Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 175043 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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   Historical Developmental Stages of Kumaoni Language in Classic Age

             History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) - Part 89

          (Asian Classical Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Asian History (600-750 AD)

(This article is dedicated to Shri Tara Chand Tripathi a learned cultural history scholar, a Kumaoni language history writer)


                                                       By: Bhishma Kukreti

         Recently, Tara Chandra Tripathi has been publishing a long article ‘Kumaonik Udhbhav aur Vikas” in Shailvani a weekly of Kotdwara, Garhwal (June-July, 2013, issues).
          Tara Chandra Tripathi states that there are similarities between Prakrit Kumaoni of first century before Christ and Kumaoni of today in many aspects languaguge structure. By providing examples of inscriptions of Kashipur Tripathi proves that there was difference between Prakrit Kumaoni of Hills and Prakrit Kumaoni of Bawar (plains of Kumaon).
  Tripathi observes that in Gupta and after Gupta period, many new inhabitants came to Kumaon and they added newer vocabulary to Kumaoni of that time. Tara Chand opinionates that due to new Brahmanvad in Gupta era brought Sanskrit as court language and Sanskrit affected Prakrit Kumaoni.  Due to incoming of new people from central India in Uttarakhand, the Central Indian Prakrit language affected Prakrit Kumaoni and Garhwali as today, Hindi is influencing Garhwali and Kumaoni languages by words and sentence structure.   
   Tripathi suggests  that due to Ushmikaran and Dwijtva (new Brahmanvad) affected Garhwali and Kumaoni languages and their dialects.  He provides the example of village names of Taleshwar inscription (Paurava kings of Parvatakar of 6-7th century).
तालेश्वर अभिलेखों में ग्राम नाम और वर्तमान कुमाउनी ग्राम नाम

अभिलेखीय नाम -------------वर्तमान ग्राम नाम -------------संस्कृत नाम

डूढबा -----------------------------ड्वाब ----------------------------दर्भा
दुण्णा---------------------------दूण -------------------------------दुण्र्ण
गोगग्पल्लिका ---------------गगाली -----------------------गोग्रिष्टपल्लिका
समज्जा ---------------------सैंज ---------------------------समस्था
सन्दर्भ - ताराचंद्र त्रिपाठी , २०१३,  कुमांउनीक उद्भव और विकास, शैलवाणी, कोटद्वार , अंक २o , २१ और क्रमश: 
  Reference; Tara Chandra Tripathi, 2013, Kumaoni Bhasha ka Udhbhav aur Vikas, Shailvani, Kotdwara (issue- 20 and following issues)   
  Prakrit Kumaoni and Garhwali started taking words and sentence structures from Dwijbhasha Sanskrit.

                   Conclusion is that by sixth and seventh century, the Prakrit Kumaoni or Prakrit Garhwali languages added various words and grammatical constructions, structures from Pali, Central Indian languages and dialects and Sanskrit language. There are not chronological records available that could show chronological development of Kumaoni and Garhwali in Pre Aryan, Post Aryan, Maurya era, post Maurya era, Gupta age and post Gupta age. However, it is certain that in this age of various ups and downs in Garhwal, Kumaon and other parts of India; old Kumaoni and Old Garhwali changed drastically at least in taking words from other territories. Definitely, New Brahmanvad might have influenced the inhabitants forgetting many words those were spoken frequently before fist century in the region.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 1/7//2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)

History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -90
       


References:
1-Jayswal, K.P., Andhkaryugin Bharat
2-Shiv Prasad Dabra, ‘Charan’, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag –1 and 3
3-Rahul Sankrityayan , Garhwal
4-Dinesh Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
7-Arun Kumar Mishra, 1992, The Trading Communities in Ancient India:
8- Indian Archeology Review, 1968-69
12-Thapliyal, K.K, 1984, Inscriptions of Maukharis, Late Guptas, Pushyabhutis and Yashovarman of Kanauj
13-Uma Prasad Thapliyal, 2005, Uttaranchal: Historical and Cultural Prospective (Page 29, about Authority of Maukharis on Uttarakhand and Haridwar) 
14-.Tripathi, R.S., History of Kanauj
15-Encyclopedia of Ancient Indian Geography Kashi-Z, Volume-2; Edited by Subodh Kapoor, 2002, page 459-460
16-Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, Doon Valley down the Ages, page 33
17-Kamboj, B.P., 2003, Early Wall Painting of Garhwal, page 20
18- Archeological Survey 1968-69 A Review, page-51
19-Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy, 1974 page -9
20-Kiran Kumar Thapliyal, Studies in Ancient Seals, 1972,
21-Tara Chand Tripathi, Preceding of Indian History Congress, 1982, Identification of Beahmpur in the Light of Taleshwar copper Grant
Xx     xx
Notes on Historical Developmental Stages of Kumaoni language in Classic Age; Historical Developmental Stages of Kumaoni language in Classic Age in Bawar; Historical Developmental Stages of Kumaoni language in Classic Age in Udham Singh Nagar; Historical Developmental Stages of Kumaoni language in Classic Age in Nainital; Historical Developmental Stages of Kumaoni language in Classic Age in Almora; Historical Developmental Stages of Kumaoni language in Classic Age in Champawat; Historical Developmental Stages of Kumaoni language in Classic Age in Bageshwar; Historical Developmental Stages of Kumaoni language in Classic Age in Dwarhat; Historical Developmental Stages of Kumaoni language in Classic Age in Pithoragarh; Historical Developmental Stages of Kumaoni language in Classic Age in Ranikhet;       

Bhishma Kukreti

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Katyuri Imperialism and Historical Features of North Indian Scene

             History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 90
   Indian History of Katyuri Imperialism in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) -1

          (Asian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Asian History (750-1100 AD)

                                 By: Bhishma Kukreti

                Around eighth to eleventh century, Katyuri kingdom ruled over Uttarakhand. According to Atkinson, apart from Uttarakhand the Katyuri rule was extended to Sutlej, Rohilkhand. The rise of Katyuri kingdom was due to historical factors of North India at that time.

                        Reasons for Rise for Katyuri Dynasty in Uttarakhand and adjacent Regions

                    Defeat of Yasovarman by Lalitaditya

              Muktapid king of Kashmir Lalitaditya defeated or killed Kanyakubj/Kanauj king Yasovarman around 735-740. It was not possible for Yasovarman or his successors to rule or interfere in Uttarakhand.
       Dabral suggests that in Central India including north India, the ambitious strong men were interested to take advantage from political vacuum created due to decline of Kanauj kingdom, the hill chieftain Vasantan or Vasudev declared Katyuri kingdom in Central Himalaya region. 

                     New Dynasty of Vajrayudh in Kanyakubj territory (770-816)

              Two decades after death of Yasovarman a new Dynasty kingdom emerged in Kanauj or Kanyakubj. Vajrayudh took over rule of Kanauj in 770. It is said that a Kashmir king Vinayaditya Jayapeed snatched the Singhasan and crown of Kanyakubj to Kashmir around 779-810. Less is known about life of Vajrayudh.
                                 Indrayudh and Chkakrayudh

 Indrayudh ruled Kanauj after the death of his father Vajrayudh.  At this time three ambitious kings Dharampal (770-810) of Magadha-Bengal; Pratihar Naresh Vatsaraj (death 805) of Avanti and Rashtrakut Naresh Dhruva (779-795) of Manyakhet were interested to take over Kanyakubj kingdom. 
  When Dharampal was campaigning east of Kanyakubja to capture Kanyakubja, the Avanti king Vatsaraj defeated Dharampal. At the same time, Manyakhet king Dhruva attacked Avanti, defeated Vatsaraj and captured Avanti. Then, Dhruva captured Kanyakubja.  Indrayudh took help of Dharampal. However, Dhruva defeated Dharampal. Kanyakubja/Kanauj king Indrayudh accepted rule of Manyakhet King Dhruva and provided tax to Dhruva. Dhruva had to run towards his capital.
            Vatsaraj was unable to resist. Therefore, Dharampal captured parts of Nepal, east Punjab. Dharampal also captured Kanauj (Panhcal) and dethrown Indrayudh. Chakrayudh became ruler of kanauj under Dharampal.
           



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 1/7//2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -91
Indian History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…2

                                        References

1-Dabral, Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
2- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
3-Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal

Bhishma Kukreti

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Indian Earlier Medieval Period and   Katyuri Imperialism part -2


        History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 91
   Indian Medieval History of Katyuri Imperialism in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) -2

          (Indian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                 By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                  Magadha King Dharampal

                Dharampal won Nepal, East Punjab and Kanauj/Kanyakubj. Dharampal organized a lavish court party for celebrating and influencing other kingdoms in Kanauj. Ingitmatra king Bhoj, Matsya king, Kuru king, Yavan king, Yadu king, Avanti king, Gandhar king and Kangada king presented in the court party and they all saluted Dharampal   appreciated Dharampal for making Chakrayudh king of Kanyakubj.

           The representatives of Kartikeypur, Brahmpurr and Srughana were not there (nor mentioned in Dharampal’s Khalimpur inscriptions). That clearly shows that Kartikeypur (Katyuri) and other hill kings of ancient Uttarakhand (including Bijnor, Sahranpur, Haridwar, and some part of Rohilkhand) were free kingdoms and they were not under Dharampal.

                                     Katyuri under Devpal
         
            However, the Munger and Mangalvari inscriptions of Devpal son of Dharampal state that the kingdom of Devpal was extended to source of Ganga. This information suggests that Katyuri king Tribhuwanraj (son of Basantan) was either defeated by Devpal or Tribhuwanraj Katyuri accepted rule of Devpal. The Munger inscriptions also state that officers of Devpal visited Kedarnath region for religious purpose. 

                                      Rashtrakut King Govind second
  The contemporary kings did not accept the winning campaigns by Dharampal.  Pratihar king Nagbhatt second the son of Vatskingdom Vatsraj attacked on Kanyakubj and captured Kanyakubj. The Kanauj/Kanyakubj king Chakrayudh ran away from Kanauj.
          Magadha Dharampal could not get opportunity to protect his patronized king Chakrayudh. Nagbhatt attacked Dharampal and Nagbhatt defeated Dharampal in Munger.
            Chakrayudh and Dharampal got help from Rashtrakut king Govind third (son of Dhruva king) attacked king Nagbhatt and defeated him.
    Since, Govind third became superior to Dharampal and Chakrayudh; it seems that Govind third became superior ruler of Kartikeyapur kingdom of Katyuris. Amoghvarsa Sanjan inscriptions suggest that the Kirtikeya or Kartikey rulers accepted the rule of Govind and agreed to offer taxes to Govind.
                Govind third had to run to his kingdom just after winning Nagbhatt. Dharampal got opportunity for extending and consolidating the Magadha kingdom. Dharampal got the title of Parmeshwar Parambhattarak Mahadhiraj and died around 810.

                       Magadha King Devpala (810-850)

   Devpala the Son of Dharampal took over the rule of Magadha after death of his father.  Devpala was capable king as was his father Dharampal.  Devpal not only protected his kingdom got from his father but extended too. His rule was up to Bengal, Vindhyachal; Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, Himachal and western Indian Ocean.
                     Devpala was kind with Buddhism and was donor for Nalanda University. The armed, horse and elephant forces of Dharampal and Devpal were more than his contemporary kings.
            Pratihar King (Malva of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat) Bhoj tried to disable Devpal could not do so.

                                     Pratihar King Bhoj (833-885AD)

                       
                         Bhoj the son of King Rambhadra of Malva got rule of Malva after death of his father.
 Bhoj got Kanyakubj kingdom around 856 AD. Bhoj had to be busy for extending his rule in Rajasthan, Devpal defeated Bhoj. Therefore, Bhoj had to pay attention on south and north of Malva.
  From 845-860, Bhoj attacked Rashtrakut kingdom but was defeated by Dhruva of Rashtrakut. Kalchuri king ((845-880) also defeated Bhoj.  Bhoj had also captured some portion of Kathiyavad territory.
  After death of Devpal, Bhoj captured western part of Magadha kingdom. Salonaditya dethroned Katyuri king Bhudev from Katyuri kingdom. There is suggestion that Salonaditya used to pay tax to Bhoj.  Bhoj died around 885AD.
                                        Srughana and Haridwar under Bhoja Rule ?
 The ninth century coins of Gurjar Pratihar Mihira Bhoja have been found abundantly in Saharanpur districts.  That suggest Haridwar, Saharanpur were under Bhoja.

                          Pratihara King Mahendrapal (885-908)
 
          Mahendrapal got Pratihar kingdom after death of his father Bhoj. It is suggested that his rule was extended to Bengal, Vindhyachal, Himalayan regions, Gujarat. Katyuri kings were under him under feudal system.
 Famous Sanskrit poet was court poet of Mahendrapal.
                            Pratihar King Mahipal (908-944)

 After Mahendrapal, his successors were weak kings of Gurjar-Malva. Mahipal got rule of Malva-Gurjar in 908 and ruled till 944. There is less substantial notes on the successors of Mahipal.   

                            Chandel King Yasovarman

       From the army of Devpala one of successors of Mahipal of Pratihar kingdom, an army officer Yasovarman emerged as king. Yasovarman established Chandel kingdom in 925 but was under Devpal Pratihar. Son of Yasovarman got Chandel kingdom and he declared his kingdom free from Pratihar Kingdom in 954.       
                 
                           Katyuri Kings in this Age  740-1000AD

 This author will describe full history of Katyuri kingdom in coming parts. However, it is essential that names of Katyuri kings are mentioned of this age (700-100)       
Vasantan or Vasudev was King from 740-800.
Nimbar family was ruler of Katyuri kingdom Uttarakhand from 800-876.
Sonaditya family ruled Katyuri kingdom from 876-1000
 


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 6/7//2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -92
Indian History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…3

                                        References

1-Dabral, Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
2- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
3-Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
5-Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India,: Earliest time to 1000AD
Xxx                              xxx
Notes on Indian Early Medieval Age History of Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Bhabhar, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Dehradun, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Jaunsar Bhabhar, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Rawaeen, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Yamuna Valley Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Uttarkashi, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Tehri Garhwal, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Chamoli, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Joshimath Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Kedarnath valleys Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Gangotri, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Haridwar , Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Saharanpur ; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Vijayeshwar, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Baijnath,  Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Dhikuli, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Jagishwar, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Gadsir, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Pandukeshwar Garhwal,  Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Pithoragarh, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Dwarhat, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Champawat, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Almora, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Nainital, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Indian Early Medieval Age History of Kumaon, Uttarakhand 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal

        History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 92
   Indian Early Medieval History of Katyuri Imperialism in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) -3

          (Indian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                 By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                  Origin of Katyuri family of Kartikeypur or Joshimath
 
                      There is no agreement among opinions of history scholars about origin of Katyuri imperialism. The king sited on inscriptions and stone inscriptions do not reveal the name Katyuri dynasty or family of Katyuri kingdom. 

            The Garhwali –Kumaoni traditional songs those kings as Kaintura king or Katyuri kings.  It said that decline of Katyuri kingdom started from death of Beerdev or Kumaon. The palace of Birdev/Beerdev or Vir Dev was near Hathchhina spring near Kasauni, Kumaon. However, it is not sure that the King of Kartikeypur of Joshimath was Katyuri.

        The kings or chieftains of Pali, Askot, and Doti of Kumaon are also called Katyuri. There is no mention of kings of Kartikeypur (Joshimath) in the family tree of Katyuri kings of Pali, Askot, and Doti of Kumaon.
           According to local sayings collected by Atkinson, the Katyuri smaller kings or Katyuri principalities of Pali, Askot, and Doti of Kumaon were offshoots of Katyuri kings of Kartikeypur (Joshimath).  There are no recorded proofs for support of these sayings.
.
           
                                     Kator/Katar and Katyuri

                The historians took clue from Kattarmal Surya (Sun) temple that Katyur word is derived from Katar (Katar was also a tribe in Kabul, Afghanistan).  That is the reason that Katar of Kabul, Kator or Katyur western Himalayas are the offshoots of Ayudhjeevi families.
           There is mention of Kattarmal king in recorded family tree of Katyuris of Doti and Askot kingdoms.  Elliot and Dowson suggest that the last Kator or Katorman king of Kabul was Vasudev. (Coincidently or in reality the first Katyuri king was Vasudev). In British era, the kings of Kafirastan and Chitral of Afghanistan used to have title ’Shahkator’.  Tilak an army chief of Ghazni had the brave army of Kator youth.
              That is the reason that Elliot and Dowson suggested that Katyuri of Garhwal-Kumaon are related to Kator of Tilak of Kabul. 
                       However, Katyuri kingdom was established two hundred before Tilak the army chief of Ghazni.  It may be trued the spread of Kator in Himachal, Uttarakhand and some part of Nepal. However, there is no any supporting record for proving this hypothesis that Kators of Kabul were Katyur of Garhwal-Kumaon.
  Ram Niwas Pandey suggests that it is not unwise to say that Katyuris are Yayudheyas who acted the new appellation of Katyuri. This suggests that Ayodhya was origin or native place of Katyuri. However, this is just hypothesis without any substance. 

                          Hypothesis of Katyuri the offshoots of Shak-Kushan

      There is a hypothesis by Cunningham that Katorman or Kitoran are the vulgarization of ‘Kidar-Kushan’ words.  There is a name Shalivahan in Katyuri family tree.  That is one reason that historian Rahul suggests that Katyuris were Shak-Kushan.

                    Shakabd word of Shaka is related to Shalivahan by historians. Rasalu the son of Shalivahan the forefather of Katyuris of Kumaon and Garhwal was the King of Haripur Dehradun.

                         Surya or Sun Temples of Garhwal-Kumaon

     The sun temples built by Katyuri kings in Gopeshwar, Katarmal, Bageshwar, Dwarhat, also suggest that there is relationship of Katyris with Shaka.  The Sun deity is putting on Boot in these sun temples and that suggests that Katyruis were Shaka.


                             Khasa and Katyuri of Garhwal-Kumaon

           Rahul did not take the clue that Katyuri were Khasa and he suggested that Katyuri were Shaka. However, The Khajuraho inscriptions of Yasovarman Chandella suggest that at his period there was a Khasa kingdom in western Himalaya. Yasovarman analyzed the power of Khasa king.
Gaud kridalatasistu latkhasbal kaushalah koshalnam (Khajuraho rock inscription)

             The inscriptions of contemporary Katyuri kings as Dharampal, Devpal,Narayanpal and Madanpal wrote  that Khasa kingdom were under the. 
        Ashokchalla is said to be Khasa king in inscriptions.
          That is the reason that many historians suggest that Katyuri were Khasa kings. The vulgarization would have happened of Kartikeypur as Kartikeypur-to- Katiyapur- Katiur-to-Katyur.

            This author (Kukreti) suggests that it might also happen that the custom of writing inscriptions in Sanskrit would have changed that name Katyur into Kartikeypur. For example, the original name of a village in Malla Dhangu is Matargan. However, now it is written (in British age) Mitragram. Sanskritization of Katyur would have become Kartikeypur.

               The lower social importance of Katyuris in Chand dynasty also suggests Katyuris as Khasa.


                       Relationship of Katyuri with Nepal

                  The last Kator king of Kabul was Vasudev. Atkinson believes that Vasudev of Katar kingdom of Kabul and Vasudev of Katyuri kingdom of Garhwal-Kumaon was same. However, name of Katyuri king of Garhwal-Kumaon was Vasantandev and not Vasudev. Again the inscription of Katyuri king Lalitshur suggest the period of Katyuri Vasantandev from 740-752 AD.
     Nepalese historians provide knowledge that Licchhivanshi Vasudev was king of Mangrih Nepal in 754. Therefore many, historians suggest that there was relationship of Nepalese king with Katyuri kingdom. Couples of Historians suggest that Katyuri were originally from Nepal (Doti) and they came to Kumaon. From they migrated to Garhwal.
                However, there is no record to prove such hypothesis that origin of Katyuri was in Nepal.

 
 


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 8/7//2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -93
Indian History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…4

                                        References
1-Atkinson, E.T. 1974 (new edition), 1974, Kumaon Hills
1A- Adhikari, Suryamani, 1997, The Khasa Kingdom
2--Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000AD
3--Dabral, Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
3A- Elliot and Dowson, History of Indian (2nd part)
4--Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
5-Linrothe, Rob, 1999, Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art
6-Mishra, Nityanand, Source Materials of Kumaon History 
7-Mishra Baldev Prasad, Nepal ka Itihas
8- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
9- Pandey, Ram Niwas, 1997, Making of Modern Nepal, page 170
10-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
 

Xxx                              xxx
Notes on History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal in Garhwal; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal in Nepal; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal in Doti Nepal; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal in Kabul; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal in Afghanistan; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal in Kashmir; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal  as Suryvanshi; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal in Haripur, Dehradun;   History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal in Ayodhya; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal in Kashmir ; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal as Shaka; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal as Kushan; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal as Kator family offshoot; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal as Khasa family offshoot; History accounts of Origin of Katyuri Dynasty of Kumaon and Garhwal in; History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom in Garhwal; History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom in Gopeshwar, Chamoli Garhwal; History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History of Katyuri kingdom in Tehri, Garhwal; History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History of Katyuri kingdom in Pauri Garhwal; History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom in Kumaon; History of Katyuri kingdom in Askot Kumaon; History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom in Pithoragarh Kumaon; History of Katyuri kingdom in Dwarhat, Kumaon; History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom in Bageshwar, Kumaon; History of Katyuri kingdom in Champawat, Kumaon; History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom in Almora, Kumaon; History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom in Nainital, Kumaon; History of Katyuri kingdom in Udham Singh Nagar , Kumaon; History of Origin of  Katyuri kingdom in central Himalayan region; History of Origin of  Katyuri kingdom in Himalayan region; History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom in North India; History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom in Uttarakhand ; Indian History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom ; Asian History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom ; Oriental History of Origin of Katyuri kingdom.   

Bhishma Kukreti

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Sources for Historical Accounts of Katyuri Kingdoms in Kumaon and Garhwal

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 93
 
   Indian Early Medieval History of Katyuri Imperialism in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) -4

          (Indian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                 By: Bhishma Kukreti

             There are sources for understanding historical aspects of Katyuri Kingdoms in Kumaon and Garhwal. There are inscriptions and temples available for providing knowledge of Katyuri era.

                Copperplate and rock Inscriptions of Katyuri Kings in Kumaon and Garhwal

S.N. ---Place---------------------Inscription Type----------King-----------Capital 
 1- ----Joshimath -------------Rock inscription---------Vasudeva--------Joshimath?
 2---Bageshwar----------------Rock Insc-------------------Tribhuwanrajdev---?
3----Pandukeshwar ------------Copper--------------------Lalitshur------------Kartikeypur
4- Pandukeshwar ------------Copper--------------------Lalitshur------------Kartikeypur
5-Bageshwar------------------Rock ---------------------------Bhudev ------------?
6-Bageshwar ------------------Copper -----------------------Deshatdev ----------?
7---Pandukeshwar-------------Copper--------------------------Padmatdev---------?
8---Pandukeshwar---------------Copper ------------------------Subhikshrajdev ----Subhikshpur
9---Kalimath--------------------Rock -------------------------------------------? ------------------?
10- Badhapur -----------------Idol ---------------------------------? -------------------------?


                              Scripts of Katyuri Inscriptions


                 The script of Katyuri inscriptions is Kutila script. This Kutila scripts is also found in Magadha, barely and in Tibetan inscriptions of that age (seventh to thousand AD). Atkinson states that the script is in good Sanskrit couched in classical eulogistic style.  The script states that Katyuri kingdom was well organized, powerful and flourishing. Similar types of inscriptions are found in Munger and Bhagalpur of Pal dynasty.


                   Three King Families of Katyuri

              The Katyuri Age inscriptions suggest that there were three Katyuri families who ruled Kumaon and Garhwal.
  Vasantandev, Nimbardev and Salonaditya were the founders of respective family kingdom. 
 
  Bageshwar inscription show Vasantandev. Therefore it is difficult to know who the real founder of Katyuri kingdom was.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 9/7//2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -94
Indian History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…5

                                        References
A1- Agrawal, D.P., J.S Kharkwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological, linguistic and cultural synthesis 
1-Atkinson, E.T. 1974 (new edition), 1974, Kumaon Hills
1A- Adhikari, Suryamani, 1997, The Khasa Kingdom
1B- Chandola, Khemanand, 1987, Across Himalayas through Ages: a study of relations between central Himalayas and western Tibet
2--Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000AD
3--Dabral, Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
3A- Elliot and Dowson, History of Indian (2nd part)
4--Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4A- Joshi, M.C., 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya: an essay in historical anthropology 
5-Linrothe, Rob, 1999, Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art
6-Mishra, Nityanand, Source Materials of Kumaon History 
7-Mishra Baldev Prasad, Nepal ka Itihas
8- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
9- Pandey, Ram Niwas, 1997, Making of Modern Nepal, page 170
10-Rawat, Ajay S., 19 Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective 
11-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
 12-Notes on Archeological Aspects of Uttarakhand: ascidehraduncircle.in/uttrakhand.html
13-Indian Archeology: A review, (edited by D. Mitra) 1979-80
Xxx                              xxx
Notes on Katyuri Kingdom in Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Bageshwar Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Doti of ancient Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Askot Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Pali Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Joshimath Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Pithoragarh Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Dwarhat, Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Champawat, Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Almora Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Nainital Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Udham Singh Nagar Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Pauri Garhwal Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Joshimath Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Pandukeshwar Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Kalimath Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Chamoli Garhwal Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Katyuri Kingdom in Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand

Bhishma Kukreti

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    गंगा सलाण में शिल्पकार डोला पालकी आन्दोलन

                              भीष्म कुकरेती   



       जब भी कोई बड़ा आन्दोलन छिड़ता है तो साथ में कई स्थानीय सामजिक आन्दोलन भी चलने लगते हैं।
जब भारत व उत्तराखंड में स्वतंत्रता आन्दोलन  रहा था तो उत्तराखंड में भी कई स्थानीय सामजिक आन्दोलन भी उभर कर आये।
छोटे वर्ग के ब्राह्मणों द्वारा सर्यूळ ब्राह्मणों से  कई तरह से प्रतियोगिता में आना और कहीं कहीं बहिस्कार भी । ब्राह्मणों की कई जातियों द्वारा पहली बार हल चलाना भी इसी युग में देखा गया। स्वतंत्रता के एकदम बाद कई जगह कास्तकारों /खैकरो द्वारा उस जमीन को हडपना जिस जमीन पर वे सदियों से खेती कर रहे थे किन्तु मालिकाना हक नही मिल रहा था आदि भी स्वतन्त्रता आन्दोलन की ही देन है।

                             शिल्पकार संबंधी आन्दोलन


 उत्तराखंड में आर्य समाज और  आजादी की लड़ाई में शिल्पकारों में एक चेतना जागरण हुआ कि उन्हें भी मानवीय अधिकार मिलने चाहिए। ब्रिटिश क़ानून और जागरण के कारण शिल्पकारों को विद्यालयों में शिक्षा सुलभ हुयी।
आर्य समाज जनित जनेऊ आन्दोलन तकरीबन हर गाँव में चला। धीरे धीरे सवर्णों  ने शिल्पकारों के जनेऊ पहनना स्वीकार किया।
 गढ़वाल कुमाओं में शिल्पकारों द्वारा एक आन्दोलन बहुत लम्बा चला वः आन्दोलन था 'डोला -पालकी आन्दोलन' . शिल्पकार मनीषी व विचारक विनोद शिल्पकार लिखते हैं कि डोला पालकी आन्दोलन उत्तराखंड के मूल निवासी आर्य शिल्पकार जाति  के लोगों के स्वाभिमान का प्रतीक व  उनके मानवीय अधिकार प्राप्ति का एक ऐतिहासिक आन्दोलन था।

                              डोला पाली आन्दोलन की शुरुवात

    इतिहासकारों जैसे श्री विनोद शिल्पकार  आदि ने डोला पालकी आन्दोलन सन 1923 से 1947 तक माना जब कि उत्तर प्रदेश विधान सभा ने 'अयोग्यता निवारक अधिनियम ' बिल स्वीकृत किया किन्तु सन 1978 के करीब कुमाऊं का बलेछी काण्ड बताता है कि यह आन्दोलन कहीं अधिक सालों तक चला।  ढांगू पौड़ी गढ़वाल क्षेत्र में  सन 1952 -55 तक कई बार शिल्पकारों को डोला पालकी   से रोका गया। मऴळ (मल्ला ढांगू ) के जोगेश्वर प्रसाद कुकरेती आदियों को कैद भी किया गया था।

               रिवाज था कि शिल्पकार शादी में वर -वधू को डोला -पालकी में नही ले जा सकते थे।
 जबआर्य समाज, स्वतन्त्रता आन्दोलन व  इसाई धर्म परिवर्तन आन्दोलन से शिल्पकारों में अपने मानवीय अधिकारों को लेकर चेतना स्फुरण हुआ तो वरु वधू को डोला पालकी में ले जाने का आन्दोलन भी सामने  आया। चूँकि उस समय लेखक ब्राह्मण या राजपूत जाति के ही अधिक थे तो डोला पालकी का क्रमगत नही मिलता।
 श्री  विनोद शिल्पकार ने कुछ घटनाओं का संकलन किया है। डा शिव प्रसाद डबराल ने भी उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (ब्रिटिश काल ) में शिल्पकार आन्दोलन का जिक्र किया है किन्तु विनोद शिल्पकार इसे अपूर्ण व  गलत सूचनाओं के आधार वाले घटनाएँ बताकर खारिज करते दीखते हैं।
          सन 1923 में दुगड्डा के पास बोरगांव से कांडी (पट्टी बिचलोट) में डोला पालकी आन्दोलन हुआ।  सन   1924 में कोरिखाल से बिन्दलगांव की डोला पालकी शिल्पकार बरात पर हमला हुआ. बरात चार दिनों में वापस आई, श्री जयनन्द भारतीय व पंडित अर्जुन देव इस बरात में  शामिल थे
                                                ग्राम गोदी , लंगूर में डोला पालकी कांड

             2 फरवरी 1929 को श्री पंचम सिंह की पालकी वाली वारात गोदी से बिसोखी जा रही थी। डाडामंडी के पास सवर्णों ने बारात पर हमला क्र दिया। तीन दिन तक बाराती नदी  किनारे बैठे रहे। पटवारी कानूनगो की मदद से बरात बिसोती पंहुची। वापसी पर सवर्णों ने बारात पर हमला किया और डोला पालकी को भेळ में फेंक दिया या कहें तो लूट लिया। 19 दिनों तक बरातियों ने धरना दिया। तब जाकर 21 फरवरी को सरकारी संरक्षण में बरात वापस गोदी पंहुची।

                                      लंगूरी -मैन्दोली क्षेत्र में डोला पालकी आन्दोलन 

                   सन 1933 में लंगूरी मैंदोली क्षेत्र में शिल्पकारों की डोला पालकी बरात पर हमला हुआ और केस निचली अदालत में पंहुचा। निचली अदालत ने सवर्णों के पक्ष में निर्णय सुनाया। किन्तु 21 फरवरी  1936 को अलाहावाद उच्च न्यायालय ने शिल्पकारों के पक्ष में निर्णय दिया। यह दिन डोला पालकी आन्दोलन का एक सुवर्ण दिन माना जाता है।

                                         
                                          दुगड्डा में शिल्पकार सम्मेलन


    शिल्पकार जातीय उधार अभियान के तहत डोला पालकी आन्दोलन चला रहे थे तो स्वर्ण इस नये रिवाज के विरुद्ध में शिल्पकारों के डोला पालकी बरात में विघ्न डाल रहे थे। तब शिल्पकारों ने एक विशाल जन सभा का दुगड्डा में किया। आयोजकों ने सरकार को अल्टीमेटम दिया कि यदि डोला पालकी में सवर्णों द्वारा विघ्न को रोका नही गया तो शिल्पकार सत्याग्रह करेंगे।
                    यहीं 24फरवरी 1929 को पांच हजार शिल्पकारों ने इसाई धर्म अपनाने का निर्णय लिया। लेकिन आर्य समाजी नेताओं के समझाने से यह निर्णय समाप्त किया गया। किन्तु यह भी सत्य है कि दुगड्डा के नजदीक बोरगाँव और बिंदलगाँव के कुछ हरिजन इसाई बन ही गये।
                                           तिमल्याणी उदयपुर (यमकेश्वर) डोला पालकी काण्ड

                 जून 1939 में तिमल्याणी में शिल्पकारों की डोला पालकी वाली बरात पर सवर्णों ने हमला किया और डोला पर आग लगा दी गयी। पटवारी और कानूनगो की भी कुछ नही चली। तब श्री जया  नन्द भारतीय ने उत्तर प्रदेश के प्रधान मंत्री श्री गोविन्द  पन्त को  भेजा गया। फिर बरात सरकारी संरक्षण में निकाली गयी।
           किन्तु रिवाज टूटने के भय से सवर्णों ने सरकारी नियमों को नही माना और सभी जगह शिल्पकारो के डोला पालकी का विरोध होता  रहा। सन   1940 में ओडगांव (एकेश्वर) की घटना इतिहास में  है जब शिल्पकार शिरोमणि श्री गंगा राम आर्य के नेतृत्व में गैंगी लडकी की बरात जा रही थी तो डोला पर आग लगा दी गयी।

                                            कस्याळी (उदयपुर पट्टी ) डोला पालकी काण्ड

   जिस जनरेसन का मई हूँ उस युग वालों को कस्याळी कांड की याद अवश्य होगी। मैंने भी बचपन में कस्याळी कांड के बारे में सुना  था। कस्याळी उ . प्र के  .भुत पूर्व मंत्री स्व श्री जगमोहन सिंह नेगी  का पैत्रिक गाँव है।
            जून  1945 के दिन कस्याळी से जिठवा  शिल्पकार युवक की बरात ग्वाड़ी  गाँव जानी थी। हरिद्वार से आर्यसमाजी नेता पंडित वेद  व्रत शर्मा, स्वामी ओम  प्रकाशानंद व  ब्रह्मचारी बालकराम जी भी बरात में थे। दुल्हे को  डोला में जाना था किन्तु आस पास के  गाँवों से सैकड़ों स्वर्ण डोला रोकने के लिए इकट्ठा हो गये थे। इस पर दोनों समुदायों के बीच  हुयी कि गाँव में वर पालकी में नही बैठेगा।
 ग्वाड़ी गाँव में बरात तो पंहुच गयी। वहां भी सैकड़ों की संख्या में आस पास गे गाँवों से स्वर्ण आ गए थे। स्थिति अत्यंत तनावपूर्ण हो गयी थी। स्वर्ण डोला पालकी ही नही। वर पक्ष को वधू झबरी को  नही ले जाने की हठ  बना रखे थे।
फिर यह निश्चय हुआ कि यदि वर पक्ष का हरेक बाराती  पचास पचास रुपया दंड भरेगा तो   वधू गाँव से जा सकेगी। आर्यसमाजी नेताओं ने बात   नही मानी।
 जब झबरी व जिठ्वा की बरात डोला -पालकी में चली तो कुछ नही हुआ। गाँव के बीच में  सैकड़ों स्वर्ण आ गये और गाँव के शिल्पकार डॉ कर भाग खड़े हुए किन्तु आर्य समाजी नेताओं ने डोला पालकी को कंधे पर उठा लिया।  फिर रास्ते में सवर्णों द्वारा डोला पालकी को छीना  गया। बारात समूह   छिन्न भिन्न हो गया। हरिद्वार से आये नेताओं को भी चोट आई और इन्हें रात में किसी खेत में काटना पड़ा। लमखेत के श्री हीरा लाल टमटा ने इन नेताओं को शरण दी। वास्तव में रुक   गयी। 30 जून 1946 को पटवारी और कानूनगो के संरक्षण में बरात विदाई हुयी। यह संघर्ष एक साल तलक चला। इसीलिए इतिहास में कस्याळी काण्ड एक प्रमुख घटना मानी जाती है।

                         गढ़वाल के शिल्पकारों के अधिकारों को रास्ट्रीय स्तर पर ले जाना


      फिर इन नेताओं व अन्य शिल्पकार नेताओं ने अपना आन्दोलन  कर र दिया, तीनो नेता दुगड्डा पंहुचे। यंहा से इन नेताओं ने डोला पालकी अधिकार की सभी बातें कौंग्रेस के रास्ट्रीय स्तर के नेताओं, हिन्दू महासभा के नेताओं व  तक पत्र लिखकर बात पंहुचायी।
इसी समय जवाहर लाल नेहरु कोटद्वार चुनावी सभा में पंहुचे थे। वहां नेहरु जी ने इनकी बात सुनी  और अपना भाषण भे डोला पालकी से शुरू किया और सवर्णों से नेहरु जी ने प्रार्थना की कि वे शिल्पकारों के मानवीय अधिकार ना छीने।
नेहरु जी ने गढ़वाल चुनावी  भ्रमण में हर सभा में डोला पालकी की बात की। इस चुनावी भ्रमण में श्री बलदेव सिंह आर्य नेहरु जी के साथ ही रहे थे।
इस दौरान समाचार माध्यमों में डोला पालकी प्रकरण संबंधी  कई लेख प्रकाशित  हुए और शिल्पकार अधिकारों को समाज के सामने  रखा गया
गांधी जी ने भी डोला -पालकी पर लेख लिखा व श्री पन्त को एक आदेसयुक्त  पत्र भी लिखा।
सन 1947  में डोला पालकी  का विधेयक ' अछूत योग्यता निवारक बिल' के साथ पास किया गया। श्री बालकराम आर्य , प. वेद व्रत के अनुसार पन्त जी ने उन्हें धोखा  दिया कि डोला पालकी बिल अलग से क्यों नही पास किया
 
 बिल पास होने के बाद भी शिल्पकारों द्वारा डोला पालकी प्रयोग का विरोध होता रहा किन्तु धीरे धीरे शिल्पकारों को उनके अधिकारों को सामजिक  मान्यता मिली।

सन्दर्भ -विनोद शिल्पकार , 2009, उत्तराखंड का उपेक्षित समाज और उसका साहित्य )


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 10/7/2013 आयोजन

Bhishma Kukreti

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Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 94
 
   Indian Early Medieval History of Katyuri Imperialism in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) -5

          (Indian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                 By: Bhishma Kukreti
 
                     Names of Katyuri Kings found in Inscriptions

 There are fourteen Katyuri Kings of this era mentioned in different inscriptions-

Inscription--------------King---------------Queen -------------- Relation with past king -----------Title
Ist Bageshwar Rock-----Vasantandev----Sajyanara -------Founder?------Pamabhattarak Maha.Parmeshwar 
------------------------------?------------------------------------------?------------------- ------do------------------------------
---------------------------Kharpardev -----------------------------Son------------------------do--------------------------------
------------------Adhidhajdev (Klayandev)-----Labhdadevi-----Son -------------do------------------------------
-------------------Tribhuwanrajdev ---------------?-----------------Son ------------------ ----------------------------
II Bageshwar Rock –Nimbardeva-----------------Nashudevi---? -----------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------Ishtgandev -------Dharavengdevi ----------Son -- Pamabhattarak Maha.Parmeshwar
 Copperplate Lalit ----------Lalitshur ---------Layadevi --------------Son- - Pamabhattarak Maha.Parmeshwar 
Copperplate Lalitshur ------ Bhudev -------------?-----------Son -- Pamabhattarak Maha.Parmeshwar
Deshatdev inscr------------Salonaditya----------Sindhvalidevi? -------------? -----------------------------
Padmtdev inscr.---------------Icchatdev--- Sindhudevi ---------------Son --- Pamabhattarak Maha.Parmeshwar
Subhikshrajdev Inscr.-------Deshatdev-----Padmaldevi---------Son --- Pamabhattarak Maha.Parmeshwar
--------------------------- ----Padmatdev -----------Dishaldevi--------Son----- Pamabhattarak Maha.Parmeshwar
-------------------------------Subhikshrajdev-----------?------------------Son--- Pamabhattarak Maha.Parmeshwar
 


 
 
 


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 10/7//2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -95
Indian History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…6

                                        References
A1- Agrawal, D.P., J.S Kharkwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological, linguistic and cultural synthesis 
1-Atkinson, E.T. 1974 (new edition), 1974, Kumaon Hills
1A- Adhikari, Suryamani, 1997, The Khasa Kingdom
1B- Chandola, Khemanand, 1987, Across Himalayas through Ages: a study of relations between central Himalayas and western Tibet
2--Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000AD
3--Dabral, Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
3A- Elliot and Dowson, History of Indian (2nd part)
4--Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4A- Joshi, M.C., 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya: an essay in historical anthropology 
5-Linrothe, Rob, 1999, Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art
6-Mishra, Nityanand, Source Materials of Kumaon History 
7-Mishra Baldev Prasad, Nepal ka Itihas
8- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
9- Pandey, Ram Niwas, 1997, Making of Modern Nepal, page 170
10-Rawat, Ajay S., 19 Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective 
11-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
 12-Notes on Archeological Aspects of Uttarakhand: ascidehraduncircle.in/uttrakhand.html
13-Indian Archeology: A review, (edited by D. Mitra) 1979-80
14- Epigraphia  Indica 1982, Vol. XIII
Xxx                              xxx
Notes on Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur of Ancient Uttarakhand of Medieval India ;Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Pithoragarh, of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Askot , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Johar , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Dori , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Champawat Kumaon , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Kumaon , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Ranikhet Kumaon , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Bageshwar Kumaon , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Jageshwar Kumaon , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Haldwani, Kumaon , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient  Bhimtal, Kumaon , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Almora Kumaon , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Kashipur Kumaon , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Pauri Garhwal  , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Joshimath, Garhwal  , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Pandukeshwar Garhwal  , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Niti Valley Garhwal  , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Chamoli Garhwal  , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Tehri Garhwal  , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Uttarkashi Garhwal  , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Badrinath valley Garhwal  , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Kedar valley Garhwal  , of Medieval India; Chronological History Details of Katyuri Kings of Kartikeypur –Ancient Dehradun Garhwal  , of Medieval India…

Bhishma Kukreti

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Vasantandev:  Asian Medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom 

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 95
 
   Indian Early Medieval History of Katyuri Imperialism in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) -6

          (Indian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                 By: Bhishma Kukreti

           The old local sayings suggested the founder of Katyuri imperialism was Vasudev (Dabral).
                 Atkinson suggested that the Kabul Katorman King Vasudev and Katyuri founder king Vasudev were same. However, no historical record is available to prove so.
              Bageshwar inscription is lost and the scholar as D.C.Sarkar explained or read it as Bhasantandev.
 The Pali Katyuri states that first was Asantidev and second was Vasantadev.
  Atkinson and Rahul suggest that Vasantandev or Vasudev was founder of Katyuri kingdom/imperialism.
               According to booklet by Pundit Ram Datt Tripathi of Dwarhat (ref-B.D. Pandey, page 222) son of Asantidev was Vasudev and Asantidev was prosperous king. 

                       Starting Time of Katyuri Imperialism

             There are many theories about date of starting of Katyuri dynasty rule. By calculating and by logical conclusion, it seems that Vasantandev, Vasudev or Bhasantandev founded Katyuri kingdom around 732AD. Vasantandev or Vasudev might have been the Governor or Army commander of Yasovarman for this area. Vasantandev or Vasudev might have declared his own Kingdom –Katyuri kingdom after death or weakening of Yasovarman.

                       Starting Capital of Katyuri Kingdom

              There are various views on for starting capital of Katyuri Kingdom. 
          However, logical conclusion states that initially Joshimath or Kartikeypur was the initial capital of Katyuri kingdom founded by Vasudev. The place names near Kartikeypur on Lalitshur and Pattabdev inscriptions are Antrag, Tankanpur, Tankanpur regions, Badrikashram, Tapovan, Yoshika, Garudashram, Palsari, Vishnuganga. All these names are nearby today’s Joshimath. 
   When Katyuri king shifted capital from Joshimath (present Chamoli Garhwal) to Baijnath (present Kumaon), the Katyuri king called the capital as Baidyanath –Kartikeypur. 
            B.D. Pandey offered two folk stories about shifting Katyuri capital from Joshimath in present Kumaon region.
                          Character of Vasantandev or Vasudev of Katyuri Imperialism

                 The Joshimath temple inscription describes Vasudev as ‘श्री वासुदेव गिरिराजचक्रचूड़ामणि’, Shrivasudev Girirajchakrachudamani or The famous king of Himalaya.
           The Bageshwar rock inscriptions mention the title for Katyuri King Vasudev as Parambhattarak Maharajdhiraj’ or brave and an Empire King.
      Vasudev Katyuri king was a religious king and he built Narsingh temple in Joshimath.
          His wife was Sajyanradevi and she was a religious woman and devoted to her husband. The folk tale describes by Pandey states that the Katyuri family believed on Narsingh deity much.
                    Foundation for Peace and Prosperity

  The Katyuri kingdom foundation brought peace, stability and prosperity in Uttarakhand.
 Sanskrit had taken place as strong court language in hills of Uttarakhand.  Tara Chand Tripthai the Kumaoni linguistic expert states that there was ignorance of local language at this time. However, Tripathi sates that the male names are Sanskritized names but woman names are in local language in Katyuri inscriptions. Sajyanradevi is a local language name and not Sanskrit derived name.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 11/7//2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -96
Indian History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…7

                                        References
A1- Agrawal, D.P., J.S Kharkwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological, linguistic and cultural synthesis 
1-Atkinson, E.T. 1974 (new edition), 1974, Kumaon Hills
1A- Adhikari, Suryamani, 1997, The Khasa Kingdom
1B- Chandola, Khemanand, 1987, Across Himalayas through Ages: a study of relations between central Himalayas and western Tibet
2--Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000AD
3--Dabral, Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
3A- Elliot and Dowson, History of Indian (2nd part)
4--Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4A- Joshi, M.C., 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya: an essay in historical anthropology 
5-Linrothe, Rob, 1999, Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art
6-Mishra, Nityanand, Source Materials of Kumaon History 
7-Mishra Baldev Prasad, Nepal ka Itihas
8- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
9- Pandey, Ram Niwas, 1997, Making of Modern Nepal, page 170
10-Rawat, Ajay S., 19 Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective 
11-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
11A-Saklani, Dinesh Prasad, 1998, Ancient Communities of The Himalayas
11B- Tripathi, Ramdatt , Katyur ka Itihas
 12-Notes on Archeological Aspects of Uttarakhand: ascidehraduncircle.in/uttrakhand.html
13-Indian Archeology: A review, (edited by D. Mitra) 1979-80
14- Epigraphia  Indica 1982, Vol. XIII

Xxx                              xxx
Notes on Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom of Joshimath; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Badrinath; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Chamoli Garhwal; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Rudraprayag; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Dehradun; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Haridwar; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Uttarkashi; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Udham Singh Nagar; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Nainital; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Haldwani; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Almora; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Bageshwar; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Champawat; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Pithoragarh; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Dwarhat; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Central Himalaya; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in Himalayan region; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in North India; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in medieval India; Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom in SAARC countries; Oriental Asian medieval History of Founder of Katyuri Kingdom.   

Bhishma Kukreti

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Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefitting Oriented Katyuri King

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 96
 
   Indian Early Medieval History of Katyuri Imperialism in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) -7

          (Indian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                 By: Bhishma Kukreti

                     Social Benefitting Anonym Katyuri King

                  The son of Vasantandev got the Katyuri or Karikeypur Kingdom after demise of his father. Unfortunately, the name of this Katyuri king is scraped on the Bageshwar rock inscription. Therefore, it is not possible to know this Katyuri king.

                              Title of Anonym Social benefitting Katyuri King
     
     The title of son of Vasantandev Katyuri king was –Parambhattararak Maharajdhiraj. He is praised as well respected, liked by people or believable and very prosperous Katyuri king.

                            The Religious Katyuri King

      This anonym Katyuri king was very religious king. The King was Shaivyatian. The Katyuri king arranged money for daily ritual materials as flowers, dhup, earthen lamp lighting, perfumes, pastes for Byaghreshwar temple at Ambali village.
           His father Vasantan donated a village Saneshwar or Sneshwar land to Vaishnavas.  The anonym king donated that village to Byaghreshwar temple. 


                   Social benefitting Oriented Katyuri King

              The king was very much social benefitting oriented king. The said Katyuri king made public roads towards Jaykulbhuktika. The king built houses for people to stay on those roads.
       The inscriptions prayed for Amar kirti (immortal fame) for him for his people oriented public works. He is the only king after Asoka who built Dharmshalayen on the public roads.
              The King was always ready to protect the people.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 11/7//2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -97
Indian History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…8
    (Indian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…)
    (Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)

                                        References
A1- Agrawal, D.P., J.S Kharkwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological, linguistic and cultural synthesis 
1-Atkinson, E.T. 1974 (new edition), 1974, Kumaon Hills
1A- Adhikari, Suryamani, 1997, The Khasa Kingdom
1B- Chandola, Khemanand, 1987, Across Himalayas through Ages: a study of relations between central Himalayas and western Tibet
2--Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000AD
3--Dabral, Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
3A- Elliot and Dowson, History of Indian (2nd part)
4--Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4A- Joshi, M.C., 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya: an essay in historical anthropology 
5-Linrothe, Rob, 1999, Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art
6-Mishra, Nityanand, Source Materials of Kumaon History 
7-Mishra Baldev Prasad, Nepal ka Itihas
8- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
9- Pandey, Ram Niwas, 1997, Making of Modern Nepal, page 170
10-Rawat, Ajay S., 19 Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective 
11-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
11A-Saklani, Dinesh Prasad, 1998, Ancient Communities of The Himalayas
11B- Tripathi, Ramdatt , Katyur ka Itihas
 12-Notes on Archeological Aspects of Uttarakhand: ascidehraduncircle.in/uttrakhand.html
13-Indian Archeology: A review, (edited by D. Mitra) 1979-80
14- Epigraphia  Indica 1982, Vol. XIII

Xxx                              xxx
A note on Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Uttarakhand; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Pithoragarh Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Dwarhat; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Champawat; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Bageshwar; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Almora; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Nainital; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Udham Singh Nagar; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Dehradun; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Haridwar; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Uttarkashi; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Chamoli Garhwal; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Rudraprayag; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Tehri Garhwal; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Uttarkashi; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Central Himalaya; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Himalaya; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of Doti Nepal; Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King of North India;  Asian, Indian Medieval History Accounts of Social Benefiting or public works Oriented Katyuri King

Bhishma Kukreti

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              Indian Medieval History of Katyuri Kings of 8th -9th Centuries

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 97
 
   Indian Early Medieval History of Katyuri Imperialism in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) -8

          (Indian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand))
                          (Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD)

                                 By: Bhishma Kukreti

                          The inscriptions of Katyuri kings provide history accounts of this age.

                                   Kharapdev Katyuri King     
           
                         Kharpardev was grandson of Vasantandev Katyuri king. His father was public benefiting king. The official title of Kharapdev was Parambhattarak Maharajdhiraj Parmeshwar. That shows that Kharapdev Katyuri kingdom was totally free nation. The rock inscription o r administrative order inscriptions do not provide much detail about Kharapdev Katyuri king.
 
                                      Adhidhaj Katyuri King

                Adhidhaj Katyuri was son of Kharapdev Katyuri. His title was Parambhattarak Maharajdhiraj Parmeshwar. In inscription, Adhidhaj was described as scholar, prosperous and respected king.
                His queen was Laddhadevi. They had two sons Tribhuvanrajdev and another prince. Queen Labdhadevi was very much dedicated to her husband.

                                         Tribhuvanrajdev Katyuri King

            Tribhuvanrajdev did not have any title as Parambhattarak Maharajdhiraj. That suggests that he had troubles from neighboring countries. The Khalimpur inscriptions state that the officers of Dharampal  a visited Kedar pilgrimage place around 800 AD.  Therefore, he could not get title of Parambhattarak Maharajdhiraj.
                       Tribhuvanrajdev donated a fertile land of Jaykulbhaktika to Byaghreshwar temple. He ordered for producing necessary materials for temple in this land.  On the eleven years of his ruling his brother donated bigger land to Byaghreshwar temple.
  There is mention of a Kirat putra on the inscription who was friend of Tribhuvarajdev. Kirat Putra donated separate land for Byaghreshwar temple and Gyabiypind/Gamviya deity.

                             Brother of Tribhuvanrajdev Katyuri King

 Inscription states that Adhidhaj had two sons. However, his name is not found on inscriptions. This anonym king (brother of Tribhuvanrajdev) donated more land than Tribhuvanrajdev. This anonyms king donated land to Bharke(Bhairav or Bhatku) , Byaghreshwar and Chandalmunda deities. The said king did donate a Pyau or water source.


 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 14/7//2013
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -98
Indian History of Katyuri Dynasty in Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…9
    (Indian Medieval Age History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar (Uttarakhand) to be continued…)
    (Asian Medieval History (740-1100 AD to be continued…)

                                        References
A1- Agrawal, D.P., J.S Kharkwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological, linguistic and cultural synthesis 
1-Atkinson, E.T. 1974 (new edition), 1974, Kumaon Hills
1A- Adhikari, Suryamani, 1997, The Khasa Kingdom
1B- Chandola, Khemanand, 1987, Across Himalayas through Ages: a study of relations between central Himalayas and western Tibet
2--Chaurasiya, Radhey Shyam, 2002, History of Ancient India: Earliest time to 1000AD
3--Dabral, Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Bhag-3 Pages 429-513)
3A- Elliot and Dowson, History of Indian (2nd part)
4--Handa, O.C. 2002, history of Uttaranchal, Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi 27, page 22-44
4A- Joshi, M.C., 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya: an essay in historical anthropology 
5-Linrothe, Rob, 1999, Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo Tibetan Esoteric Buddhist Art
6-Mishra, Nityanand, Source Materials of Kumaon History 
7-Mishra Baldev Prasad, Nepal ka Itihas
8- Pandey, B.D, 1937, new edition (1990), Kumaon ka Itihas
9- Pandey, Ram Niwas, 1997, Making of Modern Nepal, page 170
10-Rawat, Ajay S., 19 Garhwal Himalayas: A Study in Historical Perspective 
11-Satyankritan, Rahul, Garhwal
11A-Saklani, Dinesh Prasad, 1998, Ancient Communities of The Himalayas
11B- Tripathi, Ramdatt , Katyur ka Itihas
 12-Notes on Archeological Aspects of Uttarakhand: ascidehraduncircle.in/uttrakhand.html
13-Indian Archeology: A review, (edited by D. Mitra) 1979-80
14- Epigraphia  Indica 1982, Vol. XIII

Xxx                              xxx
Notes on Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of North India of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Himalayan region of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Central Himalaya of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Uttarakhand of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Garhwal of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Badrinath valley Garhwal of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Neeti valley Garhwal of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Yamunotri valley Garhwal of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Ganga valley Garhwal of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Bhilangan Garhwal of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History of Katyuri Kings of Tons valley Garhwal of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of eastern Nayar valley Garhwal of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Hinval Garhwal of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Malini valley Garhwal of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Kumaon  of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Bhabhar Kumaon  of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Munsyaari valley Kumaon  of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Kali Gandki valley Kumaon  of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Dhauli Ganga valley Kumaon  of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Gauri ganga valley Kumaon  of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Shary valley Kumaon  of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Kutti valley Kumaon  of 8th -9th Centuries; Indian Medieval History  of Katyuri Kings of Ramganga Garhwal  Kumaon  of 8th -9th Centuries;

 

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