Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 177067 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Flora and Fauna of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 69   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-11   

Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -9

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

               Kalidasa describes detailed flora and fauna of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand)-Central Himalaya in his literature.

               Flora of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature


Tendril and Bunch type flowering plants- Kalidasa describes the flora of Bawar (Plains of Uttarakhand), Gandhmadan shrines. He illustrates the tendril plants and bunch flowering plants of Garhwal-Kumaon. Kalidasa demonstrates  Jasmine type of plants, night fragrant flowering plants, the creeping flower- Gaertnera racemosa, lili types of water plants (Hiptage benghalensis), lotus, white water lily, China Rose, touch me not (Bichhu buti or Kandali) in Abhigyanshakuntala, Meghdootam, Vikramorvashiyam, Raghuvansham, Kumarsambhavam.
 The people used those flowers for native ornaments too.
Trees etc– Kalidasa portrays tress as Mango, Alstonia scholaris or devil tree,
              People used to perform auspicious ritual under Astonia scholaris tree.  People used to use Lebbeck  (Albizia lebbeck) flowers  as ear ornaments. Jujube berry, different berries, cut nut trees, Kadamba (Neolamarkia cadamba),Syzygium cumini (Jamun) or black plum, were found at lower altitude of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar.
  Kalidasa states that on higher altitude, there was heaven (Mandar), wish fulfilling tree, Deodar, Thuneru, etc trees.
 Kalidasa talked about Ashok, Maulshri and bamboo tress in snowy region.

             Fauna of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

 Dr Dabral in Uttarakhand ka Itihas (part-3, page 317) provides details of following fauna mentioned by Kalidasa in his various works –
Different peacocks
Krishnasar birds
Various species of Deer
Pigs/bores
Bear
Elephants
Lions
Tigers
Musk deer
Peacock
Cuckoo
Swans and other water birds
Bees etc
 



***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -10

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 11/06/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -70
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…12 


Notes on Flora and Fauna of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Flora and Fauna of Uttarkashi, Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Flora and Fauna of Chamoli, Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Flora and Fauna of Rudraprayag Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Flora and Fauna of Pauri Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Flora and Fauna of Tehri Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Flora and Fauna of Dehradun, Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Flora and Fauna of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Flora and Fauna of Nainital, Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Flora and Fauna of Almora, Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Flora and Fauna of Champawat, Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Flora and Fauna of Bageshwar, Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Flora and Fauna of Pithoragarh, Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Inhabitants and Towns/Villages of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 70   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-12   

Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -10

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                  Inhabitants/ Occupants of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

   Kalidasa describes following inhabitants of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in his various works.

Kinnar and Kirat- the Himalayan capital Aushdhiprashtha was situated at bank of Ganga. There were Yaksha and Kimpurush (Kinnar).  The Kinnar women were very beautiful. Kirat and Kinnar were occupants of Bhagirathi valley.
Kinnar women were famous for their music instrument playing and singing expertise.

Utsav Sanket- Along with Kinnar- Kirat communities, there was another small community Utsav –Sanket community in Ganga Valley. Kinnar-Kirat did not have cordial relations with each other. 

Yaksha- Yaksha used to live near in and nearby territory of Alkapuri and Kailas (near today’s Badrinath or Alaknanda valley). Many historians suggest Yaksha were Khasa of Mahabharata. However, Kalidasa describes Yaksha as prosperous community that does not tally with economic conditions of Khasa of that time.

Other minority communities- Apsarayen, Vidyadhar, Siddh, sages, Brahmachair were other minority communities.

  Urbanization, Civilization, Populations, Habits and Habitats of Occupants of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

       Kalidasa described many dwellings of Himalayan region in his works.

Alka- Alkapuri was at foothills of Kailas. There were multistoried buildings. There were gardens. The dressings of occupants were exotic and excited.  The people were music lovers. The life was happy there.

Aushadhiprashtha- Aushadhiprashtha was capital of Himalaya. The city was more prosperous than Alkapuri.  Kinnar and Kirats were the occupants of Aushadhiprashtha. The poet states that elephants and horses were there.
  There were pubs in Aushadhiprashtha. Entertainment was the aim of life of people.
 The nearby forest had such grass that the forest used to shine by those plants in night. This seems to be imagery place.

Kankhal- Kankhal was in Gangadwar (today’s Haridwar). Kalidasa states that it was capital of Dakshraj (father of Parvati). Ganga descends from Kankhal into plains.

Kanvashram-   Sage Kanva had his own Ashram.  Kanvashram was at foot hills of Himalaya at Malini River bank. There were students in Kanvashram.

Charanyas- This Ashram was near Ganga source.

Vashisthashram- The Vashisthashram was situated at Ganga bank in hills. Historians suggest the Ashram was near Lakshmanjhula.

Shakravatar- Shakravatar was village of Dhiwars.

Hemkut –Hemkut was at foothills and just above in Himalaya.


***Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…part -11

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 11/06/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -71
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…13 

Notes on History of Uttarakhand; History of Haridwar, Uttarakhand; History of Dehradun, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History of Uttarkashi, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History of Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History of Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History of Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of Pithoragarh, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of Champawat, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of Almora, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; History of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…               

Bhishma Kukreti

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Life and Life Style in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 71   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-13   

Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -11

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                 Kalidasa less mentioned about the common society of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in his Literature. However, Kalidasa paid more attention on Ashrams of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in his Literature.
           Population of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature
             Kalidasa describes that there were hundreds of sages, teachers, learned men, students in Kanvashram (Meghdootam). Kalidasa did not mention about numbers in other Ashrams.  It is clear that there were villages around Ashrams as sages, teachers, learned men and students needed food and other necessary articles those would come from villages only. That shows that plains of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in his Literature were densely populated.
  The huts of plains of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) were made by mud and grass. The houses in hills of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) were built by stones, mud and wood. There was custom of domestication of animals. Gardens and kitchen gardens near house was common factor in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Age.

Dressing and Ornaments in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

              Kalidas describes the ornaments of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in his literature. The major ornaments were made by grass, plants, leaves, stems and flowers.
          The rich men used to have metal ornaments too. The rich women used to do fine make up. There were various kinds of paste, perfume and herbal products available for makeup.
         The common men had simple dresses and rich men had costly dresses. The common men and students used to put on clothing of tree bark or other plant materials. Uses of fibrous plants for dress material were common among all Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) at Kalidasa time.
            Kalidasa describes wooden, mud and metal vessels in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in his literature.

               Language of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature


 There were two types of languages in society. The elite specially sages, students and kings used to speak in Sanskrit. The common men had their own local language (Prakrit). However, both the classes understood each other’s languages.
 There were following main local languages in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand).
Khas language -Shakuntala’s community used to speak Khas language.
Kinnari language- Perhaps this was Kinnari language of north Garhwal.
Kirati language- The language seems to be same as Kinnari language Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) of Kalidasa Age.
Utsav Sanket language- It seems there was a dialect Utsav Sanket language spoken by minority population in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) of Kalidasa Age.
Old Tibetan Language- Certainly there were certain Tibetan dialects spoken in north Himachal, Garhwal and Kumaon at Kalidasa time.


Religious Faith of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature
        Kalidasa describes in details about religious faith of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in his literature.
   The strong caste system persisted in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) at the time of Kalidas.
         People used to believe on luck.
               The people used to perform rituals for pacifying stars. Pilgrimage was one of the medium of satisfying stars.
   The people used to believe on purity or virtuousness of water and Ganga-Jamuna water.
 The society used to worship images. Idols were now common. People used to offer flowers, plants, food articles and other articles to deities. There were many images or symbols of auspiciousness as lotus, Vasu, Khsetrapal, lion etc.


Medium of Entertainment in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

        Classical and fine art was common in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Age.
        Music and dance was one of the medium of entertainment in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Age.
          Poetry creation was also common among common people in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Age.
    Toys were made by mud, wood and metal in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Age.
        Swimming was one of the medium of entertainments in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Age.
  Animal cart driving had specific purpose too.
Hunting by kings was common in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Age.
 If there were battles and attacks then there was surely the war training and war based entertainment custom in Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar. 

           Family System in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

 Joint family and big family system was common system.
The servants were supposed to be part of family.
Respect to elders, learned men, Guru, pundits was a social norm.
Orphans were took care by society.
Elite used to arrange for education to their daughters and sons in equal terms.
Daughters were married at young age.
Love marriage and arranged marriage were commonly respected.
Multiple wives was a common system.
The women had more social responsibilities.
 Tapswee had respectful place in the society.
Many Tapswee also used to obey chastity.
Yoga was commonly performed by Tapswees.

 Habits of Hill people of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature

 Hill people were simple and used to believe on others.
Hill people believe in telling the truth with sweetness.
Hill people used to believe on freedom and peaceful life.
Hill people were unaware of deceiving, stabbing from back.
Hill people believe in abiding promises.
Hill people were cautious to meet cunning and extrovert people of other regions.
Hill people were unaware about deceptive diplomacy.
Hill people were simple and they believe in accepting mistakes and forgiving others.

Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued part -12...


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 13/06/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -72
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…14 
Major Reference- Dr.Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part – 3, pages 310-336, Veer Gatha press, Dogadda, Garhwal, India


History Aspects of- Life and Life Style in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Kankhal, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Chamoli Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Rudraprayag, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Uttarkashi, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Tehri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Pauri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Dehradun Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Udham Singh Nagar ,Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Nainital, Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Almora, Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Bageshwar, Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Champawat, Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature; Life and Life Style in Pithoragarh, Kumaon  (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature to be continued…

Bhishma Kukreti

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Theories on Life Span and Native Place of Kalidasa

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 72   

Historical Aspects of Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-14   

Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Kalidasa Literature- part -12

(This History chapter up is dedicated to great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal  who did sound research on Kalidasa literature and Life)

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

               Kalidasa had been a great personality of Indian history. The works of Kalidasa influenced every regional language literature and Sanskrit literature after Kalidasa. Even today, many Indian poets and dramatists follow Kalidasa this way or that way. However, less is known about the birth place, the life span of great poet Kalidasa.
                                       Time Period of Kalidasa Life

   There are many theories about birth date, life and death date of great Indian poet Kalidasa. Now, there is almost a conscious among historians that Kalidasa flourished between somewhere from 100 -450AD (Raj Pruthi, 2004, Classical Age, page 151).

                     Kalidasa was Brahmin

    There is less known about family of Kalidasa. It is certain that Kalidasa was Shaivya Brahmin. This is also true that the  work place of Kalidasa was Ujjain or Vidarbha.
                            Native place/Birth place of Kalidasa 


                  Before, Sada Nand Jakhmola came in the seen there were many scholars who were proving native place of Kalidasa as per their ease.
              Mirasi was bent to prove that Kalidasa’s native place/birth place was Bengal.
             Professor Kalla was providing non logical proofs of Kashmir being the native place/ birth place of Kalidasa.
             Dr Dabral providing foolproof arguments of Sada Nand Jakhmola proved that Mirasi and Kalla were totalu wrong.
          Anand M Sharan provides non-logical evidences to prove that Mithila was place/birth place of Kalidasa.
                Muralidhar Bhattarai was bent for proving that Nepal was native place/birth place of Kalidasa. His arguments were correct till flora and fauna. But Muralidhar Bhattarai totally misinterpreted the names Mandakini, Malini , Ganga rivers just to support his views. Bhishma Kukreti proved that Muralidhar Bhattarai was wrong in interpreting names of rivers, places just for his satisfaction (merpahadforum.com/religious-places-of-uttarakhand/kaviltha-birth-place-of-kalidas) .
          Scholars as Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwali poet Sada Nand Jakhmola, Editor of Satyapath, Lalita Prasad Naithani, Dr. Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Kunvar Singh Negi, ‘Karmath’, Srimati Kamla Ratnam, Banarasi Das Chaturvedi , Dr. Mayaram Uniyal, Bhishma Kukreti proved that Garhwal was the native place /birth place of Kalidasa.   
 Sada Nand Jakhmola proved that Kaviltha is birth place of Kalidasa.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 14/06/2013

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -73
Historical Aspects of -Classical Period of Haridwar -Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas to be continued…15 
Major Reference- Dr.Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part – 3, pages 310-336, Veer Gatha press, Dogadda, Garhwal, India
Notes on history aspects about native place/birth place of Kalidasa in Himalaya; history aspects about native place/birth place of Kalidasa in Central Himalaya; history aspects about native place/birth place of Kalidasa in Uttarakhand Himalaya; history aspects about native place/birth place of Kalidasa in Garhwal Himalaya; history aspects about native place/birth place of Kalidasa in North Garhwal, Himalaya; history aspects about native place/birth place of Kalidasa in Kaviltha village in Garhwal  Himalaya;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Hun/Huns/Hunas Invasion in India and History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand)


History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 73   



                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti


                         First Hun/Huns/Hunas Attack on India

                    The first Hun/Huns/Hunas invasion displaced Gupta Dynasty Rule from Indian North Western part.
             The first Hun/Huns/Hunas invasion influenced the regional kings (chieftains) becoming ambitious and rebelling against Gupta Empire.
              The Bhitri pillar inscriptions suggest that Samudragupta defeated Hun/Hunas in 456AD in Ganga Valley and Samudragupta pushed beyond Sutlej River.  However, Hun/Hunas ruled over Gandhar and central Punjab.  Huns also controlled Kushan and other smaller chieftains of Punjab and Gandhar.

                      Uttarakhand Chieftains and First Hun/Hunas Invasion
             
It seems that after first Hun invasion, the chieftains of Uttarakhand as the chieftain of Kartripur might have tried to declare their freedom from Gupta Rule.

                                Second Hun/Hunas Invasion in India

                   These Hun were in really the Hephthalites but inscription declared them Hun. These white Huns who attacked India were the mixture of Kushan and Heftal tribe.
                                            Torman Kingdom (?-502 or 510AD)
 
                       After the death of Samudragupta (467AD), the control of Gupta lessened in western India. Hun and low profiled Kushan armed forces attacked Gupta dynasty and won Kashmir, Jammu, Himachal, Punjab, Rajasthan and parts of Malwa. This way Hun kingdom was established. Torman was the white Hun leader.   
 
  Gopraj on behalf of Bhanugupta or Balagupta of Gutpa dynasty attacked on Torman in 510 and defeated Torman. This was the time Hun rule also started disintegrating.
                           Hun Rule Expansion by Torman
          After some time, the chieftains who were under Gupta rule accepted control of Torman. The various coins and inscriptions suggest that Torman won Ganga-Yamuna Doab, Varanasi, Bigger parts of today’s Madhya Pradesh, western part of Bihar. The Patliputra or Magadha King also accepted paying tax to Torman. It means Torman became ruler of half of Bihar, complete Uttar Pradesh, bigger portion of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Jammu-Kashmir and parts of Afghanistan. 

             
                   Hun/Hunas/Huns Rule in Himalayan Slops

                 The coins found in Sanghol of Himachal suggest that Torman and his successors ruled on the Himalayan slopes. 
     It is also a fact that there was control of Torman Huns on Tibetan area adjacent to Himachal. There might be rule or influences of Hun on Uttarkashi region Uttarakhand adjacent to Tibet. Dr Dabral support a Rajatrangani shoal and states that there was rule of Torman and his scissor Mihirkul on western Himalaya.

                                 Mihirkul (502- 532 or 510 -542)


   The son of Torman, Mihirkul got the Hun crown after death of his father. He ruled with same territory that his father accumulated. His capital was sakal.
             However, Magadha king Baladitya defeated Mihirkul.
            In 532AD, Malva king Yashodharman defeated Mihirkul and captured from western Uttar Pradesh, east Punjab territories.
        There was rule of Mihirkul on western Punjab, Kashmir, and Himachal regions.
      Historians state that Torman and Mihirkul were cruel, transgressor.
  There was rule of Hun in Gandhara and that region by Napki Malka(500), Torman II (542-570) and Lakhana (mid sixth century). 

                                      Yashodharman/Yasovarman (Rule 530-540)
Yashodharman/Yasovarman of Malva expanded his pushed Hun rule and expanded his rule from Assam till western Indian sea cost.
                      Uttarakhand under Yashodharman/Yasovarman?

 The Mandsaur inscriptions suggest that Yashodharman/Yasovarman ruled over Uttarakhand or the chieftains of Uttarakhand were paying tax to Yashodharman/Yasovarman.
 Very less is known about family of Yashodharman or Yasovarman. His rule rose suddenly and declined immediately. 

                          Maukahri winning Hun
  Maukahri Kings Ishanvarman and his son Sarvavarman defeated Hun.   

                 Effects of Hun/Huns/Hunas Rule in India


                 Gupta rulers established unity among Indian kingdoms. The main effects of Hun rule over India were that the unity disintegrated.   Petty kingdoms began to flourish and the unity established by early Gupta   shattered due to Hun invasion.   Huna introduced vigor and warlike culture in India. Hun invasion brought down the socio political and economic life. The trade ling with Roman regions was broke down.   Hunas brought racial admixture culture in India.                         

                   Sharp Decline in Glorious Export Activities from Uttarakhand in Hun Rule (500-600AD)

                  The historical aspects of Hunas/Huns /Hun rules in North and central India suggest that the Indian trade link was broken with Roman regions, Greece and other western countries. The western ports lost their importance in Huna/Hunas/Hun rule. That means the one of the biggest wholesale markets Kalkut/Kalsi lost its glory.  The goods were being exported to western countries lost the trade route. By this phenomenon definitely, the economic strength of Uttarakhand declined in Hun/Huna time.   
                 In Huna rule, In India, main exporting port centers were Kaveri Patanam, tamralipta etc for South East Asian countries and China. It is obvious that there was no demand generation of Central Himalaya products those had high demand in Roman regime and western countries. 
  Due to instability in Magadha or Patliputra, there were chances that export of Uttarakhand produces to Magadha or Patliputra too declined.
         Conclusively, it might be said that in Huna rule, Uttarakhand lost its glory of exports.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 15/06/2013
References:

1-Fleet John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of Early Guptas, Vol.3, Calcutta, 1888, page 54-56
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarkhadn ka Itihas, Bhag -3
3-Thakur, Upendra, 1967, Huns in India (Chaukhamba Sanskrit Studies)
4-Thakur, Upendra, 1986, Some Aspects of Asian history and Culture

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -74


 Notes on Hun/Huns/Hunas Invasion in India and History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand); Hun/Huns/Hunas Invasion in India and History of Garhwal; Hun/Huns/Hunas Invasion in India and History of Kumaon; Hun/Huns/Hunas Invasion in India and History of Haridwar (Uttarakhand); Hun/Huns/Hunas Invasion in India and History of Central Himalaya; Hun/Huns/Hunas Invasion in India and History of Himalaya

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   History Aspects of Yadava/Yadu Dynasty of Sainhpur or Singhpur of Lakhamandal Region (250-635 AD)

                           History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 75   



                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                   Lakhamandal, Kalikut (Kalsi) of present Jaunsar Bawar and Ravain regions were important pilgrim places and trade centers in North India from Mahabharata till Panwar dynasty took over Garhwal.
               The archeologists excavated various valuable historical materials from Lakhamandal and nearby areas. 
 One of the important inscriptions ‘Ishwara Prashasti’ (Size: 2’, 10.5x1’x9’’) is found in Lakhamandal temples.
         It seems that after the death of her husband, widow Ishwara came to her parent home in Lakhamandal and arranged ‘Ishwara Prashasti’ in the memory of her husband. There many theories about existence of Sainhpur.
              Dr. Dabral seems to be more logical that Singhpur/Sainhpur was near Srughnapur (Sudhgaon of today’s Saharanpur) and near to Kalsi too. Ishwara would have married to a chieftain of Sainhpur/Singhpur and she came back to parent place when she lost her husband.
             Dabral suggests that that one name of Srughna pur was Sainhpur and a Singhvarman king established a kingdom there by his name. In later stage, the name of kingdom/chieftain area or Janapada became Sainhpur.
  There are twenty two ‘sholkas’ in the inscription.
   There are names of following kings in Ishwara inscriptions of Lakhamandal –

S.N.----King Name -------------------Relation with last King ---------------Title given in inscription
   1----Shri Senvarman----------------Establisher of Kingdom--------------Rajarshi
   2----Shri Aryavarman ---------------Son ------------------------------Nripati
3-Shri Devvarman---------------- Son ---------------------------------------Nripati
4--- Shri Pradiptvarman ------------------- son   ----------------------------------- Bhupal
5- Shri Ishwarvarman ------------------------- Son -------------------------------- Bhupati
6- Shri Vridhivarman -------------------son ---------------------------------- Raja
7- Shri Singhvarman -------------------son ------------------------------------Rajsingh
8  --Shri Jal --------------------------------son  ---------------------------------Nripati
9- Shri Yagyavarman ----------------- son ----------------------------------- Mahipati
10- Shri Achalvarman ------------------son --------------------------------  Rajarshi/ Ghanghal
11- Shri Divakarvarman -----------------son ------------------------  Nripatish, Mahaghanghal, Bhad /Bhatt?
12- Shri Bhashkarvarman  -------------- Brother -----------------------  Nripatipal/ Ripughanghal
                   
                                        Rajarshi Shri Senvarman
                       Senvarman was either founder of Yaduvansh in Sainhpur or Yaduvansh got familiarity after Shri Senvarman. According to Jaysawal, the initiation period of Yadyvansh of Senvarman is around 250AD. The Yaduvansh might have ended around 635 AD.
 The praiseworthy word ‘Rajarshi’ suggest that he was disciplined king.
                                          Nripati   Shri Aryavarman   
     Aryavarman has strong character.
                                             Shri Devvarman
                  Shri Devvarman used to eradicate the fear of his subject, was donor, anxious in winning for his family, and was destroyer of enemies. That means there were a couple wars in the time of  Shri Devvarman.
                                          Shri Pradiptvarman

Shri Pradiptvarman was an angry man and did not pardon his enemies. He had pride.

                                    Shri Ishwarvarman

                     Shri Ishwarvarman was a religious king.

                             Shri Vridhivarman
            Shri Vridhivarman was a prosperous king and was helpful.

                      Shri Singhvarman

                         Shri Singhvarman was strong king, was dangerous for enemies and soft for others. He was donors.
                                       Shri Jalvarman
          Shri Jalvarman was peaceful in nature

                                      Shri Yagyavarman

            Shri Yagyavarman was religious king.
             
                         Ghanghal means Bhad (Brave)
                Ghanghal word is used to praise the last three kings. This Ghanghal word seems to be local words for brave man in that time. 
                Shri Achalvarman Ghanghal was peaceful but used to punish enemies in wars.
                  Shri Divakarvarman was Mhaghanghal or strongest king.
                               Shri Bhaskarvarman Ripughanghal

 
                     Shri Bhaskarvarman Ripughanghal was very strong king. It is praised in ‘Ishwara Prashasti’ that he won other kingdoms. It seems that he campaigned to win over the territories of south Uttarkashi.
  He had only one queen that is Jayavali. Jayavali was daughter of king Kapilvardhan.
                                             Ishwara Queen
  Ishwara was daughter of Shri Bhaskarvarman Ripughanghal and Jayavali. Ishwara was married to Chandragupta the crown prince of Jalandhar. She was widowed in her young age. She came to her parent house after her husband death. She built a temple there in Sainhpur Lakhamandal.  She built the temple for keeping forever the fame and name of her husband Chandragupta.

                       Vasudev Bhatt the poet of excellence
    There are twenty two Sanskrit Shlokas in Ishwara inscription. These Shlokas express that the poetry creator was great poet (court poet). The poetry creator describes his details on the last stanza. His name was Vasudev Bhatt, whose father name was Bhattskand and his grandfather name was Kshemshiv Bhatt. It is written there at the end - ‘ Bhattvasudev ainan prashstikarodayodhyesh:’. That means this poet had relation with Ayodhya. It may be possible that Vasudev Bhatt was from Himachal and his forefathers might have migrated to Kullu from Ayodhya.
                              Ishwarnag
                 Ishwarnag the son of Nagdatt erected and incised the ‘inscriptions. He was great craftsman. Ishwarnag wrote there that he was from Roditak. Bhullat states that Ishwarnag was from Rahtak. Dr. Dabral refused to agree upon this theory.
                          No difference between ‘B’ and ‘V’ letters

   There are mistakes in carving ‘Ba’ and ‘Va’ letterings. Garhwalis still don’t differentiate between ‘Ba’ and ‘Va’ as Basant is also written/pronounced ‘Vasant. That shows that Ishwarnag was from Lakhamandal region only. ’

                     Education
 There was arrangement for education.

                                         Social beliefs
             The character of Ishwara states that on that time women used to follow one husband system in the region.  Bhaskarvarman had only one wife.

                                         Shaivism
         The temples and inscriptions definitely prove that Buddhism was totally declined in this period and Shaivism was on rise.
  Yagya and other rituals were necessary to get prosperity, children. Disciplinary, truthful life had values in society.
                                       
   

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 18/06/2013
References:
1-Jayswal, Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarkhadn ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Vasudev Upadhyaya, Gupta Samrajya ka Itihas
5- Raj Pruthi, 2004, The Classical Age
6-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
9- Archeological Survey Catalogue, Chamoli and Dehradun Circle on Internet (Notification number 1669/1133-M/-27/12/1920
10 Chhabda
11-Vatsa and Agarwal article on U.P. Historical Society, July 1944

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -76

Xx                        xxx                       xxx
                               
Notes on History Aspects of Yadava/Yadu Dynasty of Sainhpur or Singhpur of Chakrata, Lakhamandal, Dehradun, Garhwal (250-635 AD); History Aspects of Yadava/Yadu Dynasty of Sainhpur or Singhpur of Gauraghati, Chakrata, Lakhamandal, Dehradun, Garhwal (250-635 AD); History Aspects of Yadava/Yadu Dynasty of Sainhpur or Singhpur of Kwasi, Chakrata, Lakhamandal, Dehradun, Garhwal (250-635 AD); History Aspects of Yadava/Yadu Dynasty of Sainhpur or Singhpur of Juddo, Chakrata, Lakhamandal, Dehradun, Garhwal (250-635 AD); History Aspects of Yadava/Yadu Dynasty of Sainhpur or Singhpur of Chimri, Chakrata, Lakhamandal, Dehradun, Garhwal (250-635 AD); History Aspects of Yadava/Yadu Dynasty of Sainhpur or Singhpur of Nagthat, Chakrata, Lakhamandal, Dehradun, Garhwal (250-635 AD); History Aspects of Yadava/Yadu Dynasty of Sainhpur or Singhpur of Bratkhai, Chakrata, Lakhamandal, Dehradun, Garhwal (250-635 AD);

Bhishma Kukreti

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                                    Nagvansh of Kartripur (485-565AD)

                  History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 74   



                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

 
                          Gupta Rule over part of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand)

 
             Through, Kavyaminmasha, the historians suggest that there was Gupta rule over from the day Chandragupta killed Khashdhipati (a king of one area of Uttarakhand) of Kartripur. There are absolutely no record available that throws light on Uttarakhand at Gupta period.

                                 Vishaypati Sarvnag (465-485 AD?)

                      The Indore of Bulandshahar inscriptions state that Sarvnag was the provincial chief (Vishaypati) of land between Yamuna and Ganja at the time of Skandagupta (465).
   That means Sarvnag ruled (under Gupta) the territory approximately from 465-485AD. The inscription suggests that Sarvnag might be the chieftain of Yamun and Kartripur region of Uttarakhand.

                         Nag Kings of Kartripur (a territory in Uttarakhand)

 The Gopeshwar (Chamoli Garhwal) Trishul abhilekh (trident inscription) and Barahat (Uttarkashi) trident inscription suggest that five Nga kings ruled over Kartripur territory.
                 The Siroli (Chamoli Garhwal) stone inscription suggests that Maikhuri king Sarvarman ruled that region.
  This means that this Nag dynasty ruled over some part of Uttarakhand (especially Garhwal) from 485 AD to around or before 565AD)
                      Four Nag kings on Gopeshwar Trident Inscription

 The following Nag King names are there on Gopeshwar Trident inscription
1-Skandnag
2-Vibhunag
3-Anshunag
4-Ganpatinag
 Barahat Trident inscription describes following two nag kings
1-Ganeshwar
2-Guh
               The Gupta inscriptions here and there in India suggest that there were small kingdoms of Nag clans in north India before the emergence of Samudragupta. Samudragupta took rule from these Nag chieftains. However, they were representatives of Gupta ruler and virtually were rulers of their territories.
           When there was weakness in Gupta rule these Nag rulers became stronger.
  Hun ruled full or some part of Uttarakhand. Or Kartripur Kings used to pay taxes to Hun.

                               Ganpatinag King of Kartripur (Gopeshwar, Chamoli)

                                     
 
               The brass  trident inscription at the complex of Rudranath/Gopinath (Gopeshwar) temple is measuring 5 feet high and 20centimeetr wide. Ganpatinag the heir of Skandnag, Vibhunag and Anshunag built a Shiva temple and erected this trident. Guha builr the son of Ganpatinag built a temple Vishwanath temple in Barahat (Uttarkashi i, seventy miles away from Gopeshwar) and erected trident. The quality of trident, shape/size and script writing on both the tridents suggest that both the tridents were manufactured by same craftsman and carving writer was same.   
  It is said that Ashok Challa repaired this temple on later age.
              There are fifteen copper coins in National museum in Kolkata of forth century. The name Maharaja Shri Ganendra is carved on those coins. However, there is not much literature available to establish any relation of these coins with Ganpatinag of Kartripur, Gopeshwar.
                                       Shriguha Nag

     
                    Shriguha the son of Ganeshwar or Ganpatinag got the crown of Kartripur after Ganpatinag’s death.
                      The twenty one feet high bronze trident of Barahat (Uttarkashi) and its inscriptions state that Shriguha was brave king. Shriguha had wide chest and big eyes. Shriguha was handsome and great donor too. Shriguha was a knowledgeable King. Shriguha was forward looking and soft hearted King. 
         
                                 Shaivism in Chamoli and Uttarkashi in Fifth/Sixth Century

                      Ganpatinag and Shriguha Nag built Shiva temples in Gopeshwar and Barahat. Both erected high tridents at the complexes of respective temples.  The people were also followers of Shiva sect.

                        Enemy Disturbances in Shriguha Kingdom

 
                          The trident inscriptions of Barahat suggest that enemy created disturbances and Shriguha Nag diffused those disturbances.  However, it is not clear that the disturbances creators were outsiders or within the family.
             Yadva Vanshi king Singhvarman (after 460AD) was King of Yamunprades adjacent of Kartripur. There is possibility of war between Yamunprades King and Kartripur King. 
              A couple of Historians suggest that there were sever attacks on Kartripur from Guge Kingdom of Tibet.  It might be too that Shriguha defeated the Guge King’s attack and erected Trident as memorandum of his win over Tibetan king.


                   Decline of Nag Kingdom after Maukhari Kingdom Rise


                    The inscription of Sarvarman suggests that Maukhari attacked Kartripur and ended nag dynasty from Kartripur.
   
                       Sanskrit Education in Nag Kingdom

                  The Gopeshwar and Barahat inscriptions suggest that there were Sanskrit learned scholars and Sanskrit poets in Uttarkashi and Chamoli Garhwal in fifth and sixth century. The writing, the poetic class of inscriptions, show that there were arrangements for education in common places. The elite used to speak in Sanskrit.  Education was available to elite and might be to common men.


                  Economic conditions of Uttarakhand in Nag Period (485-565AD)
 
    The art and artistic value of Trident definitely advocate that economic conditions of North Garhwal were prosperous and there was export from this area. Though in Hun regime there was decline in mercantile activities the tradition of exporting gold dust, minerals, herbal medicines and herbs, mineral salt, woolen produces, musk, Bhojpatra, Ganga water  was going on.
              Barahat suggests that Uttarkashi was big market in ancient time.

                The metallurgy was important in north Garhwal in fifth and sixth century. Art and crafts had big role in society.
                       The coming history of Garhwal also state that the contemporary architecture science and art was flourishing in Garhwal in fifth and sixth century. Ganga and other reverent rivers were having importance in Indian societies.

               There were exchanges of science and art or technology transfer with other parts of Indian plains from Uttarakhand. There was commercial relationship with Tibet and at the same time there were disagreements for borders too.
                         

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 15/06/2013
References:
1-Jayswal, Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarkhadn ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Vasudev upadhyaya, Gupta Samrajya ka Itihas
5- Raj Pruthi, 2004, The Classical Age
6-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
9- Archeological Survey Catalogue, Chamoli and Dehradun Circle on Internet (Notification number 1669/1133-M/-27/12/1920

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -75

Xxx             xxx   
Notes on History of Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); History of Haridwar, Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); History of Chamoli, Garhwal, Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); History of Gopeshwar, Chamoli, Garhwal, Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); History of Tehri  Garhwal, Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); ); History of  Rudraprayag, Garhwal, Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); History of  Uttarkashi, Garhwal, Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); History of  Barahat, Uttarkashi, Garhwal, Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century);History of  Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); History of  Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); History of  Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon , Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); History of Nainital,  Kumaon , Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); History of  Almora, Kumaon , Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); History of  Champawat, Kumaon , Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); History of  Bageshwar, Kumaon , Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century); History of  Pithoragarh, Kumaon , Uttarakhand (fifth and sixth century).










Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Maukhari Empire (550-606AD)

                           History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 76   
                         (Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))


                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti


                             Foundation of Maukharis Empire (Appx.550AD)


              Hunas/Huns/Hun weakened Gupta Empire or displaced Guptas from glory. Pushyabhuti captured Thaneshwar region and declared the territory free.  Maukharis captures the whole Uttar Pradesh and decided their capital in Kanauj.
                       It seems that the first kings of Maukharis were the chieftains of Gupta Empire. Maukhari kingdom was extended to Orissa, Andhra, and Gaud Pradesh too. 

                                     Ishanvarman Maukhari (550-575)

               Ishanvarman was son of Ishwarvarman. Maukhari King, Ishanvarman increase his arm power vigorously.  Ishanvarman stopped the Hun aggression and declared his kingdom from Gupta Empire. Ishanvarman took the title- Maharajadhiraj. Ishanvarman Maukhari had continuous wars with his neighbors. Kumargupta of Gupta Empire defeated Ishanvarman.
                Ishanvarman informed in his Hada inscriptions that he won Andhra, Sulik (Chalukya?) and Gaud kings.
            Afsar inscriptions suggest that Ishanvarman extended his kingdom territory up to Kartripur (Uttarakhand), Yamuna valley. It is not certain whether Ishanvarman defeated Guha of Kartripur dynasty or not. ,

                                    Sarvvarman Maukhari (576-580)

                 Sarvvarman Maukhari got the rule after his father death. Sarvvarman Maukhari killed Damodargupta the son of Kumargupta of Gupta Empire of Magadha. Sarvvarman Maukhari was more aggressive and powerful than his father. Sarvvarman Maukhari took the title of ‘Maharajadhiraj’. Sarvvarman Maukhari is described ‘Maharajadhiraj’ in Siroli (Gopeshwar, Garhwal) and Asirgarh inscriptions.

                             Rule over Uttarakhand by Sarvvarman

                   Siroli inscription states that Sarvvarman ruled over Kartripur. No other name was there as Sarvvarman. Therefore, it is concluded that Sarvvarman Maukhari ruled over Uttarakhand. His kingdom representative was Narvarman. Narvarman built a Nauli (well type water source).
Hun Attack- There was Hun attacks on Maukharis kingdom. Maukharis diffused Hun attacks. It also seems that Sarvvarman Maukhari ruled over Kumaon, Haridwar and nearby Saharanpur territories; Bareli etc. Nepal had marriage relationship with Maukharis.

                              Avantivarman Maukhari (580-600)

  Avantivarman Maukhari (son of Sarvvarman Maukhari) protected well his territories left by his father. It seems there was rule of Maukharis on Uttarakhand.

                                  Grahavarman Maukhari (600-606)

                    After the death of his father Avantivarman, Grahavarman Maukhari ruled Maukharis Kingdom. The wife of Grahavarman Maukhari was the princess of Thaneshwar King. With the help of Gaud king Shashank, Gupta king attacked on Grahavarman Maukhari. The Maukharis king Grahavarman Maukhari was killed by Devgupta in this battle.
                       Rajyashri, the widow of Grahavarman Maukhari ruled the Maukharis kingdom for some time. Later on Harsha the brother of wife of Grahavarman Maukhari took the Maukharis Kingdom under Thaneshwar Kingdom.



 
                            Invention of Chaturanga or Chess Game    

                It is said that Chaturanga (Chess) game was invented in Maukhari regime.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 19/06/2013
References:
1-Jayswal, K.P. ,  Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarkhadn ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Vasudev Upadhyaya, Gupta Samrajya ka Itihas
5- Raj Pruthi, 2004, The Classical Age
6-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
9- Archeological Survey Catalogue, Chamoli and Dehradun Circle on Internet (Notification number 1669/1133-M/-27/12/1920
10 Chhabda
11-Vatsa and Agarwal article on U.P. Historical Society, July 1944
12-Thapliyal, K.K, 1984, Inscriptions of Maukharis, Late Guptas, Pushyabhutis and Yashovarman of Kanauj
13-Uma Prasad Thapliyal, 2005, Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Prospective (Page 29, about Authority of Maukharis on Uttarakhand and Haridwar) 
14-.Tripathi, R.S., History of Kanauj

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -77
Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…
Xxx          xxx
Notes on History of Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Maukhari Empire; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, (Uttarakhand) in Maukhari Empire; History of Nainital, Kumaon, (Uttarakhand) in Maukhari Empire; History of Almora, Kumaon, (Uttarakhand) in Maukhari Empire; History of Pithoragarh Kumaon, (Uttarakhand) in Maukhari Empire; History of Bageshwar, Kumaon, (Uttarakhand) in Maukhari Empire; History of Champawat, Kumaon, (Uttarakhand) in Maukhari Empire; History of Rudraprayag, Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Maukhari Empire; History of Chamoli, Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Maukhari Empire; History of Tehri, Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Maukhari Empire; History of Uttarkashi, Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Maukhari Empire; History of Dehradun, Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) in Maukhari Empire.

Bhishma Kukreti

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History Aspects of Kumaon, Garhwal, Haridwar (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhan Dynasty (500-647) part-I


History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 77   
                         (Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))


                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

     There are a couple of sources for knowing the time of Harshavardhan. Historians take help of Harshacharit by Ban Bhatt and the travelogue by Chinese traveler Hiuen-Tsang. The ancestors of Harshavardhana ruled Thanesar (Sthaneshwar), Haryana Kingdom.
                          Ancestors of Harshavardhan

                   The Harsha inscriptions describe four kings before Harshavardhan- Narvardhan, Ajyavardhan and Prabhakarvardhan (500-580).
                               
                                            Prabhakarvardhan
  Prabhakarvardhan was the son of Adityavardhan.  Prabhakarvardhan had title ‘Param Bhattarak Mahadhiraj’. He was under Gupta rule but might be he declared freedom and he extended his rule up to western Punjab, between western Vyasa valley and eastern Yamuna valley of Haryana.
Prabhakarvardhan had wars with Hunas.
 Prabhakarvardhan had two sons Rajyavardhan and Harshavardhan. Prabhakarvardhan had a daughter Rajyashri who was married to Maukhari King Grahvarman.

                                           Rajyavardhan (died in 606)
             When his father died Rajyavardhan was engaged in war with Hunas. Rajyavardhan returned to Thanesar. He was not interested to take the responsibility. Howvwer, Rajyavardhan had to go Kanauj to help his widow sister’s kingdom. Malav King attacked to Maukhari kingdom after death of Grahvarman Maukhari. Rajyavardhan defeated Malav king easily. However, Gaud King Sasanka killed Rajyavardhan with deceptive method.
              Due to gaud killing to Rajyavardhan, his sister widow of Grahvardhan ran away towards Vindhya forest.
                                            Harshavardhana (606-647)


             Harshavardhana made peace in Kanauj and wished to search his sister Rajyashri. Gaud king ran away towards Vindhyachal.
   Harshavardhana found his sister just at the time she was to be Sati. Harshavardhana stopped her burning. Rajyashri converted for Buddhism.  Harshavardhan punished Gaud king and returned to Kanauj/Kanyakubja.

              By advises of elders and Buddhist preachers, Harshavardhan merged his kingdom of Thanesar with Kanyakubja of Maukharis.
     
                              Kingdom Expansion by Harshavardhana

              Harshavardhana extended his kingdom up to Magadha. He was defeated at Narmada bank by Pulkeshin II.
                 Historian suggest that Harshavardhana ruled parts of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Eastern Punjab, Bihar, Bengal, parts of Orissa, Vallabhi, parts of Malva, and some part of Sindhustan.

                        Harshavardhana as Encourager of Scholars

                                       Harshavardhana was famous for offering shelters to scholars. Harshavardhan was himself Sanskrit scholars that wrote three Sanskrit dramas – Naganand, Ratnavali and Priyadashika.
 Matang Diwakar and Mayur were other Sanskrit scholars in Harshavardhana court.
                                           BanBhatt the Court Scholar of Harshavardhan

            BanBhatt was a court scholar of Harshavardhan. Ban Bhatt wrote two Sanskrit classics –Harshacharit and Kadambari. Ban Bhatt detailed the ancestral autography of Harsha in Harshacharit. There are details of Harsha early life in Harshacharit. Ban Bhatt also describes his ancestral history in Harshacharit.
   BanBhatt could not complete Kadambari due to his death. His son Bhushan Bhatt or Pulind Bhatt was not interested to complete Kadambari as he was not court scholar of Harsha.     
 
                    Travel by Chinese Traveler Hiuen-Tsang/Xuanzang 
 
                      In the life of Harshavardhana, a Chinese traveler Hiuen-Tsang/ Xuanzang visited India.  Hiuen-Tsang/ Xuanzang travelled India from 630-644 AD. Hiuen-Tsang/ Xuanzang provided various historical aspects of India including ancient Uttrakhand. The autography of Hiuen-Tsang/ Xuanzang is very important for Indian history knowledge.

 Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 20/06/2013
References:
1-Jayswal, K.P., Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
12-Thapliyal, K.K, 1984, Inscriptions of Maukharis, Late Guptas, Pushyabhutis and Yashovarman of Kanauj
13-Uma Prasad Thapliyal, 2005, Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Prospective (Page 29, about Authority of Maukharis on Uttarakhand and Haridwar) 
14-.Tripathi, R.S., History of Kanauj
15-Encyclopedia of Ancient Indian Geography Kashi-Z, Volume-2; Edited by Subodh Kapoor, 2002, page 459-460
16-Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, Doon Valley Down the Ages, page 33
17-Kamboj, B.P.,2003,  Early Wall Painting of Garhwal, page 20
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -78
       Xxx                                           xx                                                xx
History feature of Kumaon, Garhwal, Haridwar (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty; Historical Aspects of Haridwar (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty; History Characteristics  of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty; History characteristic  of Nainital Kumaon,  (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty; History characteristic  of Almora, Kumaon,  (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhan Dynasty; History Features  of Champawat, Kumaon,  (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty; History characteristic  of Bageshwar Kumaon,  (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty; History characteristic  of Pithoragarh, Kumaon,  (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty; History characteristic  of Garhwal,  (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty; History characteristic  of Dehradun, Garhwal,  (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty; History characteristic  of Uttarkashi, Garhwal,  (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty; History characteristic  of Tehri, Garhwal,  (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty; History characteristic  of Pauri Garhwal,  (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty; History characteristic  of Chamoli, Garhwal,  (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty; History characteristic  of Rudraprayag, Garhwal,  (Uttrakhand) in Harshavardhana Dynasty to be continued…

Bhishma Kukreti

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Historical Aspects of Kumaon, Garhwal, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period (500-647) –part-2

History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 78   
                         (Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))


                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                     Personality of Harshavardhana

 Harshavardhana is called one of the great rulers of India.
There was peace and strong administration in north India in his time.
Harshavardhana was an energetic ruler and frequently used to travel himself to check the administration. Harshavardhana was a man of considerable literary interest and talents.
There was development in trade and commerce in his regime.
Harshavardhana tried to rejuvenate Buddhism.
Harshavardhana was a religious person who also administrated personally the Prayag Mahakumbh. 
Harshavardhana was donor by nature.
Harshavardhana was a winner but was not a creator of big Kingdom as Mauryas or Guptas. 

                        Uttarakhand in Harshavardhana Time

     There are no inscriptions, archeological proofs or coinage available for knowing Uttarakhand in Harshavardhana period.
 The Sanskrit classics ‘Harshacharit’ and ‘Kadambari’ by Banbhatt and travelogue by Hiuen –Tsang (from 629-645) are the main source for knowing Uttarakhand at this age.
                        Three Administrative Zones in Uttarakhand
 According to Hiuen –Tsang, Uttarakhand was divided into three divisions of federal kingdoms under Harshavardhana- Srughana Janapada, Brahmpur Janapada and Govishan Janapada.

                                   Srughana Janapada
         In the travelogue, the words ‘Su-lu-kie’ are there. According to Cunningham, that kingdom or Janapada is Srughana. Waters doubted to theme of Cunningham. According to Smith, Srughana Janapada was extended up to north-east Ambala; Northern Saharanpur; Dehradun, nearby northern hilly kingdoms above Dehradun,.  That means Srughana Janapada was from Sahranpur, Ambala to Bandarpunch, and valleys of Rupi, Supin, Pbar, Tons, Girinadi and Yamuna and west part of Ganga from Devprayag to Bawar.

                                 Brhampur Janapada

  The word Po-lo-mo of travelogue is called Brahmpur. There is no agreement about the territory of Brahmpur. It is guessed that Brahmpur was today’s five districts of Garhwal and Pithoragarh, Almora, some part of Nainital (till Kaliganga) of Kumaon region. 


                                        Govishan Janapada

                   It is believed by studying the travelogue of to Hiuen –Tsang that Govishan Janpada was at plains of Kumaon –Khasipur including Rampur and Pilibhit. That was extended to middle valleys of Ramganga and Sharda-Ghaghra. 

             





 Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 21/06/2013
The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -79
       
Historical Aspects of Kumaon, Garhwal, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Era to be continued..


References:
1-Jayswal, K.P., Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
12-Thapliyal, K.K, 1984, Inscriptions of Maukharis, Late Guptas, Pushyabhutis and Yashovarman of Kanauj
13-Uma Prasad Thapliyal, 2005, Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Prospective (Page 29, about Authority of Maukharis on Uttarakhand and Haridwar) 
14-.Tripathi, R.S., History of Kanauj
15-Encyclopedia of Ancient Indian Geography Kashi-Z, Volume-2; Edited by Subodh Kapoor, 2002, page 459-460
16-Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, Doon Valley Down the Ages, page 33
17-Kamboj, B.P.,2003,  Early Wall Painting of Garhwal, page 20
Xx                          xx            xx       
Brief notes on History Aspects of Kumaon, Garhwal, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Era; History Features of Pithoragarh, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana time; History phases of Champawat, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Era; History characteristic of Bageshwar Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana age; History parts of Almora, Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana period; History feature of Nainital Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Era; History Aspects of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Era; History Aspects of Dehradun, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Era; History characteristic of Haridwar, ancient Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Era; History features of Uttarkashi Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana epoch; History Aspects of Tehri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana period; History portion of Chamoli Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana period; History piece of Rudraprayag, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana time; History Aspects of Pauri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana period

 

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