Author Topic: History of Plant Science , History of Botany , Botanical Researches In India  (Read 6046 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Plants described in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata

Plant Science in Mahabharata -4
Botany in Epic Age of India – 9
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –30

By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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  There are descriptions of following plants in Viarata Parva  of Mahabharata
 -
Sanskrit Name = name mentioned in Virata Parva of Mahabharata
VP- Virata  Parva
S.N. Common Name   Sanskrit Name, Botanical Name    KP no, Shloka number
1- Bamboo--------------Vamsa -----Dendrocalamus sp. ----VP IV ,57; VII 34
There are descriptions of following plants in Udyoga Parva of Mahabharata-
 -
Sanskrit Name = name mentioned in Udyoga  Parva of Mahabharata
UP- Udyoga  Parva
S.N. Common Name   Sanskrit Name- Botanical Name---  UP no, Shloka number
Rohinda , Desert teak, Rohitaka---------Tecomella undulata –II

There are descriptions of   following plants in Karna Parva of Mahabharata-
Sanskrit Name = name mentioned in Mahabharata
KP= Karna Parva
S.N. Common Name   Sanskrit Name,  Botanical Name    KP no, Shloka number

1-Kair , ------- Karira --------------- Capparis decidua --------- VIII 30.24
2-Bada Peelu --Pilu --------------------Salvadona oleoides--------VIII, 30.24
3- Shami- ---Shami ---------------------Porsopis cineraria--------VIII, 30.24


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References

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plants in Virata, Udyoga and Karna Parva of Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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      Plants mentioned in Shalya Parava of Mahabharata
Plant Science in Mahabharata -5
Botany in Epic Age of India – 10

 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –31

By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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There are descriptions of following plants in Shalya Parva of Mahabharata
 -
Sanskrit Name = name mentioned in Shalya Parva of Mahabharata
SP= Shalya  Parva
S.N. Common Name   Sanskrit Name, Botanical Name    SP no, Shloka number
1- Shami- ---Shami ---------------------Porsopis cineraria--------IX, 46- 12, 16, 18
 2-Pipal -------Plaksha ----------------- Ficus religiosa   ------------IX 36.58
  3- Peelu, ----------Pilu ------------------Salvadora oleoides ----------IX 36.59
 4- Falsa -------------Parushaka ---------Grewia asiatica -----------------IX36,59
 5-Harsingar --------------Parijata --------Nyctanthes arbortristis -----IX 36.60
6- Kathal -------------Panas ----------------Artocarpus heterophyllus ---IX 36.58
 7-Dhak/Teshu ----------Palasa ---------------- Butea monosperma -------IX36.58
 8-Kingora /Barberry –Kashmarya ------------ Barberis vulgaris ---------IX, 36.60
9- Kans        ----------Kashand  --------------Saccharum sponteneum----IX 36.60
10-Karde ----------------Karira -----------------Capparis decidua ------------IX 36.58
11-Jiyasuta ------------Ingud ------------------Balanites roxburghai ---IX 36.58
12- Bel ----------------Belwa -----------------Aegle marmelos ----------IX 3.59
13- Ber ------------ Badari ------------------Ziziphus Maurtiana-- --IX 36.58
14-Wild mango (Ambada) –Amrataka---Spondias pinnata -----IX 36.59
15-Pipal------Ashwattha -------------------- Ficus religiosa ---VII 4.27, IX 3.58


 Plants of Mahabharata will continues in next chapter ..
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter


Bhishma Kukreti

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  Plants mentioned in Anushashana Parva of Mahabharata
Plant Science in Mahabharata - 6
Botany in Epic Age of India – 12

 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –32

By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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  Anushashana Parva is thirteenth book of eighteen books (Parva) of Mahabharata epic. Anushashna Parva deals with instructions related to duties.
There are descriptions of following plants /flora in Anushashana Parva of Mahabharata-
Sanskrit Name = name mentioned in Anushashana  Parva of Mahabharata
AP= Anushashana   Parva
S.N. Common Name   Sanskrit Name, Botanical Name    AP no, Shloka number
 1-- Asoka ---------------Asoka --------- Saraca asoka -------- -----XIII 54.4
2--Lasora ----------------Ashtapadika ---- Valalris dichotoma ---- XIII 54.6
3- Madhavi Lata ----Atimukta ------------Hiptage benghalensis – XIII 54.4
4-Karambel /chalta ----Bhavya -----------Diilenia indica ----------XIII 54.45
5- Champa --------------Champaka ------Michelia champaka ------XIII 54.5
6- Dhava  ------------- Dhauva -----------Anogeissus titifolia -----XIII 54.4
7- Amaltas ------------Karnikara --------- Cassia fistula ----  ----- XIII 54.5
8- Kewara --------------Ketaka -------    Pandanus tactorius  ------XIII 54.4
9-Fanas, Kathal -------Panasa ---------Artocarpus heterophyllus –XIII54.5
10-Am, mango -------Sahakaras ------ Mangifera indica  ---------XIII 54.4
11- Meswak ------------Shyama -----------Salvadora percica ----XIII 54.6
12- Nirgundi  -------- Tilaka ----------- Vitex negundo   -----------XIII 54.5
13- Bhokara/Lsora  -----Uddalaks ---- Cordia myxa -----  -----XIII 54.4
14- Sultan Champa---Varanpushpa --Calophyllum  innophyllum   --XIII 54.6
15-Knata bans ----Venu --------------- Bambusa  aundinacea   ------XIII 109.47
 The above descriptions show that plants are tree, middle size trees, shrubs and creeping and small plants too .
 
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References
All the plants of Mahabharata are taken from -
Flora of  the Indian Epics, Jatland.com (accessed on 13/12/2019 at 11.10 AM)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Assam, India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Goa, India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia;  Plants in  Anushashana Parva , Mahabharata ; History of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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     Plant Genesis in Mahabharata

Plant Science in Mahabharata – 7
Botany in Epic Age of India – 13
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –33

By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
-
   Mahabharata is great Purana or History epic and Mahabharata is also called Pancham Veda or fifth Veda (1). Mahabharata discusses various aspects of life, society, politics, arts, and philosophy. Mahabharata also discusses Pure Botany and Applied Botany too (1). Neel Mani states that Vedavyasa the creator of Mahabharata discusses various aspects of environment and ecology (1).
  There are discussions about plant genesis .
      In Mahabharata, the plan kingdom is called Seventh Creation (Saptama Shrishthi) (1).
  Shrimad Bhagwat Geeta describes plants as Roma or Hair of the earth. (2)
   There is an interesting story about birth of plants. The story tells that Plants are Tamsi parts of Sperm of Brahma (Tamstamsa) (3)
 A shloka of Mahabharata describes plants and plant parts through symbols that the Agni (fire) is bodies of plants, the vagina of creeping plants or grass is earth.
   Mahabharata creators definitely were aware that there is life in plants, trees and there are various descriptions about growth, death, pain or disturbing aspects of growth  of  plants .Those aspects will be discussed in coming chapters.   
References
1-Neel Mani Pancham ‘Veda Mahabharata men Padap Vichar ‘in 2nd World Congress Vedic Science, 9-11 February 2007, Pp 316
2- Shrimad Bhagwat Geeta 2.10.23
3-Mahabharata, Anushasana Parva 85.13
4-Mahabharata, Adi Parva, 231.7

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Andhra Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Assam, India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Bihar, India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Chhattisgarh ,  India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Goa, India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Gujarat, India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Haryana , India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of  Himachal Pradesh , India, Asia; ; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Jammu Kashmir , India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Jharkhand ,India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Karnataka, India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Kerala, India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Madhya Pradesh India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Maharashtra , India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Manipur, India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Meghalaya, India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Mizoram , India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Nagaland, India, Asia; ; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Odisha, India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Punjab, India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Rajasthan , India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Sikkim, India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Tamil Nadu, India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Telangana , India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Tripura , India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Uttarakhand (U.K.) , India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of  Uttar Pradesh , India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of West Bengal ,India, Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of  , Myanmar , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of  , Bangladesh , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of Pakistan  , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of  Baluchistan , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of  Nepal , Indian subcontinent , Asia; Plant Genesis in Mahabharata; History  of Botany of  Afghanistan, Indian subcontinent , Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Classification and Importance of Plants in Mahabharata
Plant Science in Mahabharata - 8
Botany in Epic Age of India – 14

 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent – 34

By: Bhishma Kukreti[/b]
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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    By the time, Mahabharata was created (orally) and edited in Gupta period, people started classifying the plant kingdom and there is proof in Mahabharata (Anushashana Parva, 96.11) wherein, there is discussion on Plant classification and importance of plants.
    Mahabharata is not biology book but a Purana (history mixed with magical power) . However, Mahabharata discuss plant science, plants and their importance in many chapters.
    The 13th Anushashana book (Parva), chapter 96, sub chapter or part 11 of Mahabharata discusses the classification of plants and importance of plant kingdom.(1)
Bhishma says to King Yudhisthira that water is crucial and important .People gets poise results of donating water. Therefore, people should dig pond.
    Bhishma says to Yudhisthira that there are eternal benefits by  growing trees, plants. Bhishma further explains plant classification as
Trees (Vriksha) as Mango, Jackfruit
Shrub (Gulma)  as Coral Tree
Creepers (Lata ) as Malti etc
Cord type (Valli) as Asian bayberry
Bamboo (Twakasar) –Bamboo and Supri etc
Grass (Trina) – Those grow in farm
 Bhishma tells to Yudhishthira that by growing trees/plants, the individual gets fame in this earth and gets heaven after death. For childless, the plants are his children. The trees/plants offer flowers to deities, fruits to ancestors, shadow to guests  as tribute. (1)
The Kinner, Nag, rakshasa, Deva, Gandharva , Rishigan Manushy all take shelter under trees or depend on trees/plants.  The flowers of plants  and plants with fruits satisfy the human beings. Those are interested in social causes, should grow trees at pond banks. The individuals should grow trees at pond banks and should protect them as children. Plants are Dharamputra or Godson for humans. (1)
Till date, the basic plant classification system , importance of plants and benefits of growing plants remain same.   

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References
Mahabharata, Anushashana Parva, 96.11
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter
Plant Classification, plant benefits in Mahabharata.

Bhishma Kukreti

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Touch and Hearing Sensations in in Plants discussion in Mahabharata

(Plant Consciousness explained in Mahabharata)
Plant Science/Botany in Mahabharata – 9
Botany in Epic Age of India – 15
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –35

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}

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 Mahabharata Epic deals with various aspects of life including Botanical science and its applications for the life of humans and animals.
In Shanti Parva (1) of Mahabharata illustrates the life in plants and the reasons for flowering, leaves etc.
  Learned Vedic literature expert Neel Mani cites many shlokas from Mahabharata (1) those show the concept of consciousness in Plants in Mahabharata.
  The Narrator of Mahabharata illustrates in Shanti Parva –
Usmato Mlayate Varna Twakkafalam Pushpmeva va I
Mlayate Sheeyaten Chhapi Sparhsamstenatra Vidyate II Shantiparva (2)
The meaning of the above sholka is “   due to impermeable coincidences, the leaves, fruits and flowers  take birth in the plants .Due to touch and heat, the leaves, bark, flower and fruit get  weathered or blighted and in winter they get blighted  due to low light or no light. Therefore, it is proof that plants feel touch sensation.”
 Mahabharata narrator believes that plants have the listening sensation too as  Bhrigu Sage states  –(3) –
  “ Vayavnyashyanishpehsai falam pushpam Vishiyante I
Shrotren grihyate Shabdsten Shrinvanti Padpa: II(3)
The meaning of above sholka is “Due to the very loud  sound of fire, air and electricity, the leaves, flowers and fruits get felled down and therefore, definitely the plants listen .
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References
1-Neel Mani, February 2007, Pancham Veda Mahabharata me Padap Vichar, 2nd World Congress on Vedic Science page 316-319
2--Mahabharata, Shanti Parva 177.15
3-Mahabharata, Shanti Parva 177.16


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HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter

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Smell Responses in Plants discussed in Mahabharata

(Plant Consciousness explained in Mahabharata)
Plant Science/Botany in Mahabharata – 10
Botany in Epic Age of India – 16
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –36

By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
-
   Neel Mani illustrates various examples showing plant consciousness discussed in various shlokas of Mahabharata. (1)
    There are various types of smell suitable or supporting to life and toxic or harmful to human beings.
 Mahabharata explains that smells are of various types and those smells affect  differently to plants .
Punyapunyaistatha Gandhairghupaishcha vividhairapi
Aroga: pushpita: santi tassmajighranti padpa:II
(Mahabharata , Shanti Parva 184, 14
The meaning of above Shloka are   “The non-poise smells there are poise and for plants. When cover by incensed and smoke the plants become healthy and get disease free flowers and fruits and that proves that Plants has smelling sensation.
References
1-Neel Mani, February 2007, Pancham Veda Mahabharata me Padap Vichar, 2nd World Congress on Vedic Science page 316-319
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019    
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter

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Pain and pleasure sensation in Plants as discussed in Mahabharata

(Plant Consciousness explained in Mahabharata)
Plant Science/Botany in Mahabharata – 11
Botany in Epic Age of India – 17
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –37
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By: Bhishma Kukreti M.Sc.
{(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
-
 At the time of Mahabharata creation (Oral) and subsequently the time of compilation and  editing (around Gupta Period), there was  strong concept that plants or trees have sensation for experiencing pain and pleasure  (1) .
 The following Shloka of Mahabharata explains the sensational properties for experiencing pain and happiness and has corrective measures sources when they are cut as follows
 Grahnatsukhadu:khasya Chinnasya cha Virohanat I
Jeewam pashyami Vrikshnamchaitanyam na Vidyate II
(Mahabharata  Shanti Parva 177.17)
The creators of Mahabharata perceived that plants have consciousness and they have movement sensation or properties as the creeping tendrils move upper side (1). Following Shloka of Mahabharata discusses as follows –
Valli Vestayate Vriksham Sarvatshchaiv Gacchati I
Napyadrishteshcha margosti tasmat pashyanti padap: II
(Mahabharata, Shanti Parva 177.13)
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References
1-Neel Mani, February 2007, Pancham Veda Mahabharata me Padap Vichar, 2nd World Congress on Vedic Science page 316-319
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019    
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter

Bhishma Kukreti

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Tasting Power in Plant discussed in Mahabharata Epic

(Plant Consciousness explained in Mahabharata)
Plant Science/Botany in Mahabharata – 12
Botany in Epic Age of India – 18
 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –38
-
By: Bhishma Kukreti
M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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  Mahabharata discusses about the life in plants by offering various examples at various stages. Neel Mani explains that Mahabharata states that plants/Vriksha/ padapah take their food from soil through roots and from light automatically. (1).
 In one Shloka , Bhrigu sage  ( Mahabharata Shanti Parva) states following –
Padai: salilpanam cha vyadhinamapi darshanam I
Vyadhipratikriyatwachcha vidyate rsanm drumeII
(Mahabharata Shanti Parva 177.15)
The meaning of above shola is that trees /vriksha take water through roots and get ill /unwell by taking dirty water .This we can see directly and that proofs that trees have the power of tasting.

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References
1-Neel Mani, February 2007, Pancham Veda Mahabharata me Padap Vichar, 2nd World Congress on Vedic Science page 316-319
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019    
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter

Bhishma Kukreti

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Osmosis in Plant concept in Mahabharata Epic

(Plant Consciousness explained in Mahabharata)
Plant Science/Botany in Mahabharata – 13
Botany in Epic Age of India – 19

 BOTANY History of Indian Subcontinent –39

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By: [b]Bhishma Kukreti[/b] M.Sc. {(Botany), B.Sc. (Honours in Botany), Medical Tourism Historian)}
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 According to Merriam Webster, the osmosis is defines as the movement of any solvent (such as water) through a semipermeable membrane (as of  a living cell) into solution of higher solute concentration that tends to equalize the concentration of solute on the two sides of membrane .
  In Mahabharata period, there was no microscope. Therefore, the concept of plant or animal  cells was not clear at the time of creation of Mahabharata or time of compiling and editing. . However, learned people at that time, were aware the concept of osmosis.   
As Neel mani translates shloka of  Mahabharata that states about the way plants /trees take food from earth though roots –
Vaktrenotpalnalen yathourdhwa jalmadadet
Tatha pawan sayunkta: padai: pibati padapa: (Mahabharata Shanti Parva 177.16)
That means (1) - Plants take( suck) minerals (food) mixed with air and water through their roots
  The above narration speaks loudly about Mahabharata creators were aware about osmosis that roots take food though osmosis or as we suck  the liquid food.
References
1-Neel Mani, February 2007, Pancham Veda Mahabharata me Padap Vichar, 2nd World Congress on Vedic Science page 316-319
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com , Mumbai India, 2019    
HISTORY of BOTANY in Indian Subcontinent will be continued in next chapter




 

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