan Era saw various sects and regions progress.

Vedic Yagya (Oblation): The Mathura inscriptions and other inscriptions suggest that there was custom of Vedic Oblation in Kushana Age. The animal offering at Vedic Alters was the system of religious ritual among Sanatanis. 

Vishnu, Narayan Worship: Pratapaditya Pal writes (1986, Indian Sculpture: Circa, 500BC-700AD, page 25) that by the Kushan period, certainly in the Mathura region the cult of Vasudev-Krishna and Balram predominated. The Ashtadhyayi Vishnu, Lakshmi on Kamlashan and Ayudhpurush Balram idols of Kushan Age show the up rise of Vaishanva sect.

Shaivism: The last Kushana king Vasudeva was Shaivya. Shiva worshiping was more popular than other Sanatani sects (Hindu). The Linga incarnation worship was more popular among Shaivyas. The idols of Ganesha, Kartikey and Ardhnarishwar of Kushan Age are also found. 
Yaksha Puja: Yaksha-Yakshini worship was also a way of life among many communities.

Nag Puja: Nag worship was common among common people.

Other goddesses and deities: Kartikey, Varun, Brahma, Kuver, Chandra, Surya, Dhanad, Ganga Ji deities/goddesses were also worshiped with devotion in Kushana Age.

Buddhism: Buddhism was part of life among many communities in Kushan Age. Kushan King Kanishka was Buddhist.

Buddhist Literature: the Buddhist started creating Buddhist literature in Sanskrit. Ashvaghosh wrote biography of Buddha, wrote dramas and poems.

Jainism: Jainism was one of the major religious sect in Kushan period.

Burial System:  Burial system was common. Various products, food items, comfort proving items were put with dead person while burying.


                      Religions in Plains of Uttarakhand in Kushan Age

  The inscriptions, ruins and coins of Kushan Age from Uttarakhand (Bijnor, Laldhang (Garhwal), Haridwar, Veerbhadra (Dehradun), Kashipur and Haridwar) show that Buddhism, Jainism, Shaivism, Vaishnavism religions present in plains of Uttarakhand in Kushan Age.
   There is less literature available that show the religions in hills of Uttarakhand in Kushan Age. The Vedic way of sacrificing animals were common in plains and hills of Uttarakhand in Kushan period.
                                  Same way, Nag puja was common in hills of Uttarakhand in Kushan age.
                 The old Sun temples of Uttarakhand suggest that Sun worshipping was also common there in Uttarakhand hills in Kushana age.
  Definitely, the hill inhabitants of Uttarakhand of Kushan age had their many local gods and deities.   


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 26/05/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -55
Historical Aspects of Ancient communities of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-52   
This chapter is part of religious History of Haridwar in Kushan Age; part of religious History of Mohad, Haridwar in Kushan Age; part of religious History of Biharigarh, Haridwar in Kushan Age; part of History of Sakrauda, Haridwar in Kushan Age; part of religious History of Bhagwanpur, Haridwar in Kushan Age; part of religious History of Roorkee, Haridwar in Kushan Age; part of religious History of Jaberhera, Haridwar in Kushan Age; part of religious History of Manglaur, Haridwar in Kushan Age; part of religious History of Pathri, Haridwar in Kushan Age; part of religious History of Haridwar in Laksar, Kushan Age; part of religious History of  Sultanpur, Haridwar in Kushan Age.

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Downfall of Kuninda Republics/Regime

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 55   

Historical Aspects of Pre-Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-52   
Historical Religious, political, administrative, social and cultural aspects of Kuninda Decline -1


(History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Rahul Satyankritan, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Satish Chandra Kala, K.P. Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                     
                                                        Kushan Downfall

The downfall of Kushan regime brought freedom among various republics and kingdoms.  The death date of last Kushan King Vashudeva is supposed to be either 176AD or 250AD. There was Kushan rule after the death of Kushan king Vashudeva by his Straps as Aidhuraya Adhuja (Sadhuja) for a couple of decades. The coins of Hardoi suggest that a Kushan representing or Kushan king Salonveer had been there. 
               However, it is sure that Kushan regime did not survive beyond 250AD.

                             Kuninda’s /Kulinda’s Aggression in Downfall of Kushan
                 
              The latest researches by Kanti Prasad Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri support the findings of various historians as Vakataka (edited Ramesh Majumdar, 2011), Satish Chandra Kala and suggestion by Dr. S.P. Dabral advocate that Kunindas /Kulindas of Garhwal, Haridwar, Bijnor, Saharanpur and Kumaon (ancient Uttarakhand); Kuninda/Kulinda of Himachal Pradesh and Haryana along with Yaudheya Gana republicans or chieftains pushed back Kushanas and were one of the major factors for downfall of Kushana.


                                   Rise of Yaudheya Gana
                Yaudheya Gana was an ancient Mahabharata, Pauranic soldiering community. At the decline period of Kushana, Yaudheya Gana rose again. Yaudheya Gana pushed down the Kushana rulers. The post Kushana coins of Yaudheya Gana are found in Dehradun, Saharanpur, Delhi, Rohtak, Ludhiana and Kangra districts. Same way, post Kushana coins are found abundantly in many places of Uttarakhand and other places other than Uttarakhand.

                                   Collation or Cooperation between Kunindas/Kulindas and Yaudheya Gana

              The similarities among coins of Yaudheya Gana and Kuninda Gana on coins just after or at the time of Kushana suggest that both the republicans copied the Kushan way of coinage.
             In later stage of coins have similarities and exclusivities between coins of Kunindas and Yaudheya Gana that advocates for cooperation and collation among Kunindas and Yaudheya Gana chieftain teams (Richard, D. Mann, 2011, Rise of Mah? Sena, page 113 and Dr. Dabral).

              The cooperation and collation between Kunindas/Kulinda was major factors for pushing Kushan away from ancient Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Bijnor, Saharanpur (Behat); Himachal Pradesh and part of Punjab and Haryana.   
           Both Kunindas/Kulindas and Yaudheya Gana republicans exchanged the coins in each other territories. There was economical, political, social and military cooperation and collation between Kunindas and Yaudheya.


                              Kuninda Kings from Uttarakhand of post Kushan Age
 
    The coins of Sumari village (Shrinagar, Garhwal), Bhaidgaon (Langur, near Dadamandi, Garhwal), Bhattisera, Atthoor, Devalgarh, Porola, Nainital, Almora, Kashipur,  Dehradun,  and other places of ancient Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Bijnor and Saharanpur) suggest the following Kuninda/Kulinda Kings post Kushan period.

                                      Chhatreshwar Kuninda King


          The coins of r Kuninda King Chhatreshwar suggest that Chhatreshwar was a Kuninda king and he was one of the kings for freeing his country from Kushanas.
            It is guessed that the capital of Kuninda King Chhatreshwar of post Kushan period was at Chhatrawati.
               The family deity of Kuninda King Chhatreshwar was Shiva
        The time period of Kuninda King Chhatreshwar was immediately after downfall of Kushan kingdom from this region. The coins of Chhatreshwar have resemblances with Kushan coins in many aspects.

                          Anonymous Kuninda King and relationship of Kala caste?

               Dr Satish Chandra Kala found coins of Kuninda era from Sumari (Village of Kala caste) near Srinagar, Garhwal. Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral found Kulinda coins from Bhaidgaon (Langur, Pauri Garhwal) . It is not coincident that both the villages are dominated by Kala a Brahmin caste community. Is there any relationship of Kala caste with Kuninda kingdom? Were Kalas Kulpurohits of Kuninda Kings? 
  Many coins of Bhaidgaon do not have any king name on the coins.  Till at historians could not guess the name of this Kuninda King.

                                    Kuninda King Bhanu (post Kushan period)


   The historians found the copper coins of Kuninda King Bhanu of post Kushan period from Bhaidgaon Langur, Pauri Garhwal), Behat (Saharanpur) and Dehradun. That suggests that the region of Kuninda King Bhanu was east of Yamuna and definitely south plains of ancient Uttarakhand including Bijnor and Saharanpur. Whether the capital was Srughana or Behat, it is not decided.
     The coins have similarities with Kushan and Yaudheya coins.  It is obvious that period of Kuninda King Bhanu was twenty years after the death of last Kushan king Vashudeva.

                             Kuninda King Ravana


              Dr. Satish Chandra Kala found fifteen Kuninda King Ravan coins from Bhaidgaon (Langur, Pauri Garhwal). The Kuninda King Ravana coins were not found from other places. That advocates that the kingdom of Kuninda King Ravana was limited. Bhaidgaon is near Dadamandi, Dogadda and near to Kotdwara Bawar/Kanvashrama.  That indicates that the Kuninda King Ravana kingdom would be in today’s Bawar, Dabralsyun, and Ajmer region of South Garhwal or may be up to Bijnor. 

                           Prominent Places of Kuninda of post Kushan period

  The coins of Kuninda of post Kushan period propose that Purola (Uttarkashi), Athoor (Tehri), Sumari (Upper Pauri Garhwal), Bhaidgaon (South Pauri Garhwal); Kalsi, Jagatgram, Lakhamandal (dehradun); , Gopeshwar (Chamoli) , Mayapur (Haridwar), Behat (Saharanpur)  and Govishan (Kashipur etc of Kumaon) were prominent places for Kunindas of post Kushan period.   

                  Economic Condition in Kuninda Kingdoms of post Kushan period


  Places in Plains of Uttarakhand (Bawar or Bhabhar) of Uttarakhand were major centers of exchange of goods and Mandi.
   Brick houses were common in plains. Metallic produces were also manufactured or traded in Uttarakhand of Kuninda period of post Kushan age. Idols were traded in that period. Ointments as eye ointment were also traded from Uttarakhand. Weighing devices have progressed in this period.

            Religions in Kuninda Kingdom of post Kushan Period

  At least in the plains of Uttarakhand, the religions of Kushan period persisted. There are no historical proofs about religions of hill areas.


                                             Kuninda Downfalls

    Dr Dabral provides various reasons for Kuninda downfalls. Dr Dabral provides the following dates for Kuninda Kings of post Kushan period.
 Vashudeva and Post Vashudeva Kushan kings – (206-250AD)
Chhatreshwar, Bhanu, Ravan the Kuninda Kings – (243-290AD)
Ashwameghkarta, Shivbhavani, Pon, Shilvarman ( 290350AD)

                               

           



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 27/05/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -56
Historical Aspects of Pre-Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-53   
This chapter contains historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom; historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom from Chamoli Garhwal; historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom from Garhwal; historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom from Uttarkashi Garhwal; historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom from Rudraprayag, Garhwal; historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom from Bhaidgaon, Pauri Garhwal; historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom from Dehradun, Garhwal; historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom from Mayapur (Haridwar ); historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom from Kashipur/Bawar Kumaon; historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom from Kumaon; historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom from Nainital, Kumaon; historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom from Almora, Kumaon; historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom from Behat Saharanpur; historical aspects of downfalls of Kuninda Kingdom from Bijnor

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History Aspects of Govisana ‘Mitra’ Dynasty of Kashipur (Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon)

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 56   

Historical Aspects of Pre-Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-53   


(History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Rahul Sanstyankritan, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Satish Chandra Kala, Dr. Patiram, K.P. Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
       There had been archeological excavations near Kashipur of district Udham Singh Nagar of Kumaon region in 1901, 1939-40, 1965-66 and 1970-71. Great Historian Dr. Dabral states the site as fort site while archeological survey of India states the site as different period temple site.
     According to Cunningham, the inscriptions on bricks are not complete. That shows that inscriptions were written on series of bricks. The inscriptions show that at least there had been minimum three Govisana Kings in this region (Tarai Bawar).
King Matrimitra of Govisana dynasty
Son of King Matrimitra of Govisana dynasty
King Prithwimitra.
At this time there was custom of suffixing ‘mitra’ at the end of King name in Panchal, Koshal, Kaushambi, Mathura and Patliputra. These kings might be free chieftains or would be Panchala kings. The scripts of these inscriptions are in Brahmi and that shows that the period of Govisana is post Ashoka period.


                                      Matrimitra a Govisana King of present Kashipur Region
                       It is not clear about the founder of Govisana Kingdom. Matrimitra was one of the heirs of Govisana kingdom founder.
     
                                            Prithwimitra a Govisana King (present Kashipur Region)
         
  There is still doubt whether Prithwimitra a Govisana King of present   Kashipur region was father or son of Matrimitra.

                           Time Period of Govisana Mitra Kings (present Kashipur Region)               

                The Govisana Mitra Kingdom period is after Kushana King Vasudeva. The Prakrit Sanskrit on inscriptions of ruins of Govisana sites speak that the Govisana kings of present Kashipur were contemporary of Chhatreshwar, Bhanu and Ravana of Kuninda of post Kushana era.
  The historian suggest the time period of Govisana Mitra dynasty (present Kashipur region) from 25-290AD.

       Economic Prosperity in Govisana Mitra Kingdom (present Kashipur Region)               

          The time period of Govisana Mitra Kings of present Kashipur region was the prosperous period. The copper coins were medium of business and exchange.

             Developed Architectures in Govisana Mitra Period (present Kashipur Region)

  The forts, the big Drona Sagar pond, are witness that the architecture was finely developed in Govisana Mitra period.
            The notes of archeological Survey of India state that the temples surrounding this region of different ages and periods (www.asi.nic.in/asi_exca_imp_uttranchal.asp). 
  That means at the time of Govisana Mitra period was a prosperous period and the kings and elites used to pay attentions on sophisticated architectures.


         Religions in Govisana Mitra Period (present Kashipur Region)
       
            The Govisana Kings names, ruins and post Govisana ruins witness that this area of Udham Singh Nagar was Hindu area in Govisana Mitra period (250290 AD) and in post Govisana period too.
.
 
           

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 28/05/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -57
This chapter contains History aspects of Bhim-Gaja Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around Painted Grey ware Period; History aspects of Kashipur, Udham Singh Nagar, and Kumaon around painted Grey ware Period; History aspects of Jaspur, Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey ware Period; History aspects of Bajpur , Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey Period; History aspects of Gularbhoj , Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey ware Period; History aspects of Barakhera, Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey ware Period; History aspects of Pantnagar , Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey Period; History aspects of Rudrapur, Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey ware Period; History aspects of Kichha, Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey ware Period; History aspects of Bichhwa, Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey Period; History aspects of Sitarganj , Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey ware Period; History aspects of Khatima , Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey Period; History aspects of Senapani , Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey Period; History aspects of Chakrapur , Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey ware Period; History aspects of Gosukuan , Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey ware Period; History aspects of Drona Sagar,  Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey ware Period ;History aspects of Tanda Ujjain,  Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon around painted Grey ware Period.

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  Yugshail Kingdom: Ashvamedha Performer Kingdom in Uttarakhand just before Classical Pattern Age

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 57   

Historical Aspects of Pre-Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-54   


(History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Rahul Sanstyankritan, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Satish Chandra Kala, Dr. Patiram, K.P. Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

 
          There were rises of regional kingdoms just after death of Kushana king Vashudeva.  The historians have records of following kingdoms of Uttarakhand between post-Kushana age and Gupta Era.
1-Chhatreshwar, Bhanu and Ravana of Kuninda Kingdom
2-Matrimitra and other kings of Kashipur
3-Shiv Bhawani etc of Jagatgram
4- Jay Das dynasty of Lakhamandal (Dehradun)
5-Kartaripur kingdom
                       Ashvamedha performing kings ruled over Uttarakhand after Kuninda and Mitra dynasties. Dr. Dabral suggests that at the time of Samudragupta (335-375CE), there were Kartripur Kings in east Uttarakhand and Jayadas dynasty in west Uttarakhand.

                                            Shiv Bhavani King of Post Kushana Period

   The archeological researchers found inscriptions from Ambrigaon of Dehradun (near Dakpathar). Shiv Bhawani was one of the Ashvamedha performer kings. The period is guessed around third century

                                     Sheelvarman:a  Ashvamedha Performer king

  Archeological survey of India excavated the site at Jagat Gram, Dehradun from 1952-1954. The archeological excavation of Jagat Gram (Dehradun) revealed –
1-Three fire alters- The fire alter in flying eagle form is called Syena Chiti. 

2-Other materials including Sanskrit inscriptions-The inscription is proof of Yugshail kings performed               Ashvamedha Yagya in third century. In one inscription the scrip is of Brahmi.  The kings were Vrishagana (a unknown Gotra in present Uttarakhand). There are signs that the king or kings performed four Ashvamedha Yagya here.
 The name of Kingdom or kingdom capital was Yugshail. The area of rule is uncertain. Jagatgram is just opposite of Kalsi at Yamuna bank.
 The period of this dynasty should b e before 335 CE. The Yugshail dynasty ruled around sixty years in some part of Uttarakhand especially in Jaunsar Bawar.

                               Economic Prosperity and Peace

 The four Ashvamedha Yagya suggest that the area was prosperous and with peace.  The kingdom was strong from all purposes that the neighboring kingdoms did not try to fight with Yugshail kings.
  Brick making buildings show that architecture art was fully developed.

            Major vessels were made by mud. However, the customs of wooden, stone and metal vessels were also there.

  There was arrangement of educating common people but elite people were more educated.
Shaivism and Buddhism were there.
 Sanskrit had taken the status of elite language.

Four Ashvamedha Yagya speak that Brahminical way of custom was common  custom.



                                           Pon: the sixth King of Yugshail Dynasty

  Pon had been sixth king or Chieftains of Yugshail dynasty of ancient Uttarakhand.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 29/05/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -58
Historical Aspects of Pre-Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…-54   
This chapter contains some part of  History of Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Jagatgram, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Sahaspur, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Vikashnagar, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Chakrata, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Lakhwar, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Kalsi, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Nagthat, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Sahiya, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Koti, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Kailana, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Deoban, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Maleta, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Budher, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Mashak, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Kunain, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Bhandruuli, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Daragar, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Hanol, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Tiuni, Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of Hatar,  Dehradun before Samudragupta; History of kanda, Dehradun before Samudragupta

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         History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Lakhamandal, Dehradun

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 58   

Historical Aspects of Pre-Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-55   


(History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Rahul Sanstyankritan, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Satish Chandra Kala, Dr. Patiram, K.P. Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, Om Chanda Handa)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
               Lakhamandal of Jaunsar Bawar region of Chakrata tehsil of Dehradun district is an important place. The place is situated at confluence of Yamuna and Mordgad. There had been excavations in Lakhamandal and those show that Lakhamandal had been an important place in Gupta, Kushana and Shunga Age. The excavation results show that one time Lakhamandal had been a prosperous business centre.
 Vats, Aagarwal and Chhabda found Brahmi inscriptions in Lakhamandal around of Gupta period. Later on Archeological survey of India carried out excavations there.

              There are disagreements between Dr Dabral and Om Handa about some historical statements for Lakhamandal. Om Chanda Handa (2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhandp-117-18) suggests that the temple in Lakhamandal was built by a Rohtak fellow. However, but it is clear that there have been six rulers of Lakhamandal before or around Gupta period (5th –6th century AD).
  Dr Dabral suggest the time of eight kings or chieftains from 350-460 AD.
  The ‘prashasti’ inscription has following names and titles-
SN-------------------Name of Chieftain/king---------------------------Title
1--------------------Jaydas---------------------------------------------------Narpati
2------------------ ?-----------------------------------------------------------Nripati
3------------------Guhesh---------------------------------------------------Kshipati
4--------------Achal--------------------------------------------------------Avneepish
5-------------?-------------------------------------------------------------?
6--------------Chhagleshdas---------------------------------------?
7-------------Rudreshdas-------------------------------------------------Nripatesh
8----------Ajeshwar, Chhaglesh --------------------------------------Nrip
             It shows that Chhagleshdas built the inscriptions. His wife was Gundevi. Chhgaleshdas had son who is compared with Indra and Jayant (the inscription is broken so full detail is not seen).  The Shunga and Kushan rulers used to give themselves the title as Mahraja, Rajtiraj . While here the titles are Narpati etc. That means the kings were small territory kings or chieftains.

                              Area of Jaydasa Kingdom of Lakhamandal

  There is no certainty for knowing the area of Jaydasa dynasty. It might be correct that Jaydasa dynasty ruled around this area in both sides of Yamuna River (Himachal and Uttarakhand). The historians are also not certain about the reasons behind downfall of Jaydasa dynasty from Lakhamandal region.

                                        Architecture 

 The excavations found in Lakhamandal show that architecture was on rising at this period (4th to 6th century AD). The Archeological Survey of India Internet site states, “Most important findings are the remains of miniatures flat roofed temples are commonly not found in this region. These findings added new dimensions/dominations in the history of temples and architectures of Himalaya.”

                                      Education
      The Sanskrit inscriptions show that education had importance in the rule of Jayadasa Dynasty rule. There were Sanskrit pundits those used to create poetries .
             Religions in Jaydasa Dynasty
               
       Slavism was a dominating sect in Jaydasa dynasty time.   

                             Lakhamandal as Religious Place               
          The remains show that Lakhamandal was a pilgrim place too. The confluences of rivers or rivulets with Yamuna or Ganges were supposed to be auspicious places (pilgrim places) as Lakhamandal. 
  In this time (3rd to eight or so), the pilgrim places were also commercial and goods exchange centers.  Since, historians could not find any coinage of this dynasty of Lakhamandal that shows that chieftains of regional kingdoms used to permit the coins of other bigger kingdoms for exchange purposes. Another aspects of non availability of coinages of Jaydasa dynasty of Lakhamandal also suggest that ‘barter system’ of exchange in commercial dealing was more than coin uses.   

 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 30/05/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -59
Historical Aspects of Pre-Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…-56   
This chapter contains notes on History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Lakha Mandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Banau near LakhaMandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Kitrauli near LakhaMandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Kandidhar near LakhaMandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Bagoor near LakhaMandal, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Dohajhusau near Lakha Mandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Chhatau near LakhaMandal, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Pingri near LakhaMandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Asoi near LakhaMandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Chanjol near LakhaMandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Asta near Lakha Mandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Undawa near Lakha Mandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Nevi near Lakha Mandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of near Gothan Joshi LakhaMandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Tuna near LakhaMandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Simog near Lakha Mandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Lakhwar near LakhaMandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Kulaha near LakhaMandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Sribarkoti near Lakha Mandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Badhau near LakhaMandal, Jaunsar –Bawar,  Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Khadin near LakhaMandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Mailoth near LakhaMandal, Dehradun; History Aspects of Jaydasa Dynasty of Mandauli near LakhaMandal, Jaunsar –Bawar, Dehradun

Bhishma Kukreti

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Khashadhipati of Kartripur, Kartipur, Kartikeynagar of Classical Age or Gupta Period   

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 59   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-1   


(History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Rahul Sanstyankritan, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Satish Chandra Kala, Dr. Patiram, K.P. Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, Om Chanda Handa)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

           Chandragupta I was the founder of Gupta Dynasty (320-550 BCE) of Patliputra Kingdom. His son Samudragupta (335-380 AD) extended the Gupta rule. 
   The ‘Prayag Prashsti’ of Samudragupta states that
समतट -डवाक -कामरूप -नेपाल -कर्त्रीपुरादि प्रत्यंतपतिभि: ..... सर्वकरादान करणप्रणाममागमनपारितोषित प्रचंडशासनस्य..... (समुद्रगुप्त का प्रयाग प्रशस्ति)
’ Harshcharit’ by Banbhatt, references of ‘Devichandragupta natak’, ‘Kavyamimaansha’ by Kanauj court poet Rajshekhar also refer Kartripur, Kartikeypur ruled by a Khashadhipati.
   
  Initially the historians as Raychaudhari suggested Kartripur as Kartarpur of Jalandhar and the rule of such Khashadhipati was supposed from Jalandhar to Kumaon. However the Lakhamandal changed the thinking.
  Now, it is believed that Khashadhipati of Kartripur ruled from east of Yamuna to west of Nepal that is some part of Garhwal and Kumaon and some part of Ruhelkhand.
                          Kartripur in Ancient time

               There are evidences of Kartripur (different names as Kartipur, Kartikeynagar) in ancient literature as in Ashtadhyayi of Panini. The Parvnaresh inscriptions (830AD) state-
कार्तिकेयपुरे निम्ब्सार्या बलाध्यक्ष लवचन्द्रकाशाद ... (पौरव नरेश अभिलेख )   
 The Kanuaj court poet Rajshekhar (920) describes in ‘Kavyameemansa’ that Kartikeypur as the Himalayan cave place where Kinnars sing sweet songs.
    Lalitshur and Pattabh inscriptions show Kartikeypur with Antrag, Tankanpur, Badrikashram, Tapovan, Badrikashram, Yoshika, Garudashram, Palsari, Vishnuganga. That shows that present Joshimath was Kartikeypur (Dr Dabral). However, B.D. Pandey criticizes this theory for other reasons. It seems that Kartripur, Kartipur; Kartikeynagar names are for one place (Dabral).

                          Contemporary kingdoms of Khashadhipati of Kartripur

       It seems that the kingdom of Ashvamedha performer kings was divided into two parts
1-Jayadasa of Lakhamandal region (west south Uttarakhand)
2-Kartikeypur or Kartripur that is Eastern Uttarakhand and later on the ruler might have taken shelter under Samudragupta. 
          Om Chanda Handa writes, “In the remote past when Katyuris were yet to appear on the political scene of Uttarakhand as the sovereign n rulers, Talihat should have remained a centre of the unknown political powers, about which stray and vague indications are available.” (2009, Art and Architecture of Uttarakhand, page 184)
  However vague information is available for complete knowledge.
                           Khashadhipati of Kartripur

   Dabral wrote the historical details of Khashadhipati of Uttarakhand on the basis of Harshcharit, Devichandraguptanatak, Kavyameemansha, and Sajjan inscriptions   (while Dr Handa mentions the history very briefly) as-

              After death of King Samudragupta, Ramgupta/Sharmgupta the son of Samudragupta attacked on Himalayan tribe chief Shakanarsh-Khashadhipati. Ramgupta took his wife Dhruvswamini with him on the campaign.   When Ramgupta reached to Kartikeynagar, Khashadhipati blocked a narrow road for Ramgupta returning from Kartikeypur.
         According to a saying, Ramgupta put a pact note before Khashadhipati. Khashadhipati asked Dhruvswamini the wife of Ramgupta in turn of freeing the road for Ramgupta.    Ramgupta gifted his wife Dhruvswamini to Khashadhipati and returned from Kartikeypur.
            Another saying states that when Ramgupta was ready to gift his wife to Khashadhipati, Chandragupta (younger brother of Ramgupta) went to Khashadhipati as Dhruvswamini along with his soldiers in women dresses. Chandragupta killed Khashadhipati. This way Gupta captured the territory of Khashadhipati.
Later on Chandragupta killed his elder brother Ramgupta, married Dhruvswamini and became King of Patliputra.
 The king Khashadhipati was a Shaka but his subject was Khasa.
Rahul Santyakritan states that Kartikeypur must be Joshimath.

                             Time Period of Khashadhipati
   The time period of Khashadhipati seems to be 350- to 381AD.
               
                         Gupta Rule over Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar

      Gupta ruled over some part of Uttarakhand and Haridwar from Chandragupta time (376 AD onwards).
 The fort at Mangalaur   , Haridwar built by king Mangal Sen threw some light on Gupta rule on Sahranpur and part of Haridwar. Mangal Sen was a regent of Gupta Empire (Samudragupta).

        Missing Historical Links of Khashadhipati of Uttarakhand


 There are many historical links of Khashadhipati missing and it is difficult to calculate the numbers of regent of Gupta Empire in Haridwar, Garhwal and Kumaon.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 31/05/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -60
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…2 

 

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