Author Topic: History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD) -कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )  (Read 68332 times)

Hisalu

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Great going sir.... I am following posts under this topic

Bhishma Kukreti

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Katyuri were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Kumaoni Middle Age Kings
                                Or    
 Popularity of Katyuri Kings in Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Kumaoni Middle Age Period

   (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790)

History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 145
 

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                      War with Tillu Rauteli
  The Garhwali folklore state that the heirs of Veerdev Katyuri of Bhikiyasain, or Pali Pachaun used to flanked and loot in eastern Garhwal. The Gdhpati of est Garhwal also used to lot in western Kumaon. Bindua Kaintura attacked or flanked on Chandkot. Two brothers –Bhagat and Partwa of Gurad village of Chaundkot fought with bravery with Vidva Kaintura. Vidua Kaintura had to flee. There were forty two (42) injuries on bodies of Bhagt and Partwa. The chieftains of Chandkot rewarded forty two villages to brave Bhagat and Partwa.
  Tillu Rauteli killed Vidua Kaintura in Takoli at Kanda festival time. There were battles between Kainturas (Katyuri chieftains) and Tillu Rauteli the daughter of Garhwal region. The battles took place in Sarainkhet and Khairagarh. Jeetu Kaintura was killed. Deceptively, Tillu Rauteli and her aid Shiv Pokhariyal were killed by Kainturas. Such battles were common in those times.


Popularity of Katyuri Kings in Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Kumaoni Middle Age Period
  The Katyuri kings of Kumaoni (Himalayan, Indian) middle age were very popular. 
                    In fourteenth century, different Katyuri families were ruling independently in Doti (today’s Nepal), Askot ,Pali  Pachaun and in different smaller regions. The folklores describe the Katyuri Thakurai (rule of chieftains) of Bairat, Lakhanpur, Ranchulihat, and Khimsarihat. There are tens of folklores available tilld ate in Doti-Nepal, Kumaon and Garhwal. Many Rajput families perform Ghadyal religious rituals of Kaintura (Katyur) in all the regions of old Uttarakhand. Dhamdev is family deity of many castes. Mostly, the folklores show Katyuri-Chand battles and in all the stories Katyuri king or chieftain wins.
  The folklores describe Katyuri kings as wealthy, industrious, prosperous, brave and unwinnable kings or chieftains. However, the same folklores describe Chand kings as cruel, angry, transgressing, improper conduct kings and cowered who run away from battles.
           The post Kartikeyapur Katyuri kings were having less resource but were people oriented and used to shelter to scholars, Brahmins, brave, craftsmen, and army men. Due to providing shelters to army men of different regions, Katyuri got set back as those army men establish their own rules too.

            The Katyuri kings and their elites built many temples, Dharmashala, or repair them. The Katyuri kings facilitated basic facilities to religious tourists of Uttarakhand.  Though, there was uncertainty in plains from Muslim kings and invaders and there was fear from Tibetan army or looters, the pilgrims used to visit Uttarakhand in mass because safety I Uttarakhand.  Piligrims used to visit Uttarakhand from Nepal, Himachal Pradesh, Pilibhit (Ruhelkhand, ) , Bijnor, Haridwar and Saharanpur.
         The post Kartikeyapur (Joshimath) Katyuri kings built famous temples as Baijnath, Dwarhat, Bageshwar, Jageshwar, Kattarmall, Rameshwar etc.
              The sculptures of Shiv, Lakshmi, devi, Vishnu, Durga, Garud, hanuman, Surya, Ganga Jamuna, show that the Katyuri kings were secular. The Buddhists and Jain were also safe in Katyuri kingdom. The Buddhists and Jain built their worshipping temples in Uttarakhand in Katyuri rule without any resistance.
 Purushottam Singh was Buddhist and he built Gandhkuti in Bodhagya.
            Shiv worshipping among people was more common than other deity worshipping. Nath sect was also common in this period (1000-1490). Satynath sect of Nathapanth helped Panwar kingdom in Garhwal and Chand Kings in Kumaon.
  The Katyuri kings were tolerant to various religious faiths.
 Many Kumaoni, Garhwali and Nepali families have their family deities of brave soldiers of Katyuri kings.
            The Katyuri kings were the popular most kings in the history of western Nepal (Doti), Kumaon, Garhwal and Haridwar.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 17/9/2013
References-
Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -146
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Karvipur Katyuri to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx                       xxx
Notes on Katyuri kings were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Kumaoni Middle Age Kings; Katyuri kings were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Pithoragarh Kumaoni Middle Age Kings; Katyuri were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Almora -Kumaoni Middle Age Kings; Katyuri were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Bageshwar Kumaoni Middle Age Kings; Katyuri were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Champawat -Kumaoni Middle Age Kings; Katyuri were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Nainital Kumaoni Middle Age Kings; Katyuri were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Udham Singh Nagar Kumaoni Middle Age Kings; Katyuri were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Doti Nepal  Middle Age Kings; Katyuri were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Bairat -Kumaoni Middle Age Kings; Katyuri were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Khimsarhat-Kumaoni Middle Age Kings; Katyuri were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Lakhanpur -Kumaoni Middle Age Kings; Katyuri were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, and Ranchulihat Kumaoni Middle Age Kings; Katyuri were most Popular Indian Medieval, Himalayan Medieval, andJageshwar  Kumaoni Middle Age Kings;

Bhishma Kukreti

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                  History of   Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon

               (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 146



                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                   Thor Chand was founder of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon


     Thorchand or Somchand was the founder of Chand dynasty rule on Kumaon.
         There are Harshadev Joshi’s information to William Frazer (1813), the informations supplied by migrated Kumaonis Kankanidhi –Premanidhi Tiwadri and Hariballabh Pande to Hamilton (1818) for knowing the details of Thorchand or Somchand.
              According to Harshdev’s information to William Frazer Thorchand the founder of Chand dynasty came from Jhunsi at the age 10 16-17 years. He ruled and after him his son, grandson and great grandson ruled a particular territory.  When the great grandson did not have family heir, the relative of Gyanchand was called from Jhunsi and was made the king of that territory.  Gyanchand was uncle of Thorchand.

       As per Tiwari and Lande information to Hamilton, Thorchand came from Jhunsi and did serve to Nepal chieftain. The said Nepali chieftain was chieftain under Karvipur Katyuri king. Jaichand was friend of Thorchand. Thorchand and Jaichand (plains) captured a portion of Katyuri kingdom and established his rule over Champawat, Kumaon.
    It seems that Thorchand came to western Nepal and started serving Krachalla. When Krachalla attacked regain power on Katyuri of Kumaon, Krachalla might have engaged Thorchand as his one of army chiefs and Thorchand would have shown the bravery in the attack. Thorchand established a small rule in Kandev hills under Krachalla.
  There is no name of Thorchand as Mandlik or regional governors of Krachalla. That shows that Krachalla might donate the territory to Thorchand as independent kingdom.
 
 There is a name of Vadyachandra a regional chieftain or governor of Krachalla in inscriptions list. According to folklores, Vadyachandra was cosine of Thorchandra. It is suggested in Dabral’s book that in 1223, Vinay Chandra was regional chieftain of Krachalla for Talla Mal territory and Vadyachandra was regional chieftains of Krachalla for Malla Mal. After death of Vinay Chandra, his son Thorchand got the territory in 1226. Since, Thorchand was always active in administration it is believed that Thorchand was founder of Chand dynasty and not Vinaychandra. 
 According to folklores, the first branch of Chand dynasty was founded by Thorchand and second branch of Chand dynasty was founded by Gyanchand the uncle of Thorchand.
 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 19/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -147
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx                       xxx
            Notes on History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Lohaghat, Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Bajkot Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kandev hills, Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Dhunaghat , Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Tanakpur, Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Swala  Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Padmapur, Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Sukhidhang, Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Chalthi, Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Dayuri, Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Khoral Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Devidhura, Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Chhira, Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Rithakhal, Champawat, Kumaon; History of Start of Chand Dynasty Rule in Lupra, Champawat, Kumaon;

Bhishma Kukreti

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            Was Somchand the founder of Chand Dynasty in Kumaon?

               (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 147

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
       
           Apart from Thorchand as founder of Chand Dynasty, there are other theories of founder of Chand dynasty in Kumaon.
 One of theory is that Somchand was the real founder of Chand dynasty.
 According to a folk sayings (collected by Atkinson, 1882), there were disturbances in Sui Garh due to old Raut rulers not accepting the rule of Baichhaldev Katyuri.   There was sour opposition between Katyuri ruler (who came because of defeat) and Raut Raja. The people were also divided in groups. It was decided that a third king should be called. Learned people brought a bright, brave person Somdev from Jhunsi near Allahabad. Somdev was from Chandra dynasty family of Kannauj. The scholars read his Janmpatri through astrological means and found that Somchand had fortune for becoming king.
Somchand was made king of Champawat.
 The logic does not support that Somchand was made king of Champawat as there were two Katyuri kings in the region.  Dr. Dabral states that the folk sayings do not have any base.
Another illogical story was spread at the beginning of British rule that Baichhaldev Katyuri king requested Somchand to settle in Champawat. Old, weak Katyuri king Baichhaldev donated land in Champawat and declared Somchand as chieftain or Raja of Champawat. According to illogical folk story, the timing of Somchand was 742 AD. In this period, the Katyuri capital was in Joshimath (today’s Garhwal) and not in Champawat (today’s Kumaon).
One story states that Vikram Singh Bora, Dharmsingh Bora, Mansingh Bora brought Somchand from Jhunsi. They arranged marriage of Somchand with a daughter of Katyuri Samant or commander.
Another folk saying states that Prince Somchand was son of Khadagsing the ruler of Kalinjar. In 1208, Somchand came to Kumaon with Sudhanidhi Chaube Subedar,Buddhi Singh Tdagi Diwan and twenty four other persons .
The illogical folk story states that Somchand  went to Badrinath with six Pundits, three Thakur,two Dhiwar, one barber, do chadi Bardar, one Panvari, two Khidmatdar, and one Chanvar-bardar.
Another folk story states that Somchand was from Khadagsingh family of Kalinjar and not from Jhunsi . There was rule of Gahadwal kings on Banaras and Kannauj from 1090-1226AD. These kings used to have name ending with Chandra.
 There is no sufficient proof that any time Somchand was ruler of Champawat. That means some interested people spread the imaginative folk sayings for getting some befits from British rulers.
There are inscriptional proofs those match with folk sayings that Singh rulers were there in Champawat from 1160-1223 AD.
There is no any temple, Nauli, chabutara before twelfth or thirteenth century that was built by any Chand chieftain/Thokdar or Gadhpati.
 Therefore it cannot be said that Somchand was the founder of Chand dynasty.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 20/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -148
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)


Bhishma Kukreti

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                   Lists of Chand Kings of Kumaon

               (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 148

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

             There are three lists of Chand dynasty kings of Kumaon available. Most of the three lists have similarities barring a couple of dissimilarities.
       The year of king rule is on Vikarmi Sanvat and not Shake. That clearly indicates that the lists were prepared in British rule. The lists also show the total numbers of years rule by each king.
A list of Chand dynasty kings of Kumaon –Pundit Rudra Datt Pant submitted ‘A’ list to Atkinson. There are slight differences between ‘A’ list and B-C list.
B list of Chand dynasty kings of Kumaon –The Chand king Bhim Singh in British time provided this ‘B’ list.
C list of Chand dynasty kings of Kumaon –Kumaon commissioner prepared ‘C’ list of Chand dynasty kings of Kumaon in 1849AD. The’ C’ list of Chand dynasty kings of Kumaon are based on list ‘B’.
          1-List of Chand Dynasty Kings from Somchand to Vinachand
The after Christ year is fifty seven years after Samvat . All years are samvat.
-----------A List Start Rule in Samvat  ----No. RuleYears--------B and C Lists -------Years---------Inscriptions
S.N. Name
1-Somchand-------------757 Samvat------------------21-----------------742 Samvat -------21-------------No
2-Atmachan------------778Sam-----------------------19--------------------763 sam------------7--------------No
3-Puranchand----------797 Sam ---------------------18---------------------770 Sam ------------18--------No
4-Indra Chand------------815--------------------------20----------------------788----------------10-----------No
5-Sansarchand------------835-------------------------35----------------------798-----------------18-------------No
6-Sudhachand-----------870----------------------------20-----------------------816-------------10-------------------No
7-Hammirchand---------890----------------------------23------------------------826--------------17------------------No
8-Veenchand---------------913--------------------------13---------------------------843-----------12-------------------No
 End of rule------------------926---------------------------------------------------------855--------------------------------------
                             Beer Chand to Nankichand
9-Veerchand-----------------1122------------------------15----------------------------1067---------13---------------No
10-Rupchand-----------------1137-----------------------13-----------------------------1080----------20----------------No
11-Lakshmichand-------------1150---------------------20----------------------------1100-----------8-----------------No
12-Dharamchnad--------------1170--------------------8------------------------------1108----------19-----------------No
13-Karamchand-----------------1178--------------------19----------------------------1127------------9---------------no
14-Kalyanchand--------------------1197----------------9-----------------------------1136--------------21-------------No
15-Nirbhaychand-------------------1206----------------21---------------------------1157-------------------7------------No
16-Narchand-------------------------1227----------------7------------------------------1164-----------18----------Three
17-Nanakichand-------------------1234-----------------18----------------------------1182-------------31------------No
     From Ramchand to Kalyanchand
---------------------------A List-------------------------------B List --------------------------C List --------------------
SN---------Name--------Samvat Start---No. years--------Samvat---------No yrs-------------Samvat-----No yrs
18-Ramchand------------1252--------------10----------------1213--------------7-------------------1192------21
19-Bhikhamchand---------1262----------21------------------1220---------------19----------------1213---------7
20-Meghchand--------------1283------------7-----------------1239--------------9-------------------1220---------19
21-Dhyanchand--------------1290-----------19-----------------1248-------------14-------------------1239---------1
22-Parvatchand---------------1309------------9------------------1262-----------21---------------------1240-------22
23-Thorchand------------------1318------------14--------------1283-------------7---------------------1262-----------21
24-Kalyanchand-------------------1332-----------21-------------1290-----------18---------------------1283-----------7
There are no inscriptions available for the above Kings

                 List in A from Trilokchand to Atmachand
SN-----------Name--------------Start of rule in Smavat------Years----------Inscription –Years in B and CList
25-Trilokichand-----------------1353---------------------------------7--------------No----------------------28
26-Damarchand-----------------1360--------------------------------18-------------No---------------------29
27-Dharamchand-----------------1378-------------------------------23-------------One---------------------30
28-Abhaychand---------------------1401-----------------------------30-------------One--------------------31
29-Garud Gyanchand---------------1431----------------------------45---------------Seven--------------25
30-Hariharchand-----------------------1476-----------------------------1---------------One-------------------26
31-Udyanchand-------------------------1477-----------------------------1------------------No ----------------26
32-Atmachand-------------------------1478-------------------------------1--------------------No-----------------27
 
                            Series in List and B List C
----------------------------Samvat in b------------Years-----------------Samvat in C-----------Years -------Inscriptions
25-Guru Gyanchand ------1308--------------------10-----------------1290---------------------18------------Seven
26-Udyanchand---------------1318------------------17----------------1308----------------------10------------No
27-Atmchand------------------1335--------------------8----------------1318---------------------17--------------No
28-Trilokichand-----------------1343-------------------7-------------------1335------------------15--------------No
29-Damarchand-------------------1350-----------------13------------------1350-------------------13-------------No
30-Dharamchand------------------1363-----------------17-------------------1363-------------------17------------One
31-Abhaychand---------------------1380-----------------11-------------------1380--------------------11------------One

               List of Chand Kings from Harichand to Rudrachand

SN in Lst A ----SN in List B &C-Name ---Smvat in A ---Years in A-----Samvat in B&C--Years---Inscriptions
33---------------32---------------Harichand-------1479--------1--------------1391---------19---------------one
34--------------33---------------Vikramchand-------1480-------14-----------1410-----------9---------------Two
35--------34---------------------Bhartichand--------------1494-----24-----------1419---------19-----------Seven
36--------35------------------Ratanchand-------------------1518-------27---------1438-------9-------------one
37--------36------------------Kiratichand-------------------1545-------15---------1447----------18----------Two
38--------37-------------------Pratabchand----------------1560--------14-----------1465----------10--------two
39--------38-----------------Tarachand--------------------1574------------16----------1475--------17---------No
40--------39----------------Manikchand--------------------1590------------9---------1492---------11--------No
41----------40-----------(Kali) Kalyanchand---------------1599--------------9----------1503-------18--------Five
42-----------41---------Punni/Puran/Fatehchand---------1608-----------4------------1521-------5-----------No
43-----------42-----------Bhikhamchand---------------------1612------------5------------1526--------26----------Four
44-----------43-------------Balo) Kalyanchand---------------1617-------------8-----------1552---------25--------one
45---------44------------Rudrachand--------------------------1625--------------29-----------1577--------30-------Nine
(Samvat 100 means AD 43 and Shake =178)

***Read Inscriptions List of Chand Kings of Kumaon in next chapter -----149


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 21/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -150
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Misconceptions and Falseness about Chand Dynasty Kings of Kumaon Lists provided by Chand People

 
               (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 149

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
 The lists provided by Chand people or their own servants to British administration are on false ground and not on logical grounds.

             Misconceptions for Somchand to Veenchand the Chand Dynasty Kings of Kumaon
 The list of kings from Somchand to Veenchand is false. It is said that Katyuri king donated land to Somchand (700-721) as son in law. However, there was not rule of Katyuri before 740AD.
The name Hammeer for a 7th Chand king (769-786 or 833-856) for the list for a mountainous king is also absurd because Hammeer name became popular in India only when in 1193, Muhammad Gauri carved Hammer name on his coins.  Kashmiri historian used Hammer in his book (1150).

             Misconceptions for Virchand to Parvatchand the Chand Dynasty Kings of Kumaon
 There are no logical evidences for the kings list from Virchand to Parvatchand the Chand kings of Kumaon.

 Chand Dynasty kings List from Inscriptions
 The study of inscriptions provide the following Chand Dynasty Kings of Kumaon-
                              Vinaychandra Family

SN----Name ---------------Base Inscription----------Approximate Rule Period by A &B—Atkinson’s view 
A & B =lists by B and A lists
1-Vinaychandra-----------------------1223 -------------------------1223-1226
2-Baghchandra (Vadyachandra)------1223-------------------------------1223-1233
3-Thorchandra--------------------------1226-1233------------------------1226-1233----------1361
4-Kalyanchandra----------------------1233-51----------------------------1233-1251
5-Trilokchandra---------------------------------------------------------------1251-1285
6-Nar (Damar)Chandra----------------1285/97/1321----------------------1285-1321
7-Jaychandra---------------------------1329------------------------------------1321-1337
8-Abhay (Abhvindra)Chandra------------1337-1367

                            Gyanchandra Family
SN----Name --------------------Base Inscription----------Approximate Rule Period—Atkinson’s view 
9-Gyanchandra(1st)--------------1367-1420-----------------1367—1420----------1374-1419
-Hariharchandra-------------------------1397 as prince----------------------------1419-1520
Bharatchandra---------------------------1382/97 as prince
10-Dhyan(Udyan) Chandra)------------1444------------------1420-142---------------1420-21
11-Harishchandra-------------------------1444--------------------1422-1423-------------1422-1423
 12-Vikramchandra--------------------1423/24/33/34-----------1423-1434------------1423-1437
Dharamchandra-----------------------as prince 1429?---------------------
  13-  Kali Kalyanchandra-----------------1433/68-----------------1434-1468-----------------------1542-1551

                      Bhartichandra Family
SN----Name -----------Base Inscription----------Approximate Rule Period—Atkinson’s view

14-Bhartichandra------------144-99----------1444-1455----------------------------1437-1450
Dhanyachandra -------------as prince 1455
15-Ratanchandra---------------1445-68-------------1455—68-------------------1450-1488
Harishchandra--------------prince 1461
Pratapchandra---------------prince-1461
16-Kiratichandra----------------1500-1505------------1499-1506-------------1488-1503
17-Pratapchandra-------------1510----------------------1506-1511-------------1503-1517
18-Bhishma (Vishnu) Chandra-------1511-1533-------1511-1559---------------1555-1560
19-Balo Kalaynchandra--------------1559-----------------1559-1565----------------1560-1565
20-Rudrachandra-------------------1565-1597------------1565-97----------------1565-97
21-Lakshmanchandra (lakshmi) ----1602,16------------1597-1621---------------1597-1621
22-Dilipchandra------------------------------------------------1621-24-------------------1621-24
23-Vijaychandra---------------1625----------------------------1624-25------------------1624-25
24-Trimallchandra----------------1616/18/30----------------1625-38---------------1625-38

              Bajbahadurchandra Family
25-Bajbahadurchandra-------------1640-75-----------------------1638-78---------------1638-78
26-Udyotchandra-------------------1678-91---------------------------1678-98------------1678-98
27-GyanchandraII----------------------1701/03-----------------------------1698-1708-------1698-1708
28-Jagatchandra --------------------1710-1718----------------------1708-20-------------------1708-20
29-Devichandra------------------------1722-26------------------------------1720-27--------------1720-1726
30-Ajitchandra-------------------------------1729-----------------------------1727-29--------------1726-29
31-Balo Kalyanchandra----------------------------------------------------------1729---------------------1729
32-Doti Kalayanchandra--------------------------1731-46----------------------1730-48------------1730-47
33-Deepchandra----------------------------1749-74--------------------------1748-77----------------1748-77
34-Mohanchandra first time---------------1777/78-------------------------1777-79----------------1777-79
35Pradyumnshah (Garhwali)-------------1781-1784----------------1779-86--------------------------1779-86
Mohanchandra second time------------1786-88---------------------1786-88---------------------------1786-88
36-Shivchandra---------------------------------------------------------------1788-------------------------------1788
37-Maheshchandra-------------------------------1789--------------------1788-90---------------------1788-90


The last word on names of Chanda dynasty king is Chandra.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 22/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -150
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx xxx
Notes on Misconceptions and Falseness about Chand Dynasty Kings of Kumaon of Medieval Himalayan ,  Indian Period; Misconceptions and Falseness about Chand Dynasty Kings of Pithoragarh, Kumaon of Medieval Himalayan ,  Indian Period; Misconceptions and Falseness about Chand Dynasty Kings of Champawat, Kumaon of Medieval Himalayan ,  Indian Period; Misconceptions and Falseness about Chand Dynasty Kings of Nainital Kumaon of Medieval Himalayan ,  Indian Period; Misconceptions and Falseness about Chand Dynasty Kings of Almora, Kumaon of Medieval Himalayan ,  Indian Period; Misconceptions and Falseness about Chand Dynasty Kings of Bageshwar  Kumaon of Medieval Himalayan ,  Indian Period; Misconceptions and Falseness about Chand Dynasty Kings of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon of Medieval Himalayan ,  Indian Period;

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Vinaya Chandra family Chand kings of Kumaon, Medieval Himalaya, India 

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 150

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                           Vinaya Chandra (1223-126 AD)

 The logical history suggests that Chand dynasty in Kumaon started from Vinaya Chandra, Bagh or Bhagchandra and Thorchandra. There was tendency to have names ending by Chandra/Chand in Kannauj Gaharwal vanshi kings from 1090-1226.
Around 1223-126, an ambitious, courageous solder came to Kumaon and worked under Krachalla. Later on, Thorchandra became governor or regional chieftain of Krachalla. However, the name of Thorchandra is not there in Krachalla list of Mandlik. There is name of Bagh Chandra or Bhag Chandra. It seems that Thorchand was son of Vinaya Chandra and Bagh Chandra was nephew of Vinaya Chandra. Most probably, Bag Chandra was chieftain of another territory. The folklore states that Bagchandra and Thorchandra were cosines.
                        Bagh Chandra
The inscription translation with Atkinson states that Badya Chandra was heir of Vinaya Chandra. However, there were some mistakes by Calcutta translator of inscriptions.  Therefore name must be Bagh or Bhag Chandra.   It seems that Bhagchand, Bachand, Bagh Chandra or Badyachandra are names of same king.

           Resurgence of Katyuri
 Katyuri also revived their power in Kumaon and Doti Nepal after death of Krachalla.

              Thorchandra (1226-1233 AD) and Bagh Chandra (1223-1233)
  Vinaya Chandra expired in 1226. His son Thorchandra was crowned on Talladesh-Mandal in 1226.Bhagchandra was ruler of Malldesh (Bhabar). There was amicable relationship between two cosines. 
 These Chand rulers were called now ‘raja’. These rulers were cruel and they increased taxes on the subject.
 It seems that the Chand rulers had Muslim Pathan soldiers and soldiers from plains too. There was influx of Hindu soldiers by profession from plains to take shelter in hills. The Chand rulers took them into their army and started ignoring indigenous force.

                         

                   Rule of Outsiders
                   The Singh rulers (Jay Singh and Khadak singh of Kali Kumaon) were outsiders as Chand rulers. Singh rulers did not provide due regards to Katyuri rulers, khasa rulers and local people. Singh and Chand rulers became friends against local rulers (Katyuri and Khasa).
Battle of Javadi Sera
  Since, Baghchandra could get soldiers from plains (both Muslim and Hindu), Thorchand and Baghchand started fighting with neighboring rulers. In a couple of cases, they got success.  Encouraged by primary success, Thorchand asked Brahmadev Katyuri the ruler of Sui (from Baicchaldev Katyuri family tree) to marry his daughter with him/ with Thorchand. Brahmadev Katyuri refused to marry his daughter with Thorchand. Thaorchandra-Baghchandra campaigned with the aid of Muslim and non Kumaoni soldiers for attacking Brahmdev Katyuri.
At Javadi sera, Khadagsingh and Thorchand camped for battling with Katyuri.
 Brahmadev and Dhamdev Katyuri were ready for such attacks from Chand rulers. The indigenous ruler Hyunraj and his brothers were with Katyuri Brahmadev.   Brahmadev and Dhamdev stopped the army of Thorchand-Baghchand at Javadi sera. Katyuri fought with power.
  It is said that Hyunraj beheaded Thorchand and Baghchndra and donated their heads to their Kuldevi Jhali-Mali temple.
            After Javadi Sera battle, there is no mention of Singh ruler either in history or in folklore.
The Chand family and supporters flee from hills to Bhabhar plains. Hyuraj raut raja captured Champwatkot that was under Singh family.
               Brothers of Thorchand –Bhirchand, Tarachand and Nirmalchand lured Belwals the Kulpurohit of Mahra (Hyunraj) ruler.  Belwals and Thorchand brothers strategized a conspiracy to kill Hyunraj Mahar or Raut Raja. Hyunraj came to know the conspiracy. Hyunraj killed all Belwals involved in conspiracy and burnt their hoses. The Belwal widows took poison with milk an died.
         It is believed that there was another battle in Javadi Sera in 1233AD.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 23/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -151
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx xxx
Notes on Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Doti, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Pithoragarh Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Champawat Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Bageshwar, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Almora, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Nainital, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, Himalaya; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, North India ; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, India ; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, SAARC Countries region; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, South Asia ; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, Oriental Continent;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Heirs of Thorchandra: The Chand d Kings of Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Meddle age period


(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 151

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                      Heirs of Thorchandra
 The ‘B’ list of Chand dynasty kings show that Thorchandra expired in 1233. The crowning date of his uncle Gyanchandra is 1367 AD as per inscriptions. That means there were 6 or 7 Chand kings between Thorchandra and Gyanchandra.  Dr Dabral provides following names by logical means.
                       Kalyanchandra (1233-1251)
           Nothing is known about Kalyanchandra barring the lists supplied by Chand people to British commissioner of Kumaon commissionaire   (Kumaon and British Garhwal). It seems Kalyanchandra was hell busy in improving Mal region (Bhabhar of Kumaon).

                               Triloki Chandra (1251-1285)
 Trilokichandra extended his rule in west up to certain part of Chhakhata.  Trilokichandra built a fort in Bhimtal (Nainital District) to protect western boundary. The fort was built to protect from rulers of Pali, Baramandal and Kathi.
The Chand kingdom at the time of Triloki Chandra was limited to Mal region only.


                      Narchandra or Damar Chandra (1285-1321AD)
  The inscriptions state that Narchandra the heir of Trilokichandra ruled from 1285-1321 AD. The ‘a’ list states Damar Chandra as heir of Trilikichandra. The ruling period of Trilokichandra in ‘A’ list is 1303-1321. That means Damar Chandra and Triloki Chandra is same person.
 The inscriptions of Narchandra were found in small temples of Chhanaya village and Gangnau village. It is sure that Narchandra was strong king and he extended Chand kingdom and recaptured Talla desh l region.
                                 Jay Chandra (1321-1337)
       
 The inscription of Jaycahandra or Jay Chandra of dated 1329 was found in a ruined temple in Baijnath.  There is mention of jay Chandra in lists provided by Chanda king people to Britishers.

                    Abhaya Chandra or Abhvind Chandra (1337-1367)

 In 1361, Abhayachandra or Abhaya Chandra captured Champawat Kot or fort from Raut Raja in 1361 and built a Vijaystambh or Winning Column.
 Abhaya Chandra captured Champawat fort. However, Dhyani Rau, Chaubhainsi, north of Champawat regions were under Raut Raja till 1410.
 It seems Abhaya Chandra did not have any son.
Gyanchandra was crowned after death of Abhaya Chandra
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 24/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -152
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx xxx
Notes on Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Doti, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Pithoragarh Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Champawat Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Bageshwar, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Almora, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Nainital, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Udham Singh Nagar, Kumaon; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, Himalaya; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, North India ; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, India ; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, SAARC Countries region; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, South Asia ; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Kumaon, Oriental Continent; Medieval/Middle age History of Chhakhata,  Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Bhimtal, Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Nal Damaynanti Tal, Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Sattal, Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Hidamba Parvat, Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Mal region, Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Pali region, Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Kathi region, Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Chhanaya village, Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Gangnau village Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Dhyani Rau Kumaon, Asia; Medieval/Middle age History of Chaubhainsi Kumaon, Asia;   

Bhishma Kukreti

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Gyanchandra: The Chand King of Champawat, Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Medieval Period Part -1

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 152

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

             Gyanchandra: The Chand King of Champawat (1367-1420)

 There are debates on Gyanchandra taking the crown of Chand dynasty after death of Abhaychandra. Dr Dabral proved that the ruling period of Gyanchandra is 1367-1420 AD.
 The inscription (inscription of Gyanchandra of Serakhadkot) suggests that Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand was heir of Abhaychandra.
 It is said that when Abhaychandra or Abhaya Chand died without any son, the heir of Thorchand uncle’s family Gyan Chand got the crown ship of Champawat.

                 Chand Kingdom Extension by Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand

   Though Abhaya Chand the predecessor of Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand captured Champawat Kot or fort from Raut Raja, Hyun Raj Raut family had rule over Dhyani Rau, Chaubhainsi regions.
         It seems that Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand won the Dhyani Rau or complete Doomkot region (Patti) from Raut king just before or in 1419. Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand handed over the area to his officer Nal Kathayat for administration (Raut is also called administration) in 1419.
 The inscriptions/copper inscriptions of Garudstambh of Raiganv, Baleshwar temple, Ashadh gaon, Dada gaon, Khetikhan, Gudamgal gaon and Champawat suggest that Vijaybrahm the ruler of Sor came under Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand super rule. Vijaybrahm became free ruler after death of Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand.
 It seems that Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand was administrator of Mal region at the time of Abhaychandra or Abhaya Chand. Mal region was adjacent in north of present Pilibhit, Bareilly, Moradabad and Bijnor districts of Uttar Pradesh.
The regions Dyani rau, Chaubhainsi, Chhakhata, Kota and Chikaliya regions were called  Talla Desh. Talla Desh was also adjascent to mal region.
 Kota, Chhakhata, Dhaniyakot, Dhyani rau, Faldakot, and Ramgarh hills were not under Mal.
Only southern region ‘Madhua ki Mal of Talla Desh was under Chand kingdom.

                  Defending Mal Region was Priority

           For Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand the main priority was defense of plains (Mal) adjacent to Pilibhit, Bareilly, Bijnor and Moradabad. The Doti Katyuri and dislike of Khasa people for outsider Chand rulers were other factors that Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand did not pay attention extending his rule in hills.
        The administrators of Sultan in Bijnor, Moradabad and Badayun used to attack Mal (Bhabhar region) people and used to loot them any time.
 Due to Muslim kings extension; various Rajput army professionals took shelters in Bhabhar and hills of Uttarakhand.
                    Destruction of Katehar

  Rajput sects developed a region Katehr (today’s Rohilkhand).  Katehar or Rohilkhand region is just adjacent of Mal or Bhabhar of Kumaon. Katehar Rajput did not agree in accepting the rule of Muslim Sultan of Delhi.  In the Delhi Sultan Firoz Tuglak period (1351-1388), it was decided to capture Katehr under Muslim regime. There were continuous fights between Badayun administrator (Jagirdar) Sayyad Muhammad and Khadak Singh the ruler of Katehr regularly. In 1379, the news was sent to Sultan of Delhi that Khadak Singh killed Sayyad Muhammad and his brother Sayyad Allauddin.
  In 1380, Sultan Firoz sent huge army to Katehr for taking revenge of killing of Sayyad brothers. The army killed Hindus of Katehar without any second thought. The killing was cruelest ones.
  Khadag Singh did not find him powerful to resist Sultan army. Khadag Singh ran away into Bhabhar of Kumaon. From Bhabhar (today’s Udham Singh Nagar) Khadag Singh might have escaped to hill region.

               Destruction of Kumaon by Sultan Army
 The Sultan Firoz Tuglak and his army entered Kumaon region (might be hills too) following Sultan army. The Sultan army killed innocent people. The Sultan Firoz Tuglak Army captured twenty thee thousands people and forcefully converted them as Muslim. As soon as monsoon started the Sultan Army returned to Tarai (plains beyond Bhabhar) region.
       Dr Dabral calculated that Sultan army destroyed Bahedi, Kicchha, Chorgaliya, Bankheda, Thakurdwara regions of Kumaon.
 There was enmity between Gyan Chandra and Khadag Singh. Therefore, Khadag Singh did not take shelter from Gyanchandra.
 There is no record or folklore about actions against Sultan army by Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand.

               Five Years Oppression and killings by Sultan


    Sultan returned Delhi after destroying Katehr and some parts of Kumaon. Firoz appointed a Afghan governor for Sambhal region and ordered him to destruct Katehr every by fire and sword.
 For five years, Sultan Firoz used to reach Katehr every year to destruct and oppress the people of Katehr.  Nobody ploughed the land and the land became forest. No Hindu  slept into hut for five years.
 While following Katihr army of Rajputs, the Sultan army might have reached Bhabhar of Kumaon and definitely, might have oppressed the people.

      Katehr people living in Kumaon Bhabhar –Mal

 Due to suppressive acts of Sultan army, the people from Katehar started living in Kumaon Bhabhar. They started dominating local Kumaoni people and did not accept Gyan Chandra as their king.

               Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand visiting Delhi
 The folklore states that Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand went to Delhi before Sultan. Sultan offered him title of Garud (vulture).  Sultan also appointed Gyanchand as his devoted Samant of Bhabhar.  The folklore states that Sultan took Gyan Chand for hunting too. Atkinson guessed the date of hunting would be either 1410, 1412 0r 1413.
However, the logical conclusion is that there is no truth on the folklore.  There is no mentioning Garud in his inscriptions. His successors did also not mention about Garud title of Gyan Chand. In other folklore Gyan Chand is called Guru Gyan Chand.

          Attack of Sambahl Sardar on Madhuva Mal (Bhabhar)

   Historical evidence states that around 1413, the Sultan governor of Sambhal attacked on Madhuva ki Mal (Bhabhar, Kumaon) and captured the territory . Gyanchandra sent his faithful army commander Nalu Kathayat with huge army to free Madhuva ki Mal. Nalu Kathayat freed Madhuva ki Mal from Muslim encroachers.
  The Champawat king Gyan Chand offered title to Nalu Kathayat as ‘Kumaya Saropa’. Gyan Chand also offered nalu Kathayat many villages in mal (Bhabhar) and villages in Dhyai rau region as Raut (Jagir). Gyan Chand also wrote inscription in Kaproli village (the village of Nalu Kathayat) declaring Nalu as winner against Mlecch.
 However, in later stage there was tussle between Gyan Chand and Nalu Kathayat.

##3Read about demotion of Nalu Kathayat, more destruction of Katehar by Sultan in part 153…..

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 25/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -153
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx xxx
Notes on Chand dynasty kings of Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Champawat, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Jaspur, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Ashadhgarh, Dada gaon, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Khetikhan, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Gudamagal Ganv, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Bhabhar, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Madhuva ki Mal, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Bahedi, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Kicchha, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Chorgaliya, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Bankheda, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Thakurdwara Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Disturbances in Gyanchandra period in Kumaon of Himalayan, Indian Medieval Period Part -2

(History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 153

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

             Disturbances in Gyanchandra, the Chand King of Champawat Period (1367-1420)

           Attacks of Delhi Sultan Badshahs on Katehr/Katehar and Kumaon

 The Gyanchandra commander Nalu Kathayat was able to stop the attack of Muslim regional army commander of Delhi Sultan. Gyanchand, Gyanchandra or Gyan Chand offered Nalu the Raut ( Thokdari or Jameendari to Nalu.
                  In 1414, Khijr Khan (1414-1421) a soldier of Tuglak ruler took over Delhi Sultan kingdom. He sent his aid Tuj –ul-Mulk (1421) to suppress the rebellion of Raja Hari Singh of Katehar.  The Raja of Katehar Hari Singh fled into forest but finally Hari Singh accepted to pay tribute in future.
          Hari Singh now Jameendar of Khijr Khan declared freedom in 1416a dn stopped paying taxes/tribute to Delhi Sultan. Again in 1418, Khijr Khand sent Taj-ul-Mulk with huge army to suppress Hari Singh.

        When Khijr Khan Army led by Taj-ul-Mulk crossed Ganga , the king of Katehar/Katehr  Hari Singh used ‘Sad-Funk’ strategy that Sultan army do not get food or stopping food supply strategy was used by Hari Singh of Katehar/Katehr. Hari Singh the king of Katehr/Katehar burnt or destroyed the food articles and fled into huge Anwala jungle (around 24 miles).

             The Sultan army led by Taj-ul-Mulk surrounded the whole jungle from all direction. Hari Singh had come into open to fight with Sultan Army.  Sultan army defeated Hari Singh and captured materials, horses and ammunitions.  Hari Singh had to flee into Kumaon.
Khijr Khan attacked Katehar/Katehr in 1419 too.
          Attacks of Delhi Sultan army on Kumaon
                  When Katehar/Katehr Hari Singh fled into Kumaon, Taj-ulk-Mulk stayed in Katehar and he ordered his army to march into Kumaon for following Katehar king Hari Singh. It seems that Sultan army crossed Ramganga in between Shahabad and Moradabad for reaching Kumaon. The Sultan army would have crossed present Tanda, Thakurdwara, Kashipur, and Jaspur and then would have reached towards Ramnagar. Definitely Sultan army reached to Talla Desh and mal of Kumaon. Unable to find Katehar/Katehr king Hari Singh, the Sutan army looted Kumaon reagion and captured animals and hundreds of human beings and made them slaves. The Sultan army looted hills of Nainital.

                       Killing of Nalu Kathayat

              Atkinson states about killing of Nalu Kathayat by Gyan Chand or Gyanchandra but did not provide historical logical analysis. Dr. Dabral analyzed folklore and history aspects both.
               Gyanchand offered Raut (Jagirdari or Thokdari) to Nalu Kathayat that he takes care of Mal region. When huge Sultan army entered into Kumaon Mal, Nalu did not have that much power to resist Sultan army. The army of Nalu ran from Mal towards hills and Nalu also might have run into hills.
            When Nalu was supposed to meet King Gyan Chandra/Gyanchand, a commander or court member Jassa complained to king that Nalu did not protect mal. Jassa of Kamlekh village was jealous to Nalu Kathayat because of Nalu getting award from the king. King Gyan Chand sent message to Nalu to go for  Mal for  protecting Mal. However, Nalu Kathayat without formal dress came to court for telling the true situation.
             Jassa complained to king that Nalu had come without proper and formal dress to meet the King and Nalu wanted to insult the king. On that time Kumaoni kings started behaving as Delhi Sultan that their court member should meet the king in formal court dress. Champawat king Gyan Chand refused meeting Nalu Kathayat and ordered Nalu to return and insulted his ego.
             The wife of Nalu was from Sirmola village. Her father was a leading person of Mara group in Champawat. Nalu sent his sons Suju and Badu to his in law that he (his in law) do some arrangement for compromise between him (Nalu) and king.
      Those two sons forgot ways reaching Champawat and were captured by Jassa. Jassa convinced the king that Nalu sent his sons to kill the king. The king sent two sons of Nalu in prison and made them blind.
 In rage, Nalu organized Mara group people and attacked the king. Nalu destroyed Kamlekh Garh the village of Jassa.  A century back, There were ruins of destruction in Kamlekh village. Nalu killed Jassa but did not harm the king.
 Though, there was calm between Gyan Chand and Nalu Kathayat the king was not at ease. The king killed Nalu Kathayat deceptively.
 Dr Dabral did not believe that Gyan Chand did believe blindly on Jassa. 

                    Characteristics of Nalu Kathayat
  Nalu Kathayat was brave commander that Gyan Chand offered him the task of protecting Bhabhar region. The Bhabhar region or Mal region was always vulnerable for attack from Delhi Sultan and his regional commanders of Moradabad, Bijnor , Pilibhit etc. Nalu Kathayat tried his best in protecting Mal. However, Nalu was unable to resist huge army of Sultan led by Taj-ul-Mulk and had to run from Mal.

## Read Characteristics of King Gyan Chand/Gyanchandra/Gyan Chandra in History of Uttarakhand part 154
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 25/9/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -154
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx xxx
Notes on Chand dynasty kings of Medieval Age Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Champawat, Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Jaspur, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Ashadhgarh, Dada gaon, Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Khetikhan, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Gudamagal Ganv, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Bhabhar, Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Madhuva ki Mal, Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Bahedi, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Kicchha, Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Chorgaliya, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Bankheda, Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of Thakurdwara Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Medieval Age Chand dynasty kings of Kumaon; Chand dynasty kings of kamlekh ganv  Champawat Kumaon; Medieval Age History of Katehar/Katehr; History of Sambahl; Medieval Age History aspects of Delhi Sultanate nearby region of Kumaon; Medieval Age History of Taj-ul Mulk entering Kumaon;  History of Khijr Khan at the time of Kumaoni king Gyan Chand of Medieval Age

 

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