Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 175025 times)

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Our Senior Member Mr Bhishma Kukreti ji will be posting here History of Uttarakhand i.e. both Kumaon & Garhwal Region.
 
Uttarakhand of Prehistoric Age 
   

History of Uttarakhand- Part 1
                                                   Bhishma Kukreti
[Notes on Prehistoric Age; Uttarakhand inPrehistoric Age; Garhwal inPrehistoric Age; Kumaun inPrehistoric Age; Pauri Garhwal inPrehistoric Age; Tihri Garhwal inPrehistoric Age; Uttarkashi inPrehistoric Age; Rudra Prayag inPrehistoric Age;  Chamoli inPrehistoric Age; Dehradun inPrehistoric Age; Haridwar inPrehistoric Age; Pithauragarh inPrehistoric Age; Bageshwar inPrehistoric Age; Champavat inPrehistoric Age; Almora inPrehistoric Age; Nainital inPrehistoric Age; Bhabhar inPrehistoric Age;  Udham Singh Nagar inPrehistoric Age]
                                                                                                                                                   
    The Stone Age (second stage of ice age) started from Egypt before six lakhs years back.  There are evidences of human society in Himalaya including Uttarakhand in Stone Age (Dabral).
  Stone Age is divided into three ages
1-Palaeolithic Age
2-Mesolithic Age
3- Neolithic Age 
                                           Paleolithic Age                           
                     There are evidences that there were human beings settlements from Kashmir to other parts of Himalayas including Uttarakhand (Rasoul Sorkhabi, 2003). The Paleolithic Age man used to kill animals for its food and the evidences are found in Bahadarabad , Haridwar( Dabral). The same evidences are found in Pindighep (Punjab), Singroli, Son river basin, Shivalik shrines.  Dr Dabral informed a couple of evidences of Stone Age humans in Uttarakhand found in Tal north to Rishikesh.
  It is believed that Human societies of Stone Age came to Uttarakhand via Kashmir and Punjab from west and those were named as son Human (Son river inhabitants).
                                            Tools of Paleolithic Age humans in Uttarakhand
  The Son Humans used to carve the river bank big round stones/pebble cores. The human being invented stone choppers in this age. Later on human beings carved big round stone into scrappers. The scraps found near Hardwar (Gangadwar) are having similarities with the scrappers found in Son valleys.
 The human beings inhabitants of Gangadwar (Hardwar) invented Gandas type of stone tool to cut meat, roots and plants. The front of stone Gandas is very sharp as saw /awl and the back or head is solid round as the head of hammer. It may be possible that with the help of stone tool the Stone Age human used to make wood tools from wood and bones.
                               The life of Paleolithic Age humans in Uttarakhand
  The   Paleolithic Age human beings used to hunt animals and fish and used to use plants, roots, legumes, leaves, buds, fruits as their food. The human beings were roamer and used to live near water sources in colonies. They also used to use caves for living. It is also guess that humans used to sleep on tress for protection from wild animals.
 The humans of Paleolithic Age did not know to keep fire or uses of fire.
 The society used to leave the dead bodies as it is as there were no ritual systems for dead bodies or if rituals were there the rituals or beliefs were different than our imagination.
                                 
 
References
Auden J.B., 1937, The Structure of the Himalayas in Garhwal, GSI journal
Valdiya K.S, 9198, Dynamic Himalaya, University Press
Dabral, Shivprasad, 1968, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, India
Rasoul Sorkhabi, 2003, The making of Himalayas and Humans, The Himalayan Journals
Notes on Prehistoric Age; Uttarakhand inPrehistoric Age; Garhwal inPrehistoric Age; Kumaun inPrehistoric Age; Pauri Garhwal inPrehistoric Age; Tihri Garhwal inPrehistoric Age; Uttarkashi inPrehistoric Age; Rudra Prayag inPrehistoric Age;  Chamoli inPrehistoric Age; Dehradun inPrehistoric Age; Haridwar inPrehistoric Age; Pithauragarh inPrehistoric Age; Bageshwar inPrehistoric Age; Champavat inPrehistoric Age; Almora inPrehistoric Age; Nainital inPrehistoric Age; Bhabhar inPrehistoric Age;  Udham Singh Nagar inPrehistoric Age to be continued…
---------------

M S Mehta


Bhishma Kukreti

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              Uttarakhand of Mesolithic Age

History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 2
                                                   Bhishma Kukreti
[Notes on Uttarakhand in Mesolithic Age; Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Pauri Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Tihri Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Chamoli Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Rudra Prayag Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Uttarkashi Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Dehradun Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Haridwar/Hardwar Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Pithauragarh Kumaon in Mesolithic Age; Almora Kumaon in Mesolithic Age; Bageshwar Kumaon in Mesolithic Age; Champavat Kumaon in Mesolithic Age; Nainital Kumaon in Mesolithic Age; Ranikhet Kumaon in Mesolithic Age; Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon in Mesolithic Age]

                 Mesolithic Age means middle Stone Age and is synonym of  Epipaleolithic Age (Outside North Europe) . The age of Mesolithic Age is guessed around 100000 to 30000 BCE in Indian subcontinent.  There are advancements in the culture of Humans of Paleolithic Age. The stone, wood and bone tools of Mesolithic Age were more sharper, artful and less weight than tools of Paleolithic Age.  The other materials were used for stone tools are organic materials as skin, bone, antler and wood.
              There were main three types of Pygmy tools with Mesolithic Age human race – Blades, Scrapers and projectile points. These tools were used for hunting, scraping and protection by Mesolithic Age human beings.
  The animal skins were used for body protection and water carrier or carrying other materials.
The tradition of Flint tools also started in this Mesolithic Age and the flint tools became the medium of fire generation too. The human beings used to stay in caves, temporary huts. Hunting was main characteristics of Mesolithic Age human race.
          Dr Dabral states that the Samdhi for dead body also started in this age and people also started believing on new birth after death.
  The sign of Mesolithic Age in Uttarakhand were found by Dr Yagya Datt Sharma near Bahadarabad (Gangadwar or Haridwar).  In India, the Mesolithic Age human societies were in Hyderabad, Gujrat, Kathiyavad, Central India, Chhota Nagpur and Punjab.
References:
Dr Shivprasad Dabral, 1968 Uttarakhand ka Itihas, Veergatha Dogadda, India
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 4/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part 3
Notes on Uttarakhand in Mesolithic Age; Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Pauri Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Tihri Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Chamoli Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Rudra Prayag Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Uttarkashi Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Dehradun Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Haridwar/Hardwar Garhwal in Mesolithic Age; Pithauragarh Kumaon in Mesolithic Age; Almora Kumaon in Mesolithic Age; Bageshwar Kumaon in Mesolithic Age; Champavat Kumaon in Mesolithic Age; Nainital Kumaon in Mesolithic Age; Ranikhet Kumaon in Mesolithic Age; Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon in Mesolithic Ageto be continued.

Bhishma Kukreti

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                       Human societies in Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age   

History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part 3
                                                   Bhishma Kukreti
[Notes on Human societies in Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Rudra Prayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age;  Human societies in Haridwar/Hardwar Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age;  Human societies in Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age;  Human societies in Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand  in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Champavat Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age;  Human societies in Pithauragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age]
                       General Characteristics of Neolithic Age
Time- 10200 to 2000 BC
Sites found:  Many sites of Neolithic age are found in Gobekli (Turkey), Levant (Palestine etc), Alepo, Baluchistan, Pakistan, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Gujarat, and  Kumaun etc of India Ganj Daren of Iran, Padan Lin of Burma, China and many parts of Africa, Europe.
 The Neolithic age represents pre-beginning of farming, domestication of animals as dog and sheep. Many scholars state that the domestication of animals started from mountains of Abecinia, Yamane, Anatolia, Afghanistan, and Himalayan belt of Kashmir to Nepal. Though all the characteristics of Neolitic Age were not found where the human settlements were in this era.
 The tools as bracelets, axes, axe heads, polishing tools, and chisels of Neolithic Age are evidences that the human societies progressed from Mesolithic Age. 
  Fig is supposed to be first cultivation by human beings of Neolithic Age that opens the agriculture revolution. In later stage the there are evidences of cultivation of bananas, pears, grapes, pomegranate from Kashmir to Nepal.
  Huts constructions by rectangular mud bricks/grass are also characteristics of Neolithic Age. Many researchers state that well building was also found in some cases.
   Cross fertilization among various societies was also there in this age. The most humans were hunters and roamers.
Potteries were also common in this age.
  Burials and Phallic and Fertility cults were also found in this age
                    Human societies in Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age
                      Haridwar and Bhabhar
Gnagadwar (Haridwar) and Bhabhar: Dr Dabral states that there were societies in areas of Haridwar and Bhabhar regions.
                             Pandukuli, Almora
  Dr Dabral provides the example of A Circle built by Rock Stones Pandukula shrine of human societies in Uttarakhand. The rock stone circle is of eight feet of diameter. There is worship place too into circle.
 There are carving of Phallic (ling) , sun and moon on the rock stone  in Chandeshwar , Uttarakhand , India. These rock stones are of five to six feet.  Dr Dabral reveals that there are evidences of burial system and these are symbols of the human of Neolithic Age started believing on life after death.
 Janak Lal Sharma (1969) provides evidences tools of Neolithic Age found in Nepal that provides enough evidences for human societies in Mid Himalayas (Uttarakhand and Nepal).  K.P. Nautiyal, Pradeep Saklani and Vinod Nautiyal (History of Agriculture in India, edited by Vinod Chandra Shrivastava, 1982) state that the sites of Ranihat and Purola (Garhwal) are of prehistoric age.
References:
Dr Shivprasad Dabral, 1968 Uttarakhand ka Itihas-2, Veergatha Dogadda, India
Peter Bellwood, 2004, First Farmers
Greame Barker, 2009, The Agriculture in Prehistory 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 5/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part 4
Notes on Human societies in Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Rudra Prayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age;  Human societies in Haridwar/Hardwar Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age;  Human societies in Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age;  Human societies in Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand  in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Bageshwar  Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age; Human societies in Champavat Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age;  Human societies in Pithauragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Neolithic Age to be continued….

Bhishma Kukreti

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                Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age

History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -4

                                                   Bhishma Kukreti

[Notes on History of Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Rudra Prayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Tihri Garhwal Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Haridwar/Hardwar Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Nainital Kumaun, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Bageshwar Kumaun, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Pithauragarh Kumaun, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age]
                General Characteristics of Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age

           It is not better practice to divide ages by exact date. However, the Stone Age was succeeded by copper age, Bronze Age and iron age (Metal age). Metal age started by 6 to 7 thousands year back.
                                                        Copper Age
          Around 2000 years of Metal Age man lived in Copper Age. At the copper Age men used stone and copper tools. This is the reason that age is also named as Chalcolithic Age too.
           Man developed wheel, boat, potter wheel, bullock carts in the Copper Age.
  The Chalcolithic age also brought the birth of specialist and special class (Varn).
                                                     Bronze Age
     Time Span: 4000-2000 B.C.
At the end of copper age, men knew to mixing of tin and copper metals for making Bronze.
 Human societies started building canals or water reservoirs in the Bronze Age. 
 Irrigation, complex societies, urban centers, army, laws, trade, payment, records of trade came in existence in Bronze Age.
                                                       Iron Age
    Time Span: 1500-1200BC
  The man invented steel and plastic in Iron Age.       
                                         Major Civilization of Metal Age                                                                       
 Tigris Euphrates River Valleys, Nile River Valley and Indus Valley civilizations are major civilizations of Metal Era. Other civilizations as Majiyao, Amoirte kingdom, emergence of Zoroastrians civilization, are well studied civilizations.  The burial and cremation were improved. Religious rituals came in existence. Writing came in existence. The well planned arm battles also started in this age. Spurting of Chinese and Vedic literature are again the spectacular images of metal Age.
                            Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age
   The studies and writings of Dabral, Vinod Nautiyal, K.P Nautiyal, Mathpal, Jeewan Kharkwal, Saklani, and Joshi suggest that the societies were flourishing in Garhwal-Kumaun (Uttarakhand, Himalayas India). There were mines of iron, copper in Garhwal and Kumaun. Today, the signs of metal mines in Dhanpur, Dobri, Pokhari (Garhwal) and Gangoli, Seera, Athgaon (Kumaon) speak that metallurgies was common in Garhwal and Kumaon (Uttarakhand ). The Parshu, knives, spears, harpoon, rings were found in Bahdarabad ruins that proof the civilizations in Garhwal and Kumaun in Metal Age. Near Bahdarabad ruins, historians found mud pots. Art making and improving human life was the main characteristics of this age.
  Mahabharata states that the iron smith or metal smiths of Uttarakhand used to smelt ores and used to export metal appliances/tool to plains of Jamboodweep(India). Rahul  Sankrityayan  reports that the Iron Pillar of Delhi  (1500 years back)was made by craftsmen of Uttarakhand and by iron smelted in Uttarakhand.  It seems the craftsmen of Uttarakhand used to supply iron appliances to Kaurvas-Pandavas.
References:
Dr Shivprasad Dabral, 1968 Uttarakhand ka Itihas-2, Veergatha Dogadda, India
Trigger, Bruce C, 1996, A History of Archeological Thoughts,
Pandey,Gaya, 2010, Biocultural Evolution (page 114)
Agarwal, D.P. , J.S .Kharakwal, 1998, Central Himalayas: an archeological , linguistic and Cultural Synthesis (pages9 and 152)
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of Himalayas (page 135)
Mahesh Prasad Joshi, 1990, Uttaranchal (Kumaun and Garhwal) Himalayas: an essay in historical anthropology (page 15)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 5/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part 4
Commentary  on History of Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Rudra Prayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Tihri Garhwal Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Haridwar/Hardwar Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Nainital Kumaun, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Bageshwar Kumaun, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age; History of Pithauragarh Kumaun, Uttarakhand in Metal (Copper, Bronze and Iron) Age to be continued…

Bhishma Kukreti

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                      Ancient Communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas
History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -5
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-1

                                                   Bhishma Kukreti
    [Notes on Ancient Communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Udham singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Almora Kumaon,(Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of  Champavat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Pithauragarh ,Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Tihri, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas;  Ancient Communities of Chamoli, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Rudraprayag, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Uttarkashi, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Dehradun, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Haridwar/Hardwar , Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas]       
                   
          The Himalayas has its own peculiarity that there are landslides every year. Hence, there are less archeological evidences in Himalayas about ancient communities of Uttarakhand. However, the old Sanskrit classics as Mahabharata, Ramayana and Purans provide many details of geography and history of Uttarakhand in ancient time. There are descriptions of communities as Rakshas, Asur, Sur, Nar, yaksha, Kinnar etc in the above cited Sanskrit classics.
  Dr Dabral supports the division of inhabitants of Uttarakhand by B.S. Guha on the basis of genes and Saklani, et al, supports the suggestion by B.S. Guha . The discussion states that the following communities came to uttrakhand from prehistoric time to end of metal age. 
1-Negrito (Nishad-
 2-Proto Australoid (Kol Mund, Shabar)
3-Palaeo Mongloid (keer, kirat, Tharu)
4-Tibeto Mongloid (Bhotiya, Tibtee )
5-Paleo-Mediterranean (Adim Rom Sgariya)
6-Mediterrian (rom sagariya)
7-Oreintal type (Prachy)
8-Armanoid (Darda etc)
9-Alpanoid (Khas, Kush, Kashi etc)
10-Dinaric (Shak etc)
11-Nordic (Vedic Arya)
                           1-Negrito (Nishad)
Negrito (Nishad); though there origin goes to Africa but there main inhabitant centers have been South East Asia. Dr Dabral , Saklani; Naval, Ansar and Viyogi; Trivedi state that initially Negrito communities entered to Uttarakhand and Dabral points out that there are still some characteristics found in some communities of Garhwal and Kumauni that proves that Negrito (Nishad) community was there once in Uttarakhand in metal age or earlier. It seems when Kol-Mund community became powerful in Uttarakhand this community became part of new communities Kol-Mund.
  2-Paleo-Mediterranean (Adim Rom Sgariya )and -Mediterrian (rom sagariya)
 These inhabitants also entered into Uttarakhand and they became part of kol, Mund communities.




References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 5/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -6
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…2
Notes on Ancient Communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Udham singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Almora Kumaon,(Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of  Champavat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Pithauragarh ,Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Tihri, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas;  Ancient Communities of Chamoli, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Rudraprayag, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Uttarkashi, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Dehradun, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient Communities of Haridwar/Hardwar , Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas to be continued…


Bhishma Kukreti

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                     Ancient Communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas -2
History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -6
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-2

                                                   Bhishma Kukreti
[Notes on Ancient History of Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Nainital Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Bageshwar Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Champawat Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Pithauragarh , Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Almora, Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Haridwar/Hardwar, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Pauri Garhwal , Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Chamoli Garhwal , Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Rudraprayag Garhwal , Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of  Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas]
           Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) communities in Uttarakhand
         Proto-Australoids are a hypothetical group of ancient hunting people originated in Sahara Africa. Around 65000 years back the migration started from Sahara, Africa. It is believed that Proto-Australoids developed the last Metal Age in ancient Uttarakhand.
  There are mentions of कोल, मुंड और शबर in Mahbharata (Bhishm Parv 56/9). The historians cant guess the exact timing of entry of Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) in Uttarakhand. However, it is sure that there were Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर) in Uttarakhand before Aryans, Dravidians and Kirats came to Uttarakhand.  It is believed that when Kirat entered into Uttarakhand the Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) of ancient  Uttarakhand became the slaves of Kirats and became part of Kirat culture. Some Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर) communities of ancient Uttarakhand migrated towards north and a quite a few signs of languages, rituals and socials rules of present Kiratiyans of Bhotantik regions of Garhwal-Kumaun  are proof that there were Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर) in Garhwal -Kumaun .  Byangsi, Chaudangsi , Dar,iya, Rangkash languages of Bhotiya regions  (Tibet border) of Uttarakhand are the proof that there were Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर) before Kirat ,Aryans came to Uttarakhand as the words of Kol -Mundlanguages found Byangsi, Chaudangsi , Dar,iya, Rangkash languages.
                    The Kolish Affix and Suffix in Garhwali and Kumauni languages
  There are words in Garhwali and Kumauni languages where there are Kolish suffix and affix as ‘Gad=with water, Kol as
Name of Rivulets in Garhwal-Kumaun: Gulargad, Gweelgaad, Silgad, Mandulgad
The da, ta, gads are suffix of Kol languages and Alknanda, Jalaknanda, Sharda Rivers are examples of influences of  Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) culture.
The village names Amgadi, Dugadda, Bad, Badoli, Badyun; Barmoli, Birkaganv, Bilkhet, Birta are another examples the proof of Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) living in Uttarakhand in ancient time.
 The Ta’Thya, Tya suffix on words are the symbol of Kol languages. There are words with suffix tya, ta, tha, thya etc as Fulta, Solta, Kolta, folti etc in Kumauni and Garhwali languages that suggest the existence of Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) culture in ancient time in Uttarakhand.
The words as ळ , ऴ , ळा , ळि , ळी , ळु , ऌ, ळे , ळै abundantly  in Garhwali and in some parts of Kumauni also direct the historians that there were Kol and Dravidyans in Garhwal and Kumaun.
  The words Dom or Dom prefix/suffix in many names in Garhwal and Kumaun also indicate the existence of Kol-Mund in the regions.
                 Contribution of Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) communities in Uttarakhand
The Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) communities invented agriculture and invented agricultural appliances as Kudal, Kooti. Contour types of fields are invented by Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) communities in Uttarakhand. Fruit plantation is also started by Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) communities in Uttarakhand
Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) communities also domesticated many wild animals and birds. The communities also experimented wild plants for use of food or medicines.
The Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) communities started astronomy Nakstr Vigyan researches and provide many words on astronomy and astrology as raka, Kahu etc.
            Social Culture of Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) communities             
  The social structure of Kol-Mund was primitive and used to believe in love before marriage or divorcing. The present culture of making Rambang, Hambaghar in Bhotiya regions of Uttarakhand are signs of social culture of Kol Mund culture.
   Burial was common in The Proto-Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) communities.
The deities were given signs of donkey, Bull, eagle, heroin, dog, buffalo, peacock, elephant, lion etc and still these deities are worshipped by Hindus.
  To please deities and god the Kol-Mund used to sacrifice lives of animals.
Using rice, turmeric, sindur at the time of rituals started by Australoids (कोल, मुंड और शबर ) communities.
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 5/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -7
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…3
Notes on Ancient History of Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Nainital Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Bageshwar Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Champawat Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Pithauragarh , Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Almora, Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Haridwar/Hardwar, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Pauri Garhwal , Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Chamoli Garhwal , Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Rudraprayag Garhwal , Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of  Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Himalayas; Ancient History of Kumaun,  Uttarakhand, Himalayas to be continued…..

Bhishma Kukreti

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                       Mongolian Kirat culture in Garhwal Kumaon (Uttarakhand)
History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -7
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-3
[Notes on Mongolian Kirat culture in Garhwal Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Pithauragarh Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Bageshwar Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Champawat Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Almora Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Nainital Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Gangotri Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Yamuna Valley Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Bhilangna valley Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Tihri Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Uttarkashi Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Chamoli Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Rudraprayag  Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Pauri Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Haridwar/Hardwar Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Dehradun Garhwal  (Uttarakhand)]
                                                   Bhishma Kukreti
                    Kirat, Kirati, Kiranti ,  Kirant, kimpurush, Kinnar,  Keer, Chir or  Chilyat  are now indigenous ethnic groups of Mid Himalayas. Prototype Tibeto Burmans originated in Yellow River Basin around 10000- 30000 years back. They migrated to Himalayan belt via Assam, Burma, and Yunnan in ancient time. 
                      The historian as Dr. Dabral states that Tharu in Bhabhar regions, Mihir of Tarai and Gir, Ghirat of Kashmir /Kangda are descendent of Kirat. It is believed that Kirats invaded Garhwal –Kumaun 2500- 3000 BC. Kirats pushded Kol Mund people of Uttarakhand towards north –Tibet border or Kol Mund civilization merged with Kirat culture.
             There are abundant mentions of Kirat of Himalayas people in Vedic literature, Bajsaneh Samhita, Atharved, Shatpath, Shankhyayan, Jaimniy, Matsy Puran, Markendey Puran, Vayu Puran, Brahmand Puran literature. Kaalidas mentioned Kirat living in Kumaon, Garhwal, Nepal and Mansarovar in his literature. Rajikirat caste of Kumaon is descendent of Kirats. Same way,   Ghirat, Bogsa, Tharu, Mihir are called the descendent of Kirat civilization.       
  The Kirats were characterized by flat face, flat forehead, flat nose, less hair on face, yellow or whitish color, less height, very strong built.
 As far as Garhwal is concerned, Gangotri, Bhilangana valley and Yamuna valley were main centers of kirat civilization. The village names Kirkhu, Khirsu, Kirmana, Kirmola, Kirsiya are also indicate the prominence of Kirat civilization in Uttarakhand 3000 B.C.
  Kirat took many cultural symbols especially –Kantya, Dag, Bhoot prêt, Pitripret, Ghat etc from Kol Mund culture.
                                                Kirat Culture     
  Kirat of Uttarakhand were hunter, had domestic animals, were used blankets, the culture were aware of bear, dear, Kastura, bats, bugs, frog etc.
 The Kirats used to build cantors for farming in Uttarakhand.
The family relations oriented words were also developed by kirats –father, mother, grandfather, and grandmother etc.
              Kirat gifted the deities as Rudra, Bhairav and Ghantakarn deities to Indian culture. Aryan (vedic culture) were enemies of Kirat culture but in later stage as Veda named Rudra as Girishant, Giritra, Girish, Girichar, Girishay.  Kritivasa was one of the important deities of Kirat.
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Sluser, Mery 1982, Nepal Mandal
Hasrat 1977, on Kirat of Nepal
Moktan  ,Dupwangel Tamang , 1998 Book of Thu:Chen Thu: Jang

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 9/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -8
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…4
Comments  on Mongolian Kirat culture in Garhwal Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Pithauragarh Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Bageshwar Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Champawat Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Almora Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Nainital Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Gangotri Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Yamuna Valley Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Bhilangna valley Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Tihri Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Uttarkashi Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Chamoli Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Rudraprayag  Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Pauri Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Haridwar/Hardwar Garhwal  (Uttarakhand); Mongolian Kirat culture in Dehradun Garhwal  (Uttarakhand to be continued…

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Paleo-Mediterranean, Oriental type and Dravidian civilizations in Uttarakhand
History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -8
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-4
[Notes on Dravidian Civilizations in Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand;  Dravidian Civilizations in Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand;  Dravidian Civilizations in Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Hardwar /  Haridwar Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand;  Dravidian Civilizations in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon , Uttarakhand;  Dravidian Civilizations in Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Almora  Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Champawat  Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Dravidian Civilizations in Pithauragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand]                                   

                                                   Bhishma Kukreti
  Dr Dabral provides the references of Dr D.N Majumdar ‘s researches and mentions that Paleo-Mediterranean race came to India. Dr Dabral mentioned that there are signs of Paleo-Mediterranean and Oriental cultures in Uttarakhand at the time of Kol Mund culture. However, it is believed that this culture was merged with previous settlers and post settlers too.
                                                       Dravidian Communities in Uttarakhand
     Dr Dabral and other historians suggest that Dravidians also ruled once the Uttarakhand. Dravidians are Semitic group .They ruled Kols and slowly after the entry of Khas , the Dravidians became part of Khas culture.
  There are many signs of Dravidian culture in Uttarakhand that prove that Dravidian were there in Kol –Mund time and later on Khas time.
  The following words in Garhwali and Kumaoni languages are Dravidian origin as they are in same grammatical manners as Dravidian languages
गढ़वाली शब्द -कूड़ी , कोड़ी (मकान की ), चिकण , पोकि , पूठा 
गढ़वाली गाँव - कठुड़ , ककरूड़ा,  पठुड, रतोड़ा , अमोल्डा, अगरोड़ा, कफल्डी आदि
कुमाउनी गाँव - दिगतड़, लिखतड़, घिगतड़ आदि   
 The Uttar Mahabharata does not detail much as Dakshinatya Mahabharata provides much details of Uttarakhand.
  The Dravidians provided many innovative cultures to India. The worshiping of King as deity is Dravidian gift to human kind. The Dravidians used to build temple. Many oldest versions of folklores of India were influenced by Dravids.
 Worshiping on Asan, Pashupati, amphibious God (ardh Nareshwar) is initiated by Dravidians.
It is said that present Shilpkar race of Uttarakhand is descendent of Kol, Mund, Kirat , Dravid and Khas races.

References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 10/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -9
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…5
Notes on Dravidian Civilizations in Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand;  Dravidian Civilizations in Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand;  Dravidian Civilizations in Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Hardwar /  Haridwar Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand;  Dravidian Civilizations in Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon , Uttarakhand;  Dravidian Civilizations in Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Almora  Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Champawat  Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Dravidian Civilizations in Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand;  Dravidian Civilizations in Pithauragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued…

Bhishma Kukreti

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                Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Uttarakhand
History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -9
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-5
Western Brachycephal Races of Uttarakhand -1
[Historical Notes on Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Uttarakhand; Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Pithauragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Bageshwar, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Champawat, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Rudraprayag, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Haridwar /Hardwar Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand]
 
                                    Bhishma Kukreti
  Risley ,Eickstedt, Hutton, B.S Guha, Sarkar, D.N Majumdar and S.K.Chatterji  with little bit vibrations divided Western Brachycephal race ( Broad Headed) into following sub races
    A-Armenoid –दरद आदि
B-Alpanoid -खश  -काशि  जाति
C-Dinaric शक जाति
                                     Armenoid 
Dr Guha states that the original race of Armenoid been in Uttarakhand or nearby and in later stage has either vanished or merged with populated race. There is less differences between Armenoid and Dinaric is that Armenoid has darker pigmentation. Sanskrit classic as Mahabharata includes Armenoid among Shudras.
 According to D.c Sarkar, the Armenoid race was settled in Kashmir in old age. Today, from historian point of views, the Kohistan, Chitral, Kafirstan, Gilgit Kashmir region are called Armenoid region. The Darad language has total effects on development of Sindhi and Punjabi languages.  Since, there is an effect on Garhwali and Kumaoni languages it is definite that Armenoid race was there in Garhwal and Kumaon. However, Armenoid merged with Khash in later stage. In Mahabharata, there is mentions of existences of Armenoid –दरद and Alpanoid -खश  -काशि together.
किरातोराज्ञा विषय सुबाहो: पीनास्तुशारान  दरदांश्च
देशान कुलिन्द्स्य च भूमिरत्नान  (महाभारत , वन पर्व  117/ 11 , 12 )
क्रव्यादा: दरदा: दार्वा:                               महाभारत (सभापर्व 48/12)

 The above provides signal that may be in small groups or non dominating groups Armenoid lived in Mid Himalayas in ancient time.   
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
H.K Barpujari, 1990, The Comprehensive History of Assam (page 11)
Bindeshwar Prasad Sinha, 1974 The Comprehensive History of Bihar (Page-70)
Fisher, William B., 2003, The Middle East and Africa 
S.N Sen, 1999, Ancient Indian History and Civilization
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 10/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -10
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…6
Western Brachycephal Races of Uttarakhand to be continued…2
Historical Notes on Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Uttarakhand; Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Pithauragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Bageshwar, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Champawat, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Western Brachycephal Races of Ancient Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Rudraprayag, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Haridwar /Hardwar Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Western  Brachycephal Races of Ancient Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand


Bhishma Kukreti

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           Dinaric Race in Ancient Garhwal-Kumaon (Uttarakhand )
History of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand) - Part -10 
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas-6
Western Brachycephal Races of Uttarakhand -2 

                                       Bhishma Kukreti
  Dinaric (शक जाति ) people came to Uttarakhand after entry of Khas (Aplanoid) in Uttaranchal. The terms Dinaric comes from the Alps maintain Dinara the border of Bosnia, Croatia and Herzegovina (Balkan Peninsula). There are several theories about origin of Dinaric race. Gunthar and Coon claim that Bell -Beaker People of European Bronze Age were partially Dinaric. The characteristics of Dinaric people is described as very tall, mostly mesomorph bodily build, relatively long legs, short trunk , long arm span, head from brachycephalic to hyper brachycephalic. Dinaric race entered India though western part at various time and intervals.
               Patanjali described this race as Shak Yavan the inhabitants of Gabdik (Champba –Gaddi), Shaurya (Saunki valley of Kumaon) and Kraunch (Mana valley of Garhwal).
     The Dinaric women were very beautiful and the ancient writers claim that the beauty of Dinaric women was due to Dinaric race using garlic abundantly in their food (Bagbhatt- Ashtang Collection, Uttar,  A.49).  The historians marked them for ability with bow and arrow.
  Dinaric race was Sun God worshipper and the dress of Sun in their temples was as humans put on long skin robe and long boot in regions as Alps Europe. The Sun putting long robe or Sun with long boot in the Sun temples of Uttarakhand hint that Dinaric race was very much in Kashmir, Himachal and Uttarakhand.
                             Dr Dabral mentions the following Sun temples of Uttarakhand those are different than Aryan Sun temples and Sun is putting dress as of Dinaric Sun God. The old time Sun temples of Garhwal and Kumaon remind the influence of Dinaric race on Khas and Katyuri races of Uttarakhand.
   Place in Uttarakhand ----------------Patti -----------------------Deity Name
Katarmal -------------------------------Kumaon --------------------Sun with long boot
Belar (Bel) ------------------------------Gangoli ---------------------Adityaa
Prabhai (Bel) --------------------------Gangoli ------------------ Aditya
Ramak --------------------------------- (Mahar , Kali Kumaun) ----------Aditya
Naini ------------------------------------ ( Lakhanpur, Chaugarkha) --------------Aditya
Jageshwar -----------------------------------------------------------------------Adity
Joshimath -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Surya Narayan
 Before Dinaric race came to Mid Himalayas, the Khas or Alpanoid race was ruling the region and ultimately Dinaric race merged with Alpanoid race
References and Further Reading Suggestions:
Badri Datt Pandey, 1937, Kumaun ka Itihas, (second edition.) Shyam Prakashan, Almora (page 155-179)
Dabral, Shiv Prasad, 1968, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-2, (pages117 to321), Veer Gath Press, Dogadda, India
Dinesh Prasad Saklani, 1998, Ancient Communities of the Himalayas
D.D Sharma, 2009, Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Hari Krishna Raturi, 1921, Garhwal ka Itihas
Jagdish Bahadur , 2003 Indian Himalayas
Dr. Naval  Viyogi, Professor M A Ansari, 2010  History of the Later Harappans and Shilpkara Movement (two volumes) Kalpaz Publication, Delhi, India
H.K Barpujari, 1990, The Comprehensive History of Assam (page 11)
Bindeshwar Prasad Sinha, 1974 The Comprehensive History of Bihar (Page-70)
Fisher, William B., 2003, The Middle East and Africa 
S.N Sen, 1999, Ancient Indian History and Civilization
Carleton Stevens Coon, 1962, The Origin of Race
C.S. Coon, The Races of Europe
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti 10/4/2013
(The write up is for general readers and may not be properly suitable for history research scholars)
History of Garhwal –Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to be continued… Part -11
Ancient communities of Kumaon-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), Himalayas- to be continued…7
Western Brachycephal Races of Uttarakhand to be continued…3
Historical Notes on Dinaric Race in Ancient Uttarakhand; Dinaric Race in Ancient Haridwar, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dinaric Race in Ancient Dehradun, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dinaric Race in Ancient  Uttarkashi, Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dinaric Race in Ancient Tihri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dinaric Race in Chamoli Ancient Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dinaric Race in Ancient Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Dinaric Race in Ancient PitharuraGarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Dinaric Race in Ancient Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Dinaric Race in Ancient Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Dinaric Race in Ancient Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Dinaric Race in Ancient Nainital, Kumaon, Uttarakhand; Dinaric Race in Ancient  Udham Singh Nagr Kumaon, Uttarakhand to be continued….






 

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