Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 175040 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 60   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-2   


(History write ups are dedicated to great Historians Hari Krishna Raturi, Rahul Sanstyankritan, Badri Datt Pandey and Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Satish Chandra Kala, Dr. Patiram, K.P. Nautiyal, B.M. Khanduri, Jeewan Singh Kharakwal, Om Chanda Handa, Dinesh Saklani)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                    Till Chandragupta Vikramaditya won Kartripur Uttarakhand was a free state.
                                       Brief History of Gupta Empire (320-550AD)
                   
                                               Chandragupta First (280-319)
                         (The dates vary as per historians and there is difference of 50years in many cases)               
    The first ruler of Gupta dynasty in Patliputra was tribal or prosperous man -Gupta. His son was Ghatotkacchh.  Their rule was limited to Magadha.
            Chandragupta first was son of Ghatotkacha (240-280). Chandragupta married to daughter of highly prosperous king Licchhvi family. By marrying with Licchhvi daughter, Chandragupta got fame, prosperity, diplomatic power and all strength.  His rule was consolidated to surrounding Magadha. Chandragupta started Gupt Sanvat from 319-320AD.
 
                                                 Samudragupta Prakramanka (335-380)

  Chandragupta handed over his rule to his most capable son Samudragupta.  Samudragupta included nine states of Madhyadesh and expanded his rule to west part of Yamuna.  Samudragupta expanded his rule to Samtat, davak, Kamrup, Nepal, Kartripur, Malav, Arjunayan, yauyedheya, Madrak, Aabhir, Prarjun, Sankanik, Kak, Kharpadik, republicans. Samudragupta also won Madhyadesh, Mahakaushal, Mahakantar and Kalinga.
                 Many south kings up to Krishna river basin used to offer taxes to Samudragupta.       
                             Samudragupta had smooth and military diplomatic relationship with Sri Lanka kingdom.
Personality of Samudragupta: Samudragupta was a strategic warrior, talented military leader and had vision. By body, Samudragupta was strong man. Samudragupta was cruel with enemies and soft with common men. Samudragupta was  art, literature and music lover. 
 Samudragupta placed his gold coins. He got titles of Ashwamedhaparakrama, Rajadhiraj, Digvijay dhari, Vajimedha etc.
 Samudragupta had big families and he lived for long as he had grandchildren too in his life time.

                                            Ramgupta

  Ramgupta was eldest son of Samudragupta and he was crowned.
       From Uttarakhand history point of view Ramgupta has importance.  Ramgupta attacked Kartripur and lost the battle. For his life he was ready to exchange his wife Dhruvswamini. His younger brother Chandragupta killed Kartripur chieftain, killed his brother Samudragupta, married his Bhabhi Dhruvswamini and took over Gupta kingdom. Ramgupta placed copper coins.

                                       Chandragupta second ‘Vikramaditya’

     Chandragupta took the title ‘Vikramaditya’.
  Chandragupta Vikramaditya not only expanded his rule in far western India, foreign parts of north-west India and Gujarat regions but   also ruled with power, discipline and grace. Chandragupta Vikramaditya shifted his capital to Ujjain from Patliputra.  Chandragupta Vikramaditya also sub judged Sindhu desh.
 New Vikramaditya calendar: Chandragupta started new Hindu Samvat calendar.
Nine Learned Persons in Chandragupta II court:  There were famous nine learned persons in Vikramditya court. Kalidasa was one those learned persons.

                                          Kumargupta

    Kumargupta was eldest son of Chandragupta. He ruled for forty two years. Kumar Gupta assumed the title ‘Mahendraditya’. There was peace in his time and he did not expand his territory. Kumargupta was decent personality and believed on truth, pardon, economical punishment, firmness, cleanness, patience, self awareness, mind-intellect etc.
           Kumargupta performed Ashwamedha Yagya for consolidation the kingdom and not for expansion. He supported art, literature and music.
 There was attack from Pushyamitra of Narmada, South. His son Skandgupta diffused the attack. 
                           
                                   Skandagupta

  Skandagupta was brave as his grandfather Chandragupta. Skandagupta diffused many rebellion attacks against Gupta Empire in his father time. .
 Huna attacked on Gupta Empire in his time. He was successful up to certain extent to slow down the speed of Huna. Skandagupta defeated Huna attacks perhaps near North West region.
 Skandagupta had grace personality.

                             Punyagupta (467-473)

   Skandagupta did not have any issue. His younger brother sat on the crown after death of Skandagupta.  From his time the decline of Gupta Empire started. The other Gupta kings were Kumargupta II (473-476), Budhagupta (476-495?), Narsinghgupta, Kumargupta III, Vishnugupta,  Vinayagupta and Bhanugupta.

                    Military Organization of Gupta Empire
           
  Guptas depended heavily on infantry archers and bows.
Gupta had knowledge of siege craft, catapults and other war machines. By an estimate, Chandragupta Gupta had five lakhs infantry, fifty thousand cavalry, twenty thousand charioteers, ten thousand elephants in his army.

                                          Administration of Gupta Empire
 
 There was hierarchy in Gupta Empire administration. The kingdom was divided into 26 provinces. Provinces were divided into Vishaya governed by Vishaypati. Vishayapati had adhikari or officers.

                                 Art and Culture

  Gupta Period is called Golden period for art, culture, music and literature. Scholars as Harishen, veersen, Vatsbhatt, Vasuli, Ravishanti, Matrigupta, Bhritmenth, Shudrak, Amrsing were scholars of this time
Kalidasa is famous literature creator of Gupta period.
Varahmhira and Aryabhatt types of astrologers were born in this time. Astrology, mathematics was on its peak. Zero was discovered in this time.
Six of Indian philosophy books were created at this time.
 Tens of great Buddhist scholars and Jain scholars created great literature in Gupta period.
Ayurvedic surgery got its prominence in this time. 
Architecture, wall paintings, cave shrine arts, were also on its peak in Gupta period.
 There is no doubt that for India Gupta Age was ‘Classical period’.
 Though, the state of Gupta kings was secular Hindu sects were dominating sects.
 
         
                                                      Uttarakhand in Gupta Empire
 Mandsaur (MP) inscriptions speak that Kumargupta ruled over Uttarakhand. Till Skandagupt, the chieftains of Uttarakhand were under Gupta regime. The copper inscription of indoor Bulandshahar state that Sarvnag was Vishaypati (administrator) of Yamuna-Ganges Doab.
                          Shilpkar (Craftsmen) of Uttarakhand in Gupta Period
Rahul Santyakritan states that a couple of Iron pillars of Gupta period, especially Iron pillar of Delhi were manufactured and erected by Craftsmen of Uttarakhand.  That shows that metallurgy in Uttarakhand was on its well developed stage.
 
                                 Haridwar (Mayapur) in Gupta Empire Age
         J.S. Mishra categorically states that well planned arrangement for Kumbh Mela in Haridwar celebration started from Gupta period but there are not records to prove so (2004, Mahakumbh, page-17) .
O.P Singh mentions about Madwar Dynasty in Mayapur (near Haridwar) in post Gupta time referring Hiuen Sang travelogue after Gupta Age (1983, The Himalaya, nature, man and culture, page 291). That shows that Madwar would be a strong republican under Gupta regime. 
    Imperial gazette (1908-1938) states that there was a ‘smrat; 0governer Mangal Sen of Gupta King who built a fortress in Manglaur (Haridwar).

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 1/06/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -61
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…3 

Notes on History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Garhwal,  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Tehri Garhwal,  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Uttarkashi Garhwal,  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Rudraprayag Garhwal,  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Chamoli Garhwal,  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Kotdwara , Lansdowne Garhwal,  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Pauri Garhwal,  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Dehradun Garhwal,  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Kumaon   (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon   (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Bageshwar Kumaon   (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Champawat Kumaon   (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Almora Kumaon   (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Nainital Kumaon   (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon   (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Tarai Bhabhar Kumaon   (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Haridwar  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Kankhal Haridwar  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Jwalapur Haridwar  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Maglaur Haridwar  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Mohand Haridwar  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Roorkee Haridwar  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Sultanpur Haridwar  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age; History of Har ki Faidi (Paidi) Haridwar  (Uttarakhand) in Gupta Empire Age;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 61   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-3   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -1

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal who did sound research on works of Kalidasa)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                   Life of Kalidasa
      Kalidasa was a great Sanskrit playwright and poet of Classical Age.  There is no precise knowledge about timing of Kalidasa but it is certain that Kalidasa created his literature between 4th and 6th century.  There is also speculation about birth place of Kalidasa.
  Kalidasa created following immutable literary works


                                            Plays by Kalidasa

Malavikagnimitram- The play is about the King Agnimitra fell in love with picture of exiled servant Malavika.

Abhigyanshakuntalam- The dram is based on the story of Mahabharata about the love between King Dushyanta and Shakuntala and denying by Dushyanta. Bharat was their son.

Vikramorvasiyam- The play is about the love story between King Pururavas and celestial nymph Urvasi. 

                                       Epics by Kalidasa
 Kalidasa wrote two epics.
Raghuvansham- Raghuvansham is about story of King Raghu dynasty

Kumarsambhava- The story pertains the wedding of Parvati –Shiva and about their son Kartikey.

                       Khandkavya (Long Poetries) by Kalidasa

 Kalidasa wrote two Khandkavya too.
Meghadoot- The story is about a Yaksha sending message to his lover through cloud.
Ritusamhara – The poet describes six seasons and the experiences of two lovers in each season.
  The style of Kalidasa is remarkable.

                     Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

             After Mahabharata, the detailed descriptions about Uttarakhand are found in Kalidasa literature.

             Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Raghuvansham by Kalidasa

                In first part 9sarg0 of Raghuvansham, the Raghuvansh King Dilip reached to his family priest Vashistha‘s Ashram for getting blessing for son birth. The Ashram is at Gaurigaru (Parvati’s father place). The mountain place is at the bank of Ganga. Dilip looks after grazing Nandini. There are cedar trees.
            Kalidasa describes Ashram of Vashistha in the last 48 Shlokas of first ‘Sarg’ of Raghuvansham Kalidasa describes Ashram of Vashistha in first 71 Shlokas of second Sarg of Raghuvansham.     
              Raghu King campaigns to attack on kings of Gaurigaru Mountain after winning Kamboj kings (Cambodian chieftains) in fourth Sarg of Raghuvansham. There is description of struggle of Raghu army against the armies of Mountain chieftains in this chapter of Raghuvansham.  The Mountain soldiers fight/resist with Raghu’s soldiers by slipping stones and by other arms.
  Neither Mountain chieftains win nor Raghu. Both understood each other’s power and weakness. The Mountain chieftains offered gifts to Raghu at his returning back from Himalaya (Uttarakhand) [Raghuvansham, 4/71-79]. 
                   

***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -2


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 2/06/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -62
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…4 
Brief notes on Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Uttarkashi Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Tehri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Rudraprayag Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Dehradun Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Pauri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Chamoli Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Pithoragarh Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Bageshwar Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Champawat Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Nainital Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Almora Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham; Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature-Raghuvansham.   

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 62   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-4   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -2

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
                Kalidasa wrote about Himalaya (especially Central Himalaya) in his each drama and poetry collections.
  The plot of KumarSambhava by Kalidasa is borrowed from Skandpuran. The story is about God arranging marriage of Shiva with Parvati that their son could beat demon Taraka. Kumara the son of Shiva and Parvati killed Taraka demon and restored the deity kingdom.
          Kalidasa described today’s Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) in his epic Kumar Sambhav) with details.  The depiction of central Himalaya by Kalidasa is such that many Kalidasa experts as Kamla Ratnam suggest that Kalidasa (Kalidasa and the problems of women in his time, referred by Dr Nautiyal) was born in Garhwal-Kumaon region.
      In first part of KumarSambhava, in 14 shlokas, Kalidasa describes the natural beauty of Himalaya with grace and with lot of figure of speeches. Definitely, the description tallies with any part of Himalayas. 
        In the same chapter (part 1, 14 Shlokas) of KumarSambhav, Kalidasa portrays the epic faith about Himalaya, old sayings, old legends, mythology available in societies. Kalidasa explains that clouds have served the purpose of screen for doors of Himalayan-caves –dwelling Kiratas. It shows that definitely, Kalidas had depth knowledge of Himalayan clouds. In the sixth canto of Kumarsambhava, Kalidas discusses Koshi River. Describing Koshi River means the great poet knew the geography of central Himalaya with depth.   It is no surprise to historians that in ancient time the central Himalayan (especially upper central Himalayan) inhabitants used to worship Kumar or Kartikeya with enthusiasm (Pundit Murali Dhar Bhattarai, Birth Place of Kalidasa ( a Synopsis)).  Kartikeypur had been the capital of ancient Katyuri kings.

            From 15th Shloka of first chapter of KumarSambhava, Kalidas illustrates the beauty of Himalaya where Bhagirathi and Ganga flow. The great poet states that there are cedar-auspicious pine trees in the region. 
           In the third chapter (sarg) of KumarSambhava, Kalidas discusses many events happening in the Gandhmadhan mountain (near Badrinath) region of Himalaya.
        In sixth part of Kumarsambhava, Kalidasa describes Himalaya as human being. The great poet describes the medical herbs, Geru, cedar tress etc in this chapter.
   In seventh and eight chapter of Kumarsambhava, Kalidasa discusses medical plants and beauty of Madrachal, Gandhmadhan and Kailas mountains. Kailas is part of Gandhmadhan shrines in Kumarsambhava epic.

   

***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -3


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 3/06/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -63
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…5 
This chapter discuses historical aspect of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumaSambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Dehradun, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Uttarkashi Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kuma Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Tehri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Pauri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Chamoli Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Rudraprayag Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Epic Kumar Sambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Pithoragarh Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Nainital Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Almora Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Bageshwar Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Champawat Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Bageshwar  Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa; historical aspect of Dwarhat Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Epic KumarSambhav by Kalidasa.

Bhishma Kukreti

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Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Epic Meghdootam by Kalidasa

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 63   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-5   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -3

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
       
               
                       Kankhal (Haridwar) in Meghdootam by Kalidasa

   The epic Meghdootam describes the pain of separation of a Yaksha from his beloved. Yaksha send the cloud as messenger to his beloved. Yaksha states that cloud would go from Kurukshetra to Kankhal (Haridwar).
              Kalidasa describes Kankhal in Meghdootam (Purvamegha, 53-54) as - 
O Cloud! From Kurukshetra you should go to the daughter of Jahnu Ganga descended from Himalayas near Kankhal a stairway to paradise for sons of Sagar…
O Cloud, going onward from Kurukshetra, you will reach a holy place named Kankhal. Ganga flows near Kankhal. Ganga descended on Himalayas from sky and appearing like a flight of steps for Sagar …..
O Cloud, if you wish quarter elephant twisting /bending low the front part of his body with the trunk to drink water of the Heavenly Ganga in the sky, you were longing drinking in slanting manner crystal clear Ganga water flowing by Kankhal. Your shadow on Ganga near Kankhal would look like confluence of Yamuna and Ganga. The River Ganga carries all our stories along with her sacred flow. Bathe on her bosom. Like all mother Ganga washes all pains. Ganga flows for forever.


                                    Himalayas in Meghdootam by Kalidasa

                       There is importance of Ashadha month in central Himalaya. Kalidasa paid attention of first day of Ashadha in Meghdootam. 
               Kalidasa in Meghdootam describes that the Himalaya is standing tall in glory and snow. King of all kings Himalaya glitters with greatness. Kalidasa describes various shrines of central Himalaya as the birth place of Ganga (Alaknanda). From 57th to 67th chapters of Meghadootam, Kalidasa illustrates beauty and reality of Himalaya based on description of described in Mahabharata and Puran. There is description of Kailas (near Badrikashram, Gandhmdhan of Mahabharata). Kalidasa describes the prosperity of Alkapuri with unbelievable prosperity in figurative language.
   Kalidasa becomes sentimental when he describes Alka (birth place of Alaknanda River, Gandhmadhan near Badrikashram)


***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -4


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 3/06/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -64
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…6 
This chapter contains brief notes on finding the  history aspects about Kankhal, Haridwar in Meghdootam by  Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Jwalapur, Haridwar in Meghdootam of Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Biharigadh, Haridwar in Meghdootam by Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Roorkee, Haridwar in Meghdootam by  Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Mohand, Haridwar in Meghdootam by  Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Pathri, Haridwar in Meghdootam by Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Shyampur, Haridwar in Meghdootam of Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Manglour, Haridwar in Meghdootam by  Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Laksar, Haridwar in Meghdootam by  Kalidasa; history aspects about Kankhal, near Saptarishi Ashram, Haridwar in Meghdootam by  Kalidasa

Bhishma Kukreti

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 History Aspects of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Abhigyanshakuntalam a Sanskrit Play by Kalidasa


History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 64   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-6   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -4

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
             The plot of Abhigyanshakuntalam play is taken from Mahabharata epic. The story goes to sage Vishwamitra and his short living passion for nymph Menka. Menka delivered the girl child and leaves her on the hands of birds. Sage Kanva brought Shakuntala in his ashram ‘Kanvashram’ (near present Kotdwara, Garhwal). King Dushyanta comes in Kanvashram, made love with Shakuntala, and married her. Dushyanta left Kanvashram. Shakuntala delivered a brave child Bharat. Initially Dushyanta refused Shakuntala and Bharat. Later, Dushyanta accepts both. The name of this country Bharat is after Bharat who became great king.
                The events first scene of Abhigyanshakuntalam happens in Kanvashram. Kanvashram is still on the bank of Malini River of Bhavar or Bawar. According to Abhigyanshakuntalam, Kanvashram was at the foot hills of Himalaya and in Bawar region. The present Kanvashram is same. The events of second, third, fourth happened in Kanvashram. In seventh scene, there is event happening in Hemkoot -the Kashyap Ashram near Mandakini valley.

***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -5


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 5/06/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -65
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…7 
Notes on History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa;
History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Kashirampur, Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Limbuchaur, Kotdwara Garhwali n Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Ghamandpur, Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Lalpur, Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Dogadda, Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Chidiyapur, Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Bijnor, in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Nazibabad in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Haridwar, Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kanvashram, near Motadhank, Kotdwara Garhwal in Abhigyanshakuntalam by Kalidasa

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History of Pratapnagar: the town founded by Tehri King Pratap Shah
                History of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand)

                                    Bhishma Kukreti

              King Pratap Shah of Panwar dynasty was coroneted for Tehri kingdom in 1872 after death of his father King Bhavani Shah.  Pratap Shah was born in 1851. Pratap Shah of Tehri Kingdom expired in 1886.

  Pratap Shah founded primary school in Tehri that became college in later years.
  Tehri the capital of Shah Dynasty (after losing Pauri Garhwal/British Garhwal) was hot and humid as it was at the bank of confluence of Bhilangana and Bhagirathi at 2000 Feet height from sea. There was hot season in summer in Tehri.
   British founded new township in hills as Almora, Ranikhet, Nainital, Pauri, Mussoorie etc.
  Pratap Shah also founded a new township in his rule in Tehri Riyasat as British officers did. Tehri King Pratap Shah founded Pratap Nagar Township in 1877. Pratapnagar was nine miles far from Old Tehri. The height of Pratapnagar is 7000 feet from sea level.  When the township was founded in a plain plate, the area was densely covered by rhododendron, Kafal and oak trees. The place was suitable for summer capital of Tehri Riyasat.
  Pratap shah built palace building, court building, treasury building and houses for state employees. The Tehri Garhwal King Pratap Shah strengthened the Jhula Bridge on Bhilangana for easy reach to Pratapnagar.  From that time it was easy for horses to walk on Jhula Bridge of Bhilangana.
  Pratap Shah constructed a road (though Kacchi) from Tehri to Pratapnagar.
  Pratap Shah constructed Gardens and arranged cultivation for apples and other fruits.  The King constructed water canal for those gardens too.   
  Pratap Nagar was summer capital of Tehri Riyasat and Tehri was capital for winter season. 
                       Loot of State Properties in Pratapnagar in 1887-1888

           After death of Pratap Shah in 1887, there was loot of state owned cash and precious materials from palace of Pratap Nagar. 
  King Kirti Shah the son of Pratap Shah repaired Tehri-Pratapnagar Road and made it wider.
King Kirti Shah established ‘Chief Court’ in the Court building in Pratap Nagar.
King Kirti Shah arranged police system in Pratapnagar for looking after law and order of Pratapnagar. 
 Narendra Shah established sub division administration centers as Tehri, Pratapnagar, Kirtinagar, Narendranagar and Ravain. The administrative head of these subdivisions were called S.D.O.
  In 1930, Pratapnagar was a Pargana of Tehri Riyasat and there were 7 Pattis and 182 villages under Pratapnagar Pargana. The population of Pratapnagar Pargana was 36’709. The total agriculture land in Pratapnagar Pargana was 12502 Acres.  In this year the Tehri Riyasat got revenues for Rs 32137 and twelve anas.  The head of Pargana was called supervisor equal to ‘Girdawar Kanungo’ of British Garhwal
 The forest of Pratapnagar was reserved for kings only.
By 1951, there were 87 primary schools in Pratapnagar Pargana.
There was state Dak Bungalow in Pratapnagar in 1940
 References
Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 6
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, 5/6/2013
History of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand); History of Tehri Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand); History of Uttarkashi , Tihri Garhwal, (Uttarakhand); History of Ravain, Tehri Garhwal,  (Uttarakhand); History of Udayapur, Tehri Garhwal, (Uttarakhand); History of Chilla, Tehri Garhwal, (Uttarakhand); History of Bhilang, Tehri Garhwal, (Uttarakhand); History of Bhardar, Tehri Garhwal, (Uttarakhand); History of Chandravadni, Tehri Garhwal, (Uttarakhand); History of Narnedranagar, Tehri Garhwal, (Uttarakhand); History of Kirtinagar, Tehri Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) to be continued…

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 History Aspects of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Vikramorvasiyam, a Sanskrit Play by Kalidasa

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 65   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-7   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -5

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
       The play is about the love of a lunar dynasty king Pururavas loving heavenly nymph Urvasi. There are five acts in the play. There are fifteen main characters in Vikramorvasiyam drama by Kalidasa.
  The timing of the play Vikramorvasiyam is prehistoric, when Pururavas, the first king of lunar dynasty ruled on this earth.  There are five places of action in the drama:
Act I-Hemakuta Hills of Himalaya
Act II-The King’s palace in Pratishthanam (Prayag) the confluence of Ganga and Yamuna.
Act III- Palace of King
Act IV- Gandha-Madan Hills of Himalayas
Act V – King’s Palace in Pratishthanam
  The word ‘vjrinah’ is used in Abhigyanshakuntalam and Vikramorvasiyam for thunder in Garhwali language,’ bajar podan’ is used for high cloud thunder.
          Kalidasa mentions in Vikramorvasiyam, that Mandakini flowing from Gandha-Madan hills. That means Kalidasa mention Kedar Valleys. Present Mandakini River originates from Chorabari glacier near Kedarnath.
 After reading Vikramorvasiyam play, it may be guessed that today’s Chorabari glacier was Hemakuta of Vikramorvasiyam.  Today’s Mandakini valley tally with Gandha-Madan hills of Vikramorvasiyam. 



***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -6


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 6/06/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -66
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…8 
History Aspects of Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Chopta, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Tungnath, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Chandrashila, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Deoriyatal, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kalimath, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Marayan Koti, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Sari, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Ukhimath, Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Kedarnath, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Jayalgarh, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Sonprayag, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Tilwara, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Agyastmuni, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects ofGuotkashi,  Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Paunthi, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Bhatwari, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa; History Aspects of Madhyameshwar, Rudraprayag, Garhwal in Vikramorvasiyam by Kalidasa.

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Mountains of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 66   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-8   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -6

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
          The scholars admit that though Kalidas was resident of Ujjayani was in all likelihood a native a native of Himalayan province. The description of Himalayan Mountains and those regions suggest that Kalidasa was native of central Himalayan region.  His descriptions are obtained chiefly from direct experience of physical geography, natural history, social behaviors of central Himalaya (Uttarakhand especially Garhwal).
            The phrases as “The ‘Towery summits of Himalaya’ decked with ‘diadems of snow’; the peaks of Kailas reflected in the waters of dark Yamuna; the rippling Ganga laving the Mountain pines and cedar show that the illustration is about Garhwal ,especially Uttarkashi, Rudraprayag and Chamoli Garhwal .

                    Himalayan Mountains in Kalidasa Literature

 Kailas of Kalidasa- the Kailas of Kalidasa literature is part of Gandh-Madan Himalayan shrine. Ganga or Alaknanda comes out of Kailas (Purva Meghdootam, 67).  Mahabharata also describes Gandh-Madan hills as part of Badrikashrama shrine. Kalidasa portrays Kailas as clean, ivory color, beautiful and spiritual (Meghdootam,32).  Alkapuri is nearby Kailas of Kalidasa.

Kridashail of Kalidasa – Kaidasa describes that there was a hill ridge in Alkapuri named Kridashail. There were various types of tress in the hill ridge- Maulisiri (Mimusops elengi), Ashoka, Kurbak and Malpighiaceae plants.
Kraunchrandhra of Kalidas- Kalidasa describes Kraunchrandhra hill in Purva Meghdootam (67).The present Neetidwar or Neeti pass for Tibet in Garhwal is said to be Kraunchrandhra (Geographical Dictionary).
 Gandhmadan Shrine- Kalidas illustrates Gandhmadan Shrine frequently in his writings in Vikramorvashiyam, Meghdootam, Raghuvansham, and Kumarsambhavam. Kalidas states that Gandhmadan Shrine starts from Bhagirathi to Badrikashram .Kalidas used Kailas Mountain as part of Gandhmadan Shrine from where Mandakini and Janhvi Rivers take birth. That means Gandhmadan Shrine is present northern belt of Uttarkashi, Rudraprayag and Chamoli districts of Garhwal that is –present Gangotri, Kedar and Badrinath valleys.

Gauriguru Parvat- Kalidasa describes Gauriguru Parvat in Raghuvansham (2/26). According to Kalidas, Ganga emerges from this Mountain. It is definitely Badrinath valley because, most of the time Kalidasa used Alaknanda River as Ganga. Chanvar cows (Yaks) reside in this mountain. Deodar trees , Bhojpatra and various species of bamboo grow there.
   
  Prabhavanchal Mountain- in Meghdootam (56), Kalidasa states that this mountain is towards Kailas from Kankhal (Haridwar). Ganga emerges from here. Deodar trees grow here. Yak live here. There are Kasturi mrig or musk deer too in this Maintain.
Sikta Parvat- Sikta Maintain is at bank of Mandakini in Vikramorvashiyam (act-4),

Sumeru- According to Kalidasa, Sumeru hill is at descending part of Gandhmadan shrine near Kailas. B.S. Upadhyaya states this shrine as Rudra Himalaya of Garhwal
Hemkoot- Kalidasa describes Hemkoot in figurative language (Vikramorvashiyam,act-4).

 


***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -7


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 7/06/2013


(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -67
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…9 
Chapter indirectly has  Brief Notes on Mountains of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Niti, Chamoli pass Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Bampa, Chamoli Garhwal, Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Khirao, Chamoli Garhwal  (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Bhiundhar, Chamoli Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Rudranth, Chamoli  Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Dunagiri, Chamoli, Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Badrinath valley Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Kedarnath Valley Rudraprayag, Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Suralthota, Chamoli Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Mountains of Uttarkashi Garhwal (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature;

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Rivers of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Himalaya, Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 67   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-9   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -7

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

  Kalidasa mentions three great rivers of North India as-
1-Sindhu
2-Brahmputra
3-Ganga
                            Ganga and associate Rivers in Kalidasa Literature
Ganga River in Kalidasa Literature- Kalidasa states that Ganga comes from Prabhavanchal a Mountain where Deodar tress, musk deer, Yaks, are found. In some texts, Kalidasa writes that Ganga emerges from Alkapuri (Might be today’s source of Alaknanda as in real sense Alaknanda is called Dhauli Ganga (white Ganges)). Kalidasa describes that Ganga falls in plain from Kankhal (Haridwar).

Mandakini River in Kalidas Literature- Kalidasa used Mandakini as Exclusive River and as Ganga too. Mandakini is described as the River of air or heaven.
Mahakoshi River in Kalidasa Literature- Mahakoshi falls near the capital Aushdhiprashtha in Kumarasambhava.

Malini River in Kalidasa literature- In Meghdootam, Kalidasa illustrates that Malini River bank is birth place of Shakuntala. Kanvashram of age Kanva is situated at the bank of Malini River. Dushyant meets Shakuntala at Malini River bank. Bharat the son of Dushyant and Shakuntala is born in Kanvashram that is bank of Malini River. Kalidasa describes Sand dune at Mandakini River bank.
Yamuna River in Kalidasa literature- Kalidasa illustrates Yamuna as black river
Ponds and lakes of Himalaya in Kalidasa literature- Kalidasa describe various types of lakes and ponds in Himalaya in his literature. Kalidasa illustrates Mansarovar where lotuses are found.


***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -8

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 8/06/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -68
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…10 

Bhishma Kukreti

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   Seasons of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 68   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-10   
Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -8

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
        Kalidasa illustrated seasons of central India with details in Ritusamhar. However, there are illustrations of various seasons of Himalayas by Kalidasa in his various works.

                  Summer Season of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

           Kalidasa describes summer season of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Meghdootam and Abhigyanshakuntalam.
             In Abhigyanshakuntalam (act-2), Kalidasa states that there was leaf falls from trees in summer season in Bawar/Bhabhar regions of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand).
      It was difficult for people to find the breeze shadow in those warm places. In summer season the leaves used to rotten and the water of rivers, ponds was non potable. The water used to lose its softness in summer season in plains of Uttarakhand (Himalaya).
          In Meghdootam (57), Kalidasa portrays that was strong hot storm in the forest of Uttarakhand in summer season. The forest fire in Deodar forest was common in Garhwal and Kumaon. The Forest fire used to kill forest animals. The forest animals used to live in difficult days. Only rain was the resue points for forest animals at the time of forest fire.

               Rainy Season of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

         The great poet Kalidasa explains rainy season of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) with details in Abhigyanshakuntalam, Vikramorvashiyam, Meghdootam and Kumarasambhawam.  There was dense greenery in rainy season in Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand). In rainy season, the animals as deer, vegetarian animals used to take sharp needle of Kush and these grass leaves were painful for human when those leaves pierce the human bodies.  Kalidasa describes abundance of bull nettle plants in Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in rainy season.

              Winter Season of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

          Kalidasa describes various aspects of winter season of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Abhigyanshakuntalam, Vikramorvashiyam, Meghdootam and Kumarasambhawam.
       Kalidasa describes dews and states that as soon as sun rises the dew is no more. Kalidasa describes snow falls in mountains of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in winter season.
    Kalidasa described foggy morning and evening of winter of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand). Kalidasa states that in winter, due to clear sky there was bright moon shine in Himalayas.





***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -9

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 8/06/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -69
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…11 


Notes on Seasons of (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Seasons of Haridwar, (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Seasons of Uttarkashi, Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Seasons of Tehri Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Seasons of Rudraprayag, Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Seasons of Chamoli, Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Seasons of Pauri Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Seasons of Dehradun Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Seasons of Pithoragarh Kumaon , (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Seasons of Bageshwar Kumaon , (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Seasons of Champawat, Kumaon , (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Seasons of Nainital, Kumaon , (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Seasons of Almora, Kumaon , (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Seasons of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon , (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature…

 

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