Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 177053 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Cities and Towns of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar in Harshavardhana Period (sixth and seventh century)


            History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 79   

          (Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))


                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                      The travelogue of Hiuen –Tsang and Kadambari and Harshacharit by Banbhatta provide some light on the cities or towns of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar regions of Uttarakhand in Harshavardhana period.

                                  Srughana (part of Today’s Saharanpur District)

                   Srughana was the prosperous capital of Kuninda rulers.  As per travelogue of Hiuen –Tsang, Srughana was situated at south and western part of Uttarakhand. Hiuen –Tsang describes that the area of this city was more than three miles and there were Buddhist Stupa and temples. The city was losing its prosperity and importance. Cunningham suggests that Srughana was today’s Sughanv of Ambala.

                                   Mayur Nagar or today’s Haridwar in Harshavardhana Period
       
                         According to Hiuen –Tsang, Mo-yu-lo or Mayurnagar was situated in eastern part of Ganga. Its periphery was around three and half miles. The population of city was dense.  The canals or drainage canals were having clean water.  There was famous and miraculous temple at the bank of Ganges. There was a Kund/water reservoir made by heavy stones. The canals used to bring water for this Kund.
                      The said temple or place was called Gangadwar. There were many houses for pilgrims. The kings of other parts used to donate for food, medical facilities and shelters for pilgrimages.
              There are disputes among historians for Mayurnagar and today’s Mayapur as the same place. It is clear that Haridwar got pilgrim importance in this Age. Some historians state that Mahakumbha was already celebration common in Haridwar in Harshavardhana period. 

                                     Brahmapura city in Harshavardhana Period

            There are multiple views for Brahmapura city described by great Chinese traveler Hiuen –Tsang.
Rahul, Atikinson, Oakley state that Brahmapura city was Barahat of Uttarkashi. According to Waters and Gupte, Brahmapura city of Harsha period is Lakhnapur. Furar sate that laldhang (Bawar) was Brahmapura city. Mukandilal and martin believed that present Shrinagar was Brahmapura city.  Dabral informs that there is an old village Brahmapura in Bijnor district and there are ruins in the village. Dabral suggests that Brahmapur was wrongly described in place of Govishan.
                                   
                          Govishan Nagar in Harshavardhana Period

                          The travelogue of Hiuen –Tsang describes Govishannagar as the capital of Govishan Janapada. Govishannagar was extended in two and half miles area. It was a natural fort. There were forest and ponds around Govishannagar. There were Stupas and idols of Buddha. Buddhist religion was popular religion. This city is Bawar of today’s Udham Singh Nagar specially Kashipur of Kumaon.  However, there is possibility that Berinag would be the place.
 
                                Mordhwaj in Harshavardhana Period

  Chinese traveler did not mention the city but ruins of Mordhwaj (south of Bawar Garhwal and village of Bijnor district), determine that the city existed in seventh century. The population was dense and Buddhism was more common than Hindu or Sanatan cults. There were Stupas in the city. Brick making building were common in the region.

                                  Dev Prayag in Harshavardhana Period
                         
                                 The Chinese traveler Hiuen –Tsang   did not mention about Dev Prayag. However, the inscriptions found in Dev Prayag stand that Dev Prayag was very important pilgrim place. Maharajadhiraj Kalyanvarman built Bhanumandir just after the death of Harshavardhana.         

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 21/06/2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -80
       
Historical Aspects of Kumaon, Garhwal, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Era to be continued…


References:
1-Jayswal, K.P., Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
12-Thapliyal, K.K, 1984, Inscriptions of Maukharis, Late Guptas, Pushyabhutis and Yashovarman of Kanauj
13-Uma Prasad Thapliyal, 2005, Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Prospective (Page 29, about Authority of Maukharis on Uttarakhand and Haridwar) 
14-.Tripathi, R.S., History of Kanauj
15-Encyclopedia of Ancient Indian Geography Kashi-Z, Volume-2; Edited by Subodh Kapoor, 2002, page 459-460
16-Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, Doon Valley down the Ages, page 33
17-Kamboj, B.P., 2003, Early Wall Painting of Garhwal, page 20
Xx                          xx            xx       
Notes on History aspects - Cities and towns of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar in Harshavardhana Period; Oriental History aspects - Cities and towns of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar in Harshavardhana Period; South Asian History aspects - Cities and towns of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar in Harshavardhana Period; Asian History aspects - Cities and towns of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar in Harshavardhana Period; Indian History aspects - Cities and towns of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar in Harshavardhana Period; North Indian History aspects - Cities and towns of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar in Harshavardhana Period; Himalayan History aspects - Cities and towns of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar in Harshavardhana Period; Central Himalayan History aspects - Cities and towns of Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar in Harshavardhana Period

Bhishma Kukreti

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Socio-Culture- Economics of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period (sixth and seventh century)

            History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 809   

          (Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))


                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

              Climate in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period

                   The Chinese traveler Hiuen –Tsang or Zuanzang/Xuanzang describes   the climate of Srughana equal to Thaneshwar/Sthaneshwar (Haryana) the capital of Harshavardhana. The climate of Govishan (Kashipur, Bawar of present Kumaon) was same as Matipur. Hiuen –Tsang or Zuanzang/Xuanzang states that the climate of Brahmpur was colder.

        Crops, and Fertile Land of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period

                        Hiuen –Tsang or Zuanzang/Xuanzang provides details of crops, land fertility and minerals of the region too.
                   The soil of Srughana (Saharanpur region) was as same as Thaneshwar. The land of Brahmapura was fertile and people grew two crops. Govishan land was also fertile as Matipur. The crops were rice, wheat, barleys, sugarcane, grams, pulses, vegetables and fruits.   

       Minerals and commerce in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period
                 

                 Harshacharit details about many historical aspects of Uttarakhand in Harsha period. There were copper and rocky crystals mines in Brahmapura. There were production centers of copper and rocky crystal items in Brahmapura and Mayurnagar (Haridwar district). The ornaments were manufactured in Mayrunagar (present Haridwar). There was trade between Kumaon-Garhwal and Tibet for gold dust, chamar , wool and woolen materials, musk, , mineral salt, herbs, shilajit and other minerals. , There was high demand for the Bhardwaj horses of Garhwal and Tangan horses from Bhotiya region of Garhwal-Kumaon for Harshavardhana army.  There was separate horse riding armed force for Bhardwaj and Tangan horses in Harshavardhana army.
               The Himalayan snow was exported to plains of Harshavardhana territory.
                     
Inhabitants of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period

                  There was dense population in cities of Uttarakhand in Harsha period.
 The people of Srughana were honest. Srughana people respected the scholars and intellectuals.
                   Brahmapura people were rough in nature, were not interested in scholarly works but were inclined to commerce.
             Govishan people were honest, religious and respectful to education.  Mostly people were Hindu and there were Buddhist too.

  Gurukul organizations in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period

                    Gurukul system was stronger in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period.
   Buddhists also had Gurukul or Math system in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period.

           Social Norms in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period

        Caste Systems- The four casts system was prevailing in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period. Brahmins were dominating the society.
 Marriages: Usually marriages took place in older age or mature age. Having many wives was common. The upper cast would marry with lower caste.

Sati- Sati system was there.
Astrology- People had faith in astrology, tantric-Mantrik or future tellers and folk healers.

                 Education in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period

                    The seventh century inscription of Garhwal and Kumaon proves that there was an arrangement of Sanskrit learning in the region.

 Languages of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period

  The local languages were spoken by people. Sanskrit was the language of elite and court.

 Religions of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period

           Shaivism was more popular than other sects in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period.
                There were people believing on Sun God in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period. The Sun temples were built in seventh century in Garhwal and Kumaon.
         Ganga and other rivers of central Himalaya were Poise Rivers and pilgrims were common in Uttarakhand. 
                   To end life in Haridwar, Bhrigupanth near Kedarnath was also a fact of this time.

             There was Buddhism but was on declining side in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) in Harshavardhana Period.
              The Shaivism was at that stage that became the basis of Nathpanth.
      There were very few Jain followers in plains of Uttarakhand.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 22/06/2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -81
       


References:
1-Jayswal, K.P., Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
12-Thapliyal, K.K, 1984, Inscriptions of Maukharis, Late Guptas, Pushyabhutis and Yashovarman of Kanauj
13-Uma Prasad Thapliyal, 2005, Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Prospective (Page 29, about Authority of Maukharis on Uttarakhand and Haridwar) 
14-.Tripathi, R.S., History of Kanauj
15-Encyclopedia of Ancient Indian Geography Kashi-Z, Volume-2; Edited by Subodh Kapoor, 2002, page 459-460
16-Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, Doon Valley down the Ages, page 33
17-Kamboj, B.P., 2003, Early Wall Painting of Garhwal, page 20

Bhishma Kukreti

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Varman and Vardhana Kings of Devprayag after Death of Harsha Vardhana (6th and 7th century)


History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 81

          (Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))


                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                             Uttarakhand after Harsha Vardhana

                     It is correct that the heirs of Harsha Vardhana were weak to protect their kingdom. The regional chieftains became free from central feudal rule of Harsha Vardhana dynasty.
          There was misconception that after death of Harsha Vardhana, a Tibetan or Chinese warrior ruled north India including Uttarakhand.   
                                    Inscriptions of Paletha, Tehri Garhwal

                The finding of Paletha, near Dev Prayag, Tehri Garhwal inscriptions outside of Buddha and Sun temples by Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral and subsequent publishing the inscriptions by Archeological Survey of India and inscription of Taleshwar, Kumaon prove that there were many regional rulers after the death of Harsha Vardhana in India. 
                                        Chieftain   Adivarman of Dev Prayag Region
  It is guessed that (around sixth to seventh century), after death of Harsha Vardhana, Adivarman founded a kingdom near Dev Prayag. It is guessed that Adivarman ruled the south part of Garhwal, Dehradun and Haridwar up to Srughana of Saharanpur.
            It seems that Dev Prayag or nearby place was capital of Adivarman kingdom.

                                Param Bhattarak Maharajdhiraj Parmeshwar Kalyanvarman

                   The title Param Bhattarak Maharajdhiraj Parmeshwar for Kalyanvarman also suggests that Adivarman was not the founder of kingdom but Kalyanvarman. It also suggests that Kalyanvarman extended the kingdom.
                                                    Adityavardhan

                        It seems that Adityavardhan was an important and strong officer of Kalyanvarman

                                               Karakvardhan
                       Karakvardhan was the son of daughter of Adityavardhan.
                  There is less known about the history aspects in this era.
                               Relationship of Varman/Vardhan with Paurav Dynasty
                   There are no evidence for relationship of Varman and Vardhan families with their contemporary Paurav dynasty kings of Taleshwar, Kumaon


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 25/06/2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -82
       


References:
1-Jayswal, K.P., Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
12-Thapliyal, K.K, 1984, Inscriptions of Maukharis, Late Guptas, Pushyabhutis and Yashovarman of Kanauj
13-Uma Prasad Thapliyal, 2005, Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Prospective (Page 29, about Authority of Maukharis on Uttarakhand and Haridwar) 
14-.Tripathi, R.S., History of Kanauj
15-Encyclopedia of Ancient Indian Geography Kashi-Z, Volume-2; Edited by Subodh Kapoor, 2002, page 459-460
16-Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, Doon Valley down the Ages, page 33
17-Kamboj, B.P., 2003, Early Wall Painting of Garhwal, page 20
18- Archeological Survey 1968-69 A Review, page-51
19-Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy, 1974 page -9


Xx                          xx            xx       
Asian History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Uttarkashi, Garhwal, after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Garhwal, after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Tehri Garhwal, after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Pauri Garhwal, after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Haridwar, after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Shivpuri, Tehri Garhwal, after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Rishikesh, Tehri Garhwal, after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Gulargad, Tehri Garhwal, after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Vyasi, Tehri Garhwal, after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Kaudiaya, Tehri Garhwal, after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Singtali, Tehri Garhwal, after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Paletha, Tehri Garhwal, after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Palethi, Tehri Garhwal, after death of Harsha Vardhana; Asian History of Lingu, Tehri Garhwal, after death of Harsha Vardhana;


Bhishma Kukreti

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Asian History aspects of Paurav Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century)

             History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 82

          (Asian Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))


                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                     Taleshwar (Almora) Copper Grants Inscriptions (6th and 7th century)
              The historians found the eight metal plates and copper grants from Taleshwar, Kumaon.
                  The age of the inscription is suggested of sixth and seventh century.  It is definite that this kingdom came in existence after death of Harsha Vardhana.
                      Name of kingdom is called Parvatakar. The territory under Parvatakar kingdom was present Garhwal-Kumaon, Bawar and some part of Srughana (Saharanpur).
          Kartikeypur of Katyuri kings is mentioned as village (brahmpure kartikeypur –gramkah )
          That suggests that the Paurav kingdom came in existence after death of Harshavardhana and before Katyuri dynasty.
              Dr Dabral supports the time period of Paurav or Parvatakar kingdom from 647- 725.)

                   Five Kings of Paurav Kingdom of Parvatakar Region
   There are following names of five kings in Taleshwar copper grants
S.N.--------------King Name-------------------------Relation with past King-----------------Title
1----------------Vishnuvarman--------------------                  -----                     -----            ---
2- -------------------Vrishvavarman ---------------                       ---                    -----              ----
3--------------------Shri Agnivarman -----------------------Son -------------------Parmabhattarak Mahadhiraj
4- ------------------Dyutivarman ----------------------------son ------------------- Parmabhattarak Mahadhiraj
5-----------------------Vishnuvarman (second) ----------son ----------------------- Parmabhattarak Mahadhiraj                   

                                   Discussion on Paurav dynasty Kingdom

               The gotra of Dyutivarman is called Somvanshi or Chandravanshi in the seals. The gotra of Vishnuvarman is called Som-Divakar (mean lunar family and solar family) or Suryavanshi-Chandravanshi. 

                             Connection with Shulik Dynasty

        There are mentions of Shulik kingdom in Maukhari inscriptions. Therefore, many historians as Gooj suggests that Paurava vanshi were related to Shulik kings.   However, there is  no soundness in the arguments of Gooj.

                              Vishnuvarman and Vrishavavarman

                              There is less details about Vishnuvarman and Vrishavavarman. It seems they were chieftains at the time of Harsha Vardhana and Vrishavavarman might have declared himself as the king of Brahmapura.  These kings do not have any title.
                                  Shrayagnivarmana or Shri Agni Varmana
  In the administrative copper inscriptions and seals, the king has the title - Parmabhattarak Mahadhiraj.
                Shri Agni Varmana seems to be founder of Paurava dynasty. Shri Agni Varmana is called ‘Gau-Brahman hiteshi’. That means Shri Agni Varmana reestablished four class systems that was weakened in Hun period. Shri Agni Varmana was strong king and was cruel to enemies.

                                 Dwijvarman or Dyutivarman
  In his seal, his name is carved Dwijvarman but in his administrative copper plate and on copper plate of his son Vishnuvarman, his name is carved as Dyutivarman. Dyutivarman is described the fame of his enemies. The title of Dyutivarman is Parmabhattarak Mahadhiraj.
                    Kingdom Extension by Dyutivarman
         The name of Dyutivarman kingdom was Parvatakar or Giryavilli. His rule was over Garhwal, part of Kumaon and parts of Bawar/Bhabhar. He was very brave and was capable of winning over his enemies. His title was ‘Parmabhattarak Mahadhiraj’. He also got the title ‘Amitvikram’
                          His capital was Brahmapur. 
   His Kuldevata (family deity) was Veerneshwar Nag. The donation plates of the temple were destroyed in fire. That is why Dyutivarman offered new donation order for the land for temple.
                       Dyutivarman was soft on his subjects and used to guard Mahatmas, sages.

                                         Vishnuvarman second
                 ‘Parmabhattarak Mahadhiraj’ Vishnuvarman second is called courteous, energetic, brave and with lot of patience.
Vishnuvarman second donated the land for temple.
  There is no evidence of his successors.  It is believed that Tibetan kings started attacking Garhwal-Kumaon and Yashovarman captured the Paurava kingdom.

**Read about administration in Paurava kingdom in part -84
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 26/06/2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -83
       


References:
1-Jayswal, K.P., Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
12-Thapliyal, K.K, 1984, Inscriptions of Maukharis, Late Guptas, Pushyabhutis and Yashovarman of Kanauj
13-Uma Prasad Thapliyal, 2005, Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Prospective (Page 29, about Authority of Maukharis on Uttarakhand and Haridwar) 
14-.Tripathi, R.S., History of Kanauj
15-Encyclopedia of Ancient Indian Geography Kashi-Z, Volume-2; Edited by Subodh Kapoor, 2002, page 459-460
16-Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, Doon Valley down the Ages, page 33
17-Kamboj, B.P., 2003, Early Wall Painting of Garhwal, page 20
18- Archeological Survey 1968-69 A Review, page-51
19-Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy, 1974 page -9
20-Kiran Kumar Thapliyal, Studies in Ancient Seals, 1972,
21-Tara Chand Tripathi, Preceding of Indian History Congress, 1982, Identification of Beahmpur in the Light of Taleshwar copper Grant
Xx     xx
Notes on Asian History of Paurav Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century); Asian History of Pithoragarh Kumaon about Paurava Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century); Asian History of Bageshwar, Kumaon about Paurava Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century); Asian History of Champawat, Kumaon about Paurava Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century); Asian History of Almora, Kumaon about Paurava Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century); Asian History of Nainital Kumaon about Paurava Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century); Asian History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon about Paurava Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century);Asian History of Chamoli Garhwal about Paurava Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century); Asian History of Rudraprayag Garhwal about Paurava Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century); Asian History of Uttarkashi, Garhwal about Paurava Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century);Asian History of Pauri Garhwal about Paurava Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century); Asian History of Garhwal about Paurava Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century); Asian History of Dehradun Garhwal about Paurava Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century); Asian History of Haridwar about Paurava Rajvansh (dynasty) of Parvatakar (6th and 7th Century).

Bhishma Kukreti

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   Asian History, Social, Cultural, Economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava

             History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 83

          (Asian Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))


                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                 The Taleshwar, Kumaon inscriptions 96th-7th century) provide various important aspects of society, culture, economics and administration of this period of Uttarakhand.
                  Administration in Parvatakar Kingdom of Pauravas 
                          The chief executive officer of Parvatakar kingdom was the King.  He was called ‘Parambhattarak Mahadhiraj’. The kings were supporter and protectors of four Class system of Sanatan or Hindu religion.
           The inscriptions suggest that the king must had strong characteristics as gentleman, humble, affable, energetic, strong, stable, serious, patient, bountiful etc. The King should have to help, protect the people as lord Vishnu. 
                    The Paurava kings of Uttarakhand were believer and worshipper of idols.  The kings believed that they must offer gifts as land for temples.
                         Cabinet Ministers in Parvatakar Kingdom of Pauravas 
 
            The following administrative heads (cabinet ministers) were there to help the king-
Amatya- mister
                Baladhyaksha- was as Army chief. Under Baladhyaksha, there were Gajshyksha/Gajpati (in charge of elephant riding soldiers), Ashwapati/Ashwarohi (in charge of Horse riding soldiers) and Jayanpati/Padatik (in charge of Infantry). 
  The Sandhivigrahkarak was for reconciliatory deeds.
Rajdauvarik- The chief was for looking after guests coming and going inside the fort.
Kotbhikarnik- The king used to live in fort and the fort in charge was Kotbhikarnik.
 The king had to take from ministers before taking decision.  Other minster’s title was Kumaramatya, Sarvvishaypradhan, Devdronyadhikrit, Mahasatrapati, Parivangbrahmchari – Gaugulik-parishad, Karangik, etc.

                                    Police Administration in Parvatakar Kingdom of Pauravas 

                    The internal defense and protection was kept by Dandpashik or police force.
Dandpashik or Dandvasik- The chief o police force was called Dandpashik or Dandvasik.
 Other police officers were there in Paurva kingdom – Dandoparik, Kuutuk, Rajputra.

                 Fort Administration in Parvatakar Kingdom of Pauravas 

                Kotadhikaran was the supreme in charge of fort where king and his family used to reside.
Rajdauvarik used administrate coming and going of people.
Karangik used to take communication to the king.
Supkarpati was for to look after cooking and kitchen arrangement for king, king family and king’s guests.
The lower cadre employees of fort were called Anujivivarg.


***Historical, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava to be continued in part 84   

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 27/06/2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -84
       


References:
1-Jayswal, K.P., Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
12-Thapliyal, K.K, 1984, Inscriptions of Maukharis, Late Guptas, Pushyabhutis and Yashovarman of Kanauj
13-Uma Prasad Thapliyal, 2005, Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Prospective (Page 29, about Authority of Maukharis on Uttarakhand and Haridwar) 
14-.Tripathi, R.S., History of Kanauj
15-Encyclopedia of Ancient Indian Geography Kashi-Z, Volume-2; Edited by Subodh Kapoor, 2002, page 459-460
16-Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, Doon Valley down the Ages, page 33
17-Kamboj, B.P., 2003, Early Wall Painting of Garhwal, page 20
18- Archeological Survey 1968-69 A Review, page-51
19-Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy, 1974 page -9
20-Kiran Kumar Thapliyal, Studies in Ancient Seals, 1972,
21-Tara Chand Tripathi, Preceding of Indian History Congress, 1982, Identification of Beahmpur in the Light of Taleshwar copper Grant
Xx     xx
Notes on Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Uttarakhand, India; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Uttarakhand; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Bageshwar, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Almora, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Nainital, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava  of Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava  of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava  of Rudraprayag, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava  of Tehri Garhwal Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava  Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India. 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Asian History, Social, Cultural, Economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava –pt-2 (6th and 7th century)

             History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 84

          (Asian Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Asian History (600-750 AD)


                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
                         
                                   Taxation System in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava
            The Vishnuvarman administrative order copper inscriptions provide a couple of aspects for taxation in Paurava rule over Brahampur.
               The main source of revenue for the kingdom was taxation on the people.
                 Bhagik and Bhogik officers were responsible for collecting taxes.
            Bhag was tax on agriculture produces and it was sixth portion of agriculture produced by farmers. There were other types of taxes those were collected by Karik and Kulcharik officers.
         There were gold coins popular in the kingdom but definitely silver coins and copper coins would be there.
                                       Agriculture Administration in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava Period

               The king was the owner of land. The king used to allocate land to families who were ultimate owners of farms.   Divirpati and Kaystha were officers to administrate agriculture land. There was rule for land selling agreement or notification. 
               Kedari means irrigated land and Chauras means non-irrigated land.
                  There is use of Bhel word similar to present meaning.
Measuring land- The units for measuring land were seeds and as Dronvapam (seeds sown one doon); Kharivapam (20 Doon). Kulyavapam means land where one Kulya seeds is  sown.
                                  Major Earning Means in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava Period

              The agriculture was main means of earning. Agriculture was dependent on rain. There was shortage of irrigating water in plains of Uttarakhand (Bawar/Tarai). Pond erection was common as found in Moradhwaj (Bijnor) ruins.  Gold dust was exported from the region.   

                               Dresses in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava Period
     Moradhwaj excavation puts light on dressing, religions of this period too. The men and women used to put small ‘dhoti’. The people of plains did not have upper garment. The women used to have ornaments. 

***Historical, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava to be continued in part 85   
 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 28/06/2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -85
       


References:
1-Jayswal, K.P., Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
12-Thapliyal, K.K, 1984, Inscriptions of Maukharis, Late Guptas, Pushyabhutis and Yashovarman of Kanauj
13-Uma Prasad Thapliyal, 2005, Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Prospective (Page 29, about Authority of Maukharis on Uttarakhand and Haridwar) 
14-.Tripathi, R.S., History of Kanauj
15-Encyclopedia of Ancient Indian Geography Kashi-Z, Volume-2; Edited by Subodh Kapoor, 2002, page 459-460
16-Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, Doon Valley down the Ages, page 33
17-Kamboj, B.P., 2003, Early Wall Painting of Garhwal, page 20
18- Archeological Survey 1968-69 A Review, page-51
19-Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy, 1974 page -9
20-Kiran Kumar Thapliyal, Studies in Ancient Seals, 1972,
21-Tara Chand Tripathi, Preceding of Indian History Congress, 1982, Identification of Beahmpur in the Light of Taleshwar copper Grant
Xx     xx
Notes on Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Uttarakhand, India; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Uttarakhand; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Bageshwar, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Almora, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Nainital, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava  of Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava  of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava  of Rudraprayag, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava  of Tehri Garhwal Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava  Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India ; Asian/Oriental History, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India.                             

Bhishma Kukreti

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Asian History features of Uttarakhand Cities in the Period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century)


             History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 85

          (Asian Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Asian History (600-750 AD)


                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti


                  Asian History features of Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century)

      The archeological excavations, inscriptions of Harsha and after Harsha period put light on the cities of Uttarakhand of sixth and seventh century. 

                                           Srughana in 6th-7th Century

                  Srughana started declining its glory from Harshavardhana period. The main reason was declining export to western countries including Roma, Europe.  The capital Sthaneshwar or Thaneshwar of Harshavardhana family also was one of the factors of declining of Srughana glory. The Shak and Pahlavi looting soldiers also looted Srughana wealth after the death of Amoghbhuti. Srughana got wealth in Kushan period due to commercial activities. Hun looted that wealth too.

                               Kalsi in 6th-7th Century
                      Chinese traveler Huien-Tsang stayed in Kalsi. He saw Stupas and other Buddhist monuments in Kalsi.  However, he did not mention rock inscriptions of Kalsi. That means by his arrival, Kalsi also lost its glory.

                           Lakhamandal in 6th-7th Century
 
           Lakhamandal was a pilgrim place and also the head quarter of region. That is why Lakhamandal was still important city of Uttarakhand in 6th and 7th century.
   Archeologists found the remains of temple in Lakhamandal of fifth -sixth century. Flat roofed miniatures are exclusive miniatures.

               Mordhwaja in 6th-7th Century

  Mordhwaja (Bijnor) city was on the road from Srughana to Govishan and the southern city of Brahampura kingdom.  The city was very important for education, preaching, commercial and other purposes. A unknown king built a strong fort here in sixth to eighth century. The city was dominated by Buddhist.
                             Virbhadra (Rishikesh, Haridwar) City in 6th-7th Century

                        The archeological excavations of Virbhadra, (Rishikesh, district Haridwar) show that there was city from first century to eighth or ninth century. There are three phases’ buildings or temples –
 Early Cultural phase- The early phase of first century to 3rd century AD represents mud brick walls.
 Middle Cultural Phase- The period is 4th and 5th century AD. The phase is marked by a floor of brick bats and Saiviat temple.
Last phase- The period is from 7th to 8th century AD. The phase is marked by residential structures of burn brick bats.
            The Virbhadra structures put light on urbanization 


                        Kashipur (Udham Singh Nagar district) 
                 
                        According to Cunningham, Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang describes about Kashipur as Kiu-pi-Shwang. The Kashipur remains suggest that the city persisted from early years of gray wall painting era to medieval days. The wall of Panhayatana complex is supposed to be laid around 6th 7th century AD. The phases of temple building process also suggest the growth of architecture science in the region.  Initially mud building process for houses and temples was common and later on brick burn building process was common. 

                                          Gangadwar or Haridwar City in 6th-7th Century
 
  The travelogue of Chinese monk Hiuen Tsang describes about Gangadwar, Kankhal, Mayurpur. That means Haridwar was famous pilgrimage place in 6th and 7th century.

                             


***Historical, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava to be continued in part 86   
 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 29/06/2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -86
       


References:
1-Jayswal, K.P., Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
12-Thapliyal, K.K, 1984, Inscriptions of Maukharis, Late Guptas, Pushyabhutis and Yashovarman of Kanauj
13-Uma Prasad Thapliyal, 2005, Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Prospective (Page 29, about Authority of Maukharis on Uttarakhand and Haridwar) 
14-.Tripathi, R.S., History of Kanauj
15-Encyclopedia of Ancient Indian Geography Kashi-Z, Volume-2; Edited by Subodh Kapoor, 2002, page 459-460
16-Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, Doon Valley down the Ages, page 33
17-Kamboj, B.P., 2003, Early Wall Painting of Garhwal, page 20
18- Archeological Survey 1968-69 A Review, page-51
19-Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy, 1974 page -9
20-Kiran Kumar Thapliyal, Studies in Ancient Seals, 1972,
21-Tara Chand Tripathi, Preceding of Indian History Congress, 1982, Identification of Beahmpur in the Light of Taleshwar copper Grant
Xx     xx
Notes on Asian History features of Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Bageshwar, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Dwarhat, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Champawat, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Almora, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Nainital, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Haridwar, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Bahbhar, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Chamoli, Garhwal, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Rudraprayag, Garhwal, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Uttarkashi, Garhwal, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Dehradun, Garhwal, Uttarakhand Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century); Asian History features of Saharanpur  Cities in the period of Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava (6th and 7th century)


Bhishma Kukreti

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Asian History characteristics of Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD)


             History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 86

          (Asian Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Asian History (600-750 AD)


                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti
   
                  Sixth and seventh century in ancient Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar, Bijnor, and Saharanpur) saw resurgence of Sanatani sects or Hindu religion. Most of the people of the region were Hindus. There were a few Buddhist followers and Achail Yogi in plains of ancient south Uttarakhand especially in present Kashipur, Tanakpur/Lakhanpur and Bijnor.

                                        The people were worshippers of Nag, Surya, Vamanswami, Yaksha, Grah, individual village deities and goddesses.

                 It was virtuous deeds for offering lands by kings, rich officers, rich people and common people. Therefore there were hundreds of small Hindu temples or worshipping places were increasing in the regions. The Virbhadra, Lakhamandal excavations provide various details on temples of this Age.

                    There was exclusive ministry or department for administration of temples or worshipping places in Paurava kingdom. The chief of temple department was called Devdronyadhikritya. There was custom of Dev Jat/Jatra worshiping style (tour of deities/goddesses).
          There was arrangement of meals in temples for devotees/ visitors.  The land donated by the administration to temple was used for agriculture and the income was used for social causes and temple development.  The officer in charge ‘Satra’ used to look after the temple land. The king and cabinet council used to appoint the in charge by his good characters as humble, honest, knowledgeable, diplomat, understanding code of conducts.
                              There was a council to aid in charge of temples of kingdom.  The council members were Sanyasi, Parivajrak, Brahmchari, Gauggulik.
                                            Animal sacrifice in temples was a common custom. Havan performance was also regular in temples. The priest used to give bath to idols by milk, curd, ghee and water. The idols were pasted by perfumes. The flowers, Ghee smoke or dhup batti smoke was also a prt of rituals in temples.
           The in charge used to keep temple complex clean and free from hurdles. The temple land was used to be given on lease and temple used to get tax from farmers of this land. The kingdom did not take tax from such land.
                                  Buddhism in 6th and 7th century in Uttarakhand
  No doubt Buddhism was on declining side. However, Mordhwaja, Kashipur, Kalsi, Lakhanpur/Tanakpur were still the Buddhist centres. Mordhwaja and Bhabhar region had more Buddhist settlements. The Mordhwaja excavations provide us about fortunes of Buddhism in plains of Uttarakhand. Kalsi lost its glory as pilgrim place. There were Buddhist in Bareli region too (south border of Uttarakhand).
                                   Achail Yogi Ritual

      There many idols in Mordhwaja those are Achail Yogi Ritual. Usually, Buddhist used Sachail. The Achail idols show that Jainism had scanty followership remained in  the region.

                                           King as Deity

                 The deceased king was worshipped as deity in the form of idols in Kushan period and in this century. However, there is no idol of any Paurava king found till date.


***Historical, Social, Cultural, economical, Administration Aspects in Parvatakar Kingdom of Paurava to be continued in part 87   
 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 30/06/2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -87
       


References:
1-Jayswal, K.P., Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
12-Thapliyal, K.K, 1984, Inscriptions of Maukharis, Late Guptas, Pushyabhutis and Yashovarman of Kanauj
13-Uma Prasad Thapliyal, 2005, Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Prospective (Page 29, about Authority of Maukharis on Uttarakhand and Haridwar) 
14-.Tripathi, R.S., History of Kanauj
15-Encyclopedia of Ancient Indian Geography Kashi-Z, Volume-2; Edited by Subodh Kapoor, 2002, page 459-460
16-Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, Doon Valley down the Ages, page 33
17-Kamboj, B.P., 2003, Early Wall Painting of Garhwal, page 20
18- Archeological Survey 1968-69 A Review, page-51
19-Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy, 1974 page -9
20-Kiran Kumar Thapliyal, Studies in Ancient Seals, 1972,
21-Tara Chand Tripathi, Preceding of Indian History Congress, 1982, Identification of Beahmpur in the Light of Taleshwar copper Grant
Xx     xx
Notes on Asian History characteristics of Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Tanakpur, Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Nainital, Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Almora, Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Champawat, Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Bageshwar, Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Dehradun, Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Bijnor, ancient Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD); Asian History characteristics of Saharanpur, ancient Uttarakhand about Religions in Paurava of Parvatakar Period (6th-7th century AD).

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          Garhwali-Kumaoni Village Names and Languages in Sixth Seventh Century

             History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 87

          (Asian Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Asian History (600-750 AD)


                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

  The copper administrative orders by Paurava kings provide the knowledge that local languages (Prakrit or Apbhransh) were there in the region.
          There are many village names on the copper orders of kings of Parvatakar of sixth and seventh century. These village names are translated into Sanskrit from the original local language names.
  The village name cited on copper inscriptions and orders are still there in Uttarakhand. Dr Dabral provide the names details as follows-
 
                Village Names of Uttarakhand in sixth and Seventh Century
 छटी सदी में उत्तराखंड में संस्कृत भाषा में अनुवादित ग्राम नाम

 पौरव शाशन ताम्र पत्रों में संस्कृत भाषा में ग्राम नाम -----------वर्तमान ग्राम नाम
Village Names Translated in Sanskrit ------------------------------Original and Present Village
उदुम्बरवास (Udumbarvas)-------------------------------------- गोविलबास (Govilbas)
कपिलगर्ता (Kapilgarta)-----------------------------------------कपिल्यागाड (Kapilyagad)
कोल्लपुरी (Kolpuri)-------------------------------------------कोलगाँ/कोळगाँ  (Kolgan) 
खंडाकपल्लिका (Khandpallika)--------------------------------खंड गाँव (Khand Gan)
खट्टलिका (Khattlika)--------------------------------------खाटळी (Khatli )
खोहिलका (Khohilika) ----------------------------------खोळी (Kholi)
गोहबाटक(Gohbatak)-----------------------------------गोरबाट/गुरबट (Gorbat/Gurbat)
चम्पक (Champak)--------------------------------------------चम्पा (Champa)
चंदुलाकपल्लिका (Chandupallika)--------------------------------चंडा -पाली (Chanda , Pali )
छिद्रगर्ता(Chhidrgarta)-------------------------------------------उड्यार/ओडियारी (Udyar/Udoyari)
जयभट्टपल्लिका (Jaybhattpallika)----------------------------------जै गाँ -भट गाँ (Jiang an Bhat Gan )
जम्बुशालिका (Jambushalika)------------------------- जमण/जामण सारी (Jaman sari )
डिंडिंका (Dindika) --------------------------------------------------डिंडा (Dinda)
डुभाया (Dubhaya)-----------------------------------------डोभ/ड्वाभ/डोभा (Dobh/Dwabh/ Dobha)
देवखल (Devkhal)-----------------------------------------------------दिखेत(Dikhet)
तोली (Toli)-----------------------------------------------------------तोळी (Toil)
ताप्पली (Tappali)-------------------------------------------- थापळी (Thapli)
दीपपुर (Deeppur)---------------------------------------------दिउला/द्यूळा (Diula/Dyula)
दुणण (बीच का अक्षर आधी ण) (Dunn)--------------------------दूणी (Duni)
नागिलक्षेत्र (Nagilkshetra)------------------------------------नागरजतोक (Nagarjatok)
निम्बसारी (nimbsari)------------------------------------नीमसारी (Nimsari)
पल्ली (Palli)-------------------------------------------------------पाली (Pali)
पटलिकाग्रामक(Patlikagram)-------------------------पाटियाळ गाँ (Patiyal Gan)
पुष्पदन्तिका(pushpdantika)--------------------------फुल्यारगाँ (Fulyargan)
बुरासिका(Burasika)---------------------------------------------बुरांसी (Buransi)
बृद्धतर पल्लिका (Brdihtar pallika)-----------------------बड़ी पाली (Badi Pali)
बंजाली(Banjali)-------------------------------------------------Baanjgan बंजगाँ /Banjgan
भट्टपल्लिका (Bhattpallika)-----------------------------------भटगाँ (Bhat gan)
भूतपल्लिका -----------------------------------------------------भूतपल्लिका (Bhut Gan)
मालवक्षेत्र (Malvakshetr)-------------------------माळुख्यात  /माळूखेत  (Malukhyat/Malukhet)             
रजकस्थल (rajaksthal)--------------------------------धोबी घाट (Dhobi Ghat)
लवणोदक(Lavanodak)--------------------------------------लुणियासोत (Luniyasot or Luniyakhet)
श्रृंगालखोहलिका (Shringarkhohlika)------------------------स्याळु खोळी (Syalu Kholi)
सेम्मकक्षेत्र(Semmakkshetr) -----------------------सीम या सिमळगाँ (Seem/Simal Gan)
सेम्महिका (Semmhika)------------------------------------सिमळण  (Simlan)           
 
                The said copper inscriptions suggest that the modern Kumaoni and Garhwali language was taking new shape in sixth and seventh century.
             The readers should make a note that editor of these inscriptions professor Gupte suggested that these inscriptions were forged inscriptions.  However, Dr D.C. Sarkar criticized the opinions of Professor Gupte.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 1/7//2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -88
       


References:
1-Jayswal, K.P., Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
12-Thapliyal, K.K, 1984, Inscriptions of Maukharis, Late Guptas, Pushyabhutis and Yashovarman of Kanauj
13-Uma Prasad Thapliyal, 2005, Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Prospective (Page 29, about Authority of Maukharis on Uttarakhand and Haridwar) 
14-.Tripathi, R.S., History of Kanauj
15-Encyclopedia of Ancient Indian Geography Kashi-Z, Volume-2; Edited by Subodh Kapoor, 2002, page 459-460
16-Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, Doon Valley down the Ages, page 33
17-Kamboj, B.P., 2003, Early Wall Painting of Garhwal, page 20
18- Archeological Survey 1968-69 A Review, page-51
19-Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy, 1974 page -9
20-Kiran Kumar Thapliyal, Studies in Ancient Seals, 1972,
21-Tara Chand Tripathi, Preceding of Indian History Congress, 1982, Identification of Beahmpur in the Light of Taleshwar copper Grant
Xx     xx
        Notes on History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages in Sixth Seventh Century; History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages of Pithoragarh in Sixth Seventh Century; History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages of Champawat, in Sixth Seventh Century; History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages of Bageshwar,  in Sixth Seventh Century; History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages of Nainital in Sixth Seventh Century; History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages of Almora, in Sixth Seventh Century; History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages of Udham Singh Nagar  in Sixth Seventh Century; History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages of Haridwar, in Sixth Seventh Century; History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages of Pauri Garhwal, in Sixth Seventh Century; History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages of Dehradun Garhwal, in Sixth Seventh Century; History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages of Tehri Garhwal in Sixth Seventh Century; History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages of Chamoli Garhwal in Sixth Seventh Century; History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Sixth Seventh Century; History Features of Garhwali-Kumaoni Villages and Languages of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Sixth Seventh Century

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         Indian History Features Uttarakhand in Yasovarman Age (700-800AD)

           History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 87

   (Indian Early Medieval Age History Features in Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                         

                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

                              After the death of Harshavardhana, there was instability in Indian scenes especially in North India. The regional kingdoms emerged as mushrooms.  Around 725AD, Pauravas were ruling Uttarakhand.

                                          Attack of Arabs in Yasovarman Age (700-800AD)

                        With full support from North -Western Indian Kings an Arab army chief Muhammad-Ibna-Qasim captured Sindha and western Punjab till Multan. The Arabs used to attack flanking methods, used to capture people for slaving purposes and used to dispatch slaves to Arab and used to destruct religious places too. These Arabs started attacking to Kashmir, east Punjab, Gujarat, Bhinmal and Ujjain.  Lalitaditya was Kashmir King.  There were many small chieftains in Himalaya including Uttarakhand.

                    Lalitaditya a Strong Kashmir King in Yasovarman Age (700-800AD)

Lalitaditya (726-760AD) was strong King of Muktapid of Kashmir. He was capable to resist and stop the Arabian attack and Tibetan attacks.  Lalitaditya is called Alexandra of Kashmir.

                       Frequent Attacks by Tibetan King in Yasovarman Age (700-800AD)

                Great Tibetan king Srong-Gachan was ruling Tibet. He and his heirs used to attack and loot Indian and Nepalese Himalayan territories. 

                       Yasovarman of Kanauj (rule between 700-740App)

    There is no record for the family of Yasovarman. It is believed that he was a Rajput Army officer from an elite family.                     
                       The Prakrit literature Gaud-Vaho or Gaud Vadh by a court poet Vakpati provides some facts about Yasovarman the king of Kanauj.
                    Suddenly, Yashovarman emerged as strong king of Kanauj who captured central India, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Bengal.
  The Chinese sources stated that Yasovarman was the King of Uttarakhand who requested Chinese king to help him for stopping Tibetan encroachment by Tibetan king.
 Yasovarman was strong ruler.
             
           Yasovarman used to respects art and art creative.  Bhabhuti a Sanskrit scholar –playwright and Prakrit literature creative were his court scholars. It is said that Yasovarman was poet.

                     Battle between Lalitaditya and Yasovarman

                      Lalitaditya of Kashmir and Yasovarman of Kanauj had a friendly deal with each other for resisting Arabian and Tibetan frequent flanking attacks.  The ambitions for being bigger king of Yasovarman created battle between Lalitaditya and Yasovarman. This hostility between two allies resulted into defeat of Yasovarman or even death by the hands of Lalitaditya.
                      Yasovarman Rule over Uttarakhand

             That shows that there was feudal rule of Yasovarman on Uttarakhand in last days of Vishnuvarman Paurava king or in his heir time.
                       Yasovarman was the first ever Indian king who understood the importance of Himalaya to protect Central India.


                                      Katyuri Chieftains under Yasovarman

                    It seems that at this age, Katyuri king Vasantan or Masantan of Uttarakhand was under Yasovarman under feudal system.   
  It is believed that Vasantan declared his free kingdom after defeat of Yasovarman from Lalitaditya.
  This age is called Timiragachhan Yug or Dark Age as no records are available to define exact history.
 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 2/7//2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -89

                                 References

1-Ahloowalia, B.S. 2009, Invasions of the Genes: Genetic Heritage of India
2-Dabral, Dr. Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas
3-Early, Abraham, 2011,The First Spring: The Golden Age of India
4-Majumadar, Ramesh Chandra, 1977, Ancient India
5-Mishra, S.M .1977, Yasovarman of Kanauj
6-Fotedar, Sunil, 1984, The Kashmir Series: Glimpses of Kashmiri Culture

 

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