Uttarakhand > Uttarakhand at a Glance - उत्तराखण्ड : एक नजर में

Important Days Related To Uttarakhand - उत्तराखण्ड से संबंधित महत्वपूर्ण दिवस

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पंकज सिंह महर:
5 सितम्बर, 1942 को खुमाड़ में आजादी आन्दोलन के समय अंग्रेज अधिकारी जानसन द्वारा आन्दोलनकारियों के ऊपर फायरिंग की गई थी।  जिसमें स्व० श्री गंगा राम एवं स्व० श्री खीमानन्द जी की मौके पर ही मृत्यु हो गई तथा स्व० श्री चारु मणि एवं बहादुर सिंह मेहरा की चार दिन बाद मृत्यु हो गई।
     इस घटना को गांधी जी ने "कुमाऊं* की बारदोली" कहा था। तब से प्रत्येक वर्ष ५ सितम्बर को खुमाड़ में सल्ट क्रान्ति दिवस मनाया जाता है।

* कुमाऊं का अभिप्राय तत्कालीन उत्तराखण्ड (टिहरी रियासत को छोड़कर) था।

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:

Activists form the Uttarakhand Kranti Dal to contest elections and pursue statehood for the impoverished region

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:

Adapted from the works of A.S. Rawat of Kumaon University and V.R. Trivedi

Early History

mid-1st millennium B.C. ?
First reference to Uttarakhand and her pilgrimage centers appear in the Skanda Purana and Mahabharata as Kedarkhand. As the land of perpetual snow, early Hindus identify Uttarakhand as the abode of gods and a holy place.

2nd-1st century B.C.
Sakas establish colonies in the hills.

1st century A.D.
Kirats (Tibeto-Burmese people) inhabit parts of the hills.

4th-5th century
Naga dominions include principalities between the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi.

Chinese pilgrim Huien Tsang visits India. Mentions a land governed by women in Uttarakhand (Brahmaputra).

c. 700
The Chand dynasty from Rajasthan begins it reign in Champawat. King Som Chand's small kingdom forms the foundation of what later becomes Kumaon.

mid-8th century
Silk worms are brought to Kumaon from Nepal and Tibet. Silk production continues until the 1791 Gurkha conquest.

9th-11th century
The Katyuri Dynasty holds sway from the Sutlej river in the west, to Almora in the east. At its maximum extent, the Katyuri Empire stretches from Kabul to Nepal. Originally seated at Joshimath, the Katyuris eventually move their capital to the Katyur valley in Almora. Enlightened and dynamic administration during the first century gives way to despotism and cruelty in later years. Empire fragments into numerous principalities by the 12th century.

Khas (indigenous) chieftains rebel against the Chand dynasty and succeed in driving the royal court to the plains.

Vir Chand returns to Champawat and regains his dynasty's lost kingdom.

Feudal Era

12th century
Mallas from Dullu in Western Nepal shatter the Katyuri kingdom. Katyur descendants continue to rule in isolated pockets throughout the Himalayas.

King Ajay Pal of the Parmar dynasty ascends the throne of Chandpur principality. Originally from present day Gujarat, Ajay Pal succeeds in conquering and uniting all 52 Garhs or forts and becomes the first overlord of a united Garhwal. He transfers his court to Srinagar, which persists as capital until 1803. After complete unification, Ajay Pal, like Ashoka, develops a distaste for warfare and pursues a spiritual life.

14th-15th century
The Chand dynasty rule grows oppressive and despotic. While seeking favour from Emperor Mohammed Tughluq in Delhi, the Kumaoni kings try pacifying their subjects with acts of piety. Nepotism and profligate spending keep people from open revolt.

With popular support, King Bharati Chand overthrows his corrupt uncle, King Vikram Chand and restores the popularity and fortunes of the Chands.

Mughal emperors sweep the plains of Hindu resistance. Garhwal retains her independence and a diplomatic presence at the Mughal court. Kumaon pays tribute.

Battle of Gwaldam - Garhwal rebuffs Kumaoni invasion.

English traveler William Finch visits Garhwal, describing a wealthy and prosperous Himalayan kingdom.

Kumaon invades Garhwal seven times. King Man Shah repels each incursion, eventually defeating King Laxmi Chand of Kumaon and taking his capital.

In retaliation for raids by Tibetan bandits, King Mahipat Shah invades Tibet with 12,000 men. Though a courageous and able leader, Mahipat Shah retreats from heavy snowfall in the passes and vigourous Tibetan resistance.

In the same year, Portuguese Jesuit missionary Antonio de Andrade passes through Srinagar on his way to Tibet.

Mahipat Shah dies. Queen mother Karnavati assumes reigns of power for her young son, Prince Prithvi Pat Shah.

King Baz Bahadur Chand ascends the Kumaoni throne. At the time, Kumaon is a tributary state of the Mughal Empire. The King introduces Muslim court customs to Kumaon. Baz Bahadur Chand and his successors invade Garhwal frequently.

King Baz Bahadur Shah incites Emperor Shah Jahan's Mughal forces to invade Garhwal. Led by Queen Mother Karnavati, the Garhwali defenders crush the numerically superior expeditionary forces from the plains. Rather than executing prisoners, she cuts off the noses of all captured troops. This act earns the Queen mother the title "Nak-katti-Rani", the queen who cuts off noses.

King Prithvi Pat Shah grows old enough to rule. Courage on the battlefield, liberalism, and religious tolerance marks his remarkable reign. He proves particularly friendly to the Jesuits who eventually return from their Tibetan mission to establish a church at Srinagar.

In retaliation for King Prithvi Pat Shah granting sanctuary to his defeated enemy's son, Suleiman Shikoh, Emperor Aurangzeb intrigues to encourage the crown prince to revolt against his father. The king discovers the plot and banishes Prince Medni Shah from the kingdom. Due to renewed fighting with Kumaon and the threat of invasion by the Mughals, King Prithvi Pat Shah yields Suleiman Shikoh to Aurangzeb.

King Fateh Shah's reign is marked by the building of a Gurudwara in Dehra Dun by Guru Ram Rai. A brave and capable warrior, Fateh Shah leads raids against the plains and Tibet. He also invades Sirmor to the west, yet through the intercession of Guru Gobind Singh, peaceful relations are eventually established between the neighbours. Raids and counter-raids trouble the peace with Kumaon.

Pradip Shah's years as king finds Garhwal at peace with Kumaon and general prosperity prevalent throughout the land.

Muslim marauders from Rohilkhand invade Kumaon, vandalizing Hindu temples and idols. Garhwal comes to Kumaon's aid, yet only a peace settlement is achieved. The Rohillas demand a cash tribute, which is loaned to Kumaoni king Kalyan Chand by Pradip Shah.

The Rohillas under Najib Khan also invade Garhwal, defeating Pradip Shah's forces and annexing the Dun valley.

Garhwal reestablishes control over the Dun valley.

late-18th century
Garhwali kings patronize the Garhwali school of painting that compares favourably with the much admired Punjabi and Kangra styles. Mola Ram is the best known artist that worked at the royal court during this period.

Source : http://www.bellinfosys.com/important_dates_in_the_history_o.htm

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:
Intrigue in the Kumaoni court draws Garhwal into her internal conflict. Lalit Shah install second son, Pradyumna Shah on the Kumaoni throne, but dies shortly after.

Lalit Shah cedes the throne to his eldest son, Jai Krit Shah who conspires to oust his stepbrother from the throne of Kumaon. In return, Pradyumna Shah invades Garhwal. Factionalism erupts in the Garhwali court, further weakening Jai Krit Shah's hold on power. Dehra Dun's governor, sensing a power struggle, rebels and seizes power in the capital. Jai Krit Shah, now desperate, asks Jagat Prakash, the king of Sirmor for help. Jagat Prakash succeeds against the combined rebel and Kumaoni forces, and reinstalls Jai Krit Shah in Srinagar. Shortly after his departure though, Jai Krit Shah goes on a pilgrimage. Pradyumna Shah seizes the opportunity, invading and taking the capital.

Pradyumna Shah

Source of information : http://www.bellinfosys.com/important_dates_in_the_history_o.htm

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720:
Pradyumna Shah returns to Kumaon.

New troubles prove too much for Jai Krit Shah. He ends his own life. Pradyumna Shah returns to Garhwal to assume leadership.

Years of turmoil: Garhwal slides into anarchy. Internecine strife and court intrigues rip apart Garhwal's political, administrative, and military foundations.

Gurkhas overrun Kumaon and cross the frontier with Garhwal. The Gurkha forces reach as far as Fort Langurgarhi, where a desperate and heroic stand prevents further penetration by the Gurkhas for over year. The Gurkha forces retreat to ward off a Chinese invasion of Nepal.

Gurkha marauders and slavers loot and kidnap the inhabitants of the borderlands. Kumaoni and Garhwali frontier villages are burnt and whole regions made desolate. A brutal and arbitrary system of justice is administered including trials by ordeal and executions for minor offenses. Caste distinctions are intensified and caste rule infractions are made punishable by death. Border conflicts eventually culminate in the calamitous events of 1803-04.

A terrible famine wracks Garhwal.

Great earthquake shakes the foundations of Garhwal. This catastrophe portends the coming of conquest and subjection by the growing might of the Gurkhas.

Gurkha attack Garhwal in strength. King Pradyumna Shah is dislodged from Srinagar and retreats across the Alaknanda River. Defeated again at Barahat, Uttar Kashi, Pradyumna Shah falls back towards the plains. At the Garhwali kingdom's final stand near Dehra Dun, the King dies with most of his men.

Gurkha rule proves to be despotic and tyrannical. Military despotism carries off over a third of the population into slavery. Retribution for the earlier defeat of Gurkha forces in 1791 is long and bloody. Indiscriminate killing and raping marks a military administration interested in solely the pillage and plunder of the land. An oppressive tax levy is imposed. Fields lie abandoned.

Sudarshan Shah, Pradyumna Shah's son, resides in poverty at Bareilly in the plains. Sudarshan Shah spends much of his time encouraging British intervention to end Gurkha tyranny.

British Era

Anglo-Gurkha war erupts along the Gurkha Empire's southern border. Major General Gillespie succeeds at driving out the Gurkhas from Kumaon by 1815. Treaty of Sagauli restores Sudarshan Shah to the much smaller Garhwali kingdom seated at Tehri. The Kumaoni Commissionery is established to administer Kumaon, and eastern (British) Garhwal for the British. British acquire the region's substantial natural resources and lucrative trade routes to Tibet and China.

Sudarshan Shah is officially installed by the British as head of the nominally independent princely state of Tehri-Garhwal.

The British establish a convalescent depot for their soldiers in Landour, marking the present day foundation of Mussoorie hill station.

The British adventurer Wilson procures his first forest lease from Tehri-Garhwal. He exploits the forest by introducing the practice of floating logs down rivers. The government renews his lease in 1850 and again in 1864. Whole sale clearfelling of oak, cedar, and pine forests follows, ravaging the economy and environment of Uttarakhand.



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