Author Topic: गढ़वाल का इतिहास 1223-1804 AD- History of Garhwal Region from 1223-1804 AD  (Read 118971 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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         Marriage Custom in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -71 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -261     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -508
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)



In General, in Garhwal, following marriage types were prevailing-
1-Endogamy –Marriage with similar social group or tribe
2-Exogamy- Marriage outside the social group or tribe
3-Polygamy-Having more than one wife at a time
4-Polyandry- Having more than one husband at a time
5-Monoandry/Monogamy - Having one husband at a time or only one wife at a time
                             Khas Marriages in Garhwal

The Khas communities had simple and liberal customs of marriages.
1-Bhidlage or Bhidlagde marriage means marriage in between own Varn /segment. If a Upper cast person married to Harijan person, the person was discarded and this marriage was called Khas-Tal or Dumtal. In some regions as Jaunsar, Jaunpur, Taknaur, Nagpur, Khas bRahmin was allowed to marry a Rajput girl.
2-The people were not allowed to marry with the caste of mother, grandmother from both the sides. This custom is prevailing in Garhwal in all communities till date.
                 Other Marriage Custom of Garhwal
   Kanyadan – The upper caste Brahmin or Elite Rajput did not take maney or gifts from groom and was called Kanyadan Vyau.
Takaun Byau- Takaun Byau means to take money from groom side and marriage procession was not compusary in Takaun Byau.
Takaun Byau or Talwar Byau- In this marriage, groom did not go along with marriage party but a sword was kept as the groom and all perfromanced were performed by bride with Swoard as Groom.
Forceful Marriage- In old days, men used to take the bride forcibly and marry her. There are many community (Jatiy) folktales about man taking girl forcefully to his village. There is description of such marriage in Kukreti Vanshvali (edited Chakradhar Kukreti) that Vrishabh ji Kukreti of Jaspur (Mlla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal) marrying a Barthwal girl of Bareth (Malla Dhangu) forcefully.
 Ghudya Dyur Vivah- There was custom that widow could marry with her younger brother in law (Ghundya Dyur Byau).
Many times, widow used to marry with other men from same village or outside village too. Widow’s remarriages were part and partial of customs.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 10/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -509
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 

               स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!


Bhishma Kukreti

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               Marriage Life; Customary Laws in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -72 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -262     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -509
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
    In Khas/Khasias  society, marriage was not having religious bondage but a social understanding or compromise (Panna Lal, 1920, Hindu Customary Law in Kumaon). Monoandry or monogamy was a rare case in upper Brahmin and upper Rajput. Mostly men used to have more than one wives. The man could marry other’s wife by paying her husband the price.  Haiving Rakhail, Dhanti, Bandiyan, maids etc (Keep) was a common and accepted custom.
     In Khas society, wife or husband had freedom to leave and remarry with other gender. In Harijan, there was more freedom and remarrying frequently was common custom.
             Having relation with Prostitution was also common among elite clas especially Kings and court officers. Kings Shyam Shah, Pradip Shah, Parakram Shah, Parakram Shah used to visit prostitutes. Parakram snatched a Ganika (Prostitute) of Maularam.
 In villages, Badi community used to get money by prostitution deeds too.
 There wwas custom of keeping Devdasi (prostitutes of temple) in temples of Badrinath, Tungnath, Gopeshwar, Badahat, Kalimath, Ranihat etc. People used to purchase girls from hills for converting them into prostitution.
                  Sati Custom
 Sati custom among Brahmin and upper caste was also there. Widow used to immolate by burning herself with dead husband in funeral pyre. The villagers used to build a Math (small house) in memory of Sati. There are Maths still standing in Jaspur (Malla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal); Kuntani (Dabralsyun, Pauri Garhwal,); Dadamandi (Sheela Patti, Pauri Garhwal); Goriyaganv (Sheela Patti , Pauri Garhwal); Jaigaon (Ajmer, Pauri Garhwal).

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 11/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -510
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
Marriage Life; Customary Laws in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Marriage Life; Customary Laws in Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Marriage Life; Customary Laws in Haridwar, Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Marriage Life; Customary Laws in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Marriage Life; Customary Laws in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Marriage Life; Customary Laws in Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Marriage Life; Customary Laws in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Marriage Life; Customary Laws in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period;
             स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!

Bhishma Kukreti

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                   Children Rights in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -73 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -263     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -510
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

           The children of Brahmin by Brahmin wife and children of Rajput by Rajput wife were called ‘Asal’ (real or pur) and children from non Caste wife as Harijan, Keep (Rakhail), Dhanti (maid) by Rajput or Brahmin were called ‘kamsal’ or not real or not pure. The childn from maid (Dasi) was called the lowest form of child. Bandi or Dasi ka Baccha was an abusive word.
     The Jhantela Bacche or children of a Dhanti wife from earlier husbands would be called the children of newer husband.
  The young widow having children could keep a new husband from same segment of society and would allow him to stay with her in her dead husband house. Such husband would be caaled ‘Kathala’ or ‘Tikwa’ (Servant) husband. The children of such woman from Kathala’ husband would be called children of old husband only. However, if the widow did not have children from her dead husband she was not allowed to have Tikkwa or Kathala husband.
  If a man died and he did not have sons the State used to have right on such land. The daughters did not have right on land in Pal dynasty. That was the reasons that  a man used to have many wives for having sons to keep land in his heirs possession.
Even the man who did have sons from earlier wife would marry with a Dhanti having sons from earlier husband as then in such case, State could not take the land in its possession.
 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 13/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -511
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on Garhwal ka Itihas, Garhwal ka Madhy Yugin Itihas , South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
             स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!


Bhishma Kukreti

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         Sanskar (Religious Ceremonies) in Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period
Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -74 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -264     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -511
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)


 There are said to be 48 Sanskar (religious Ceremonies) performances in a life of Hindu.  However, there are 16 main Sanskar those are to be performed by all barring Shilpkar or they are exempted to do so. In each Sanskar, family performs a specific religious ceremony through Pundit.
1-Garbhadhan or egg formation –This Sanskar was /is not performed in Garhwal. Or if at all was performed only by King or very rich family.
2-Punsvan or Godbharai –Historians did not mention about this Sanskar performance in Garhwal
3 Seemantonnayan and 4 Jatkram Sanskar was also not mentioned by historian in Garhwal.
4- Birth –Women used to sing folk song after a boy baby used to take birth.
5-Namkaran or Naming Ceremony –Definitely the upper caste people used to perform this ceremony on eleventh day of birth.
6-Niskraman or Pavitra ceremony was performed on 2nd day of baby delivery and from this day newly mother could touch others and could enter into kitchen etc.
7-Annaprasan or feeding grains food to the child- Very rarely performed in Garhwal.
8-11- Yagyopavit or Chudakram , Keshnat and Karnbhed ( ear piercing)  of boy
12-Vedarambh or initiating education- Only elite Brahmins used to perform this Sanskar.
13-Keshnat or cutting head hair- Elite families used to perform Keshant ceremony
14-Marriage
15- Bachidan before death very rarely
16-Anteshthi or death ceremony
After death, there were religious ceremonies of Tirain /Terhaveen thirteenth day of death, Barkhi on completing twelfth month and Shradh every year.
 Upper cast people used to burn the dead body near a river and bones were submerged in Ganga. A stone picked up from Ganga shore was kept in Pitarkudi as member of Pitar or forfathers . Pitarkudi used to be in village. The Shilpkar used burn their dead relative on a hill top and a Tumadi with water was hung on a tree branch there.
  Every male including boy from a Mundit (families of a link) used to shave their head after death of a family member).
Children were buried nearby village.




Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 14/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -512
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on Garhwal ka Itihas, Garhwal ka Madhy Yugin Itihas , South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
History aspects of Sanskar (Religious Ceremonies) in Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period; History aspects of Sanskar (Religious Ceremonies) in North Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period; History aspects of Sanskar (Religious Ceremonies) in South Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period; History aspects of Sanskar (Religious Ceremonies) in East Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period; History aspects of Sanskar (Religious Ceremonies) in West Garhwal in Pal/Shah Period;

             स्वच्छ भारत ! स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत!

Bhishma Kukreti

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               Religious Faiths in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -75 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -265     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -512
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
             The religious faiths of Garhwalis were mainly due to geographical situations. Each steep and high hill was called ‘Kailash’. People used to bow as soon as they saw snow bound hill. People used to tie colored cloth on tree branch as sign of deity or goddess.
           In North Garhwal adjusting Tibet, Kuber was great deity and Ghantakarn was his minister. People used to worship both the deities. Bhotiyas used to catch hot (through keeping on burning coal or wood) iron Janti to worship deities in Janti festival of Pandukeshwar.
                Nanda the National Goddess of Uttarakhand
  Goddess Nanda Devi is worshipped in both the regions of Uttarakhand (Kumaon and Garhwal). Nanda is called wife of Lord Mahadev. There are many temples of Nanda Devi on hills those are facing the Nanda Mountain.
The Nanda Jat Yatra is performed every after twelve year and is the longest deity worshiping Tour in the world.  An animal sacrifice was common in worshiping Nanda Devi.
                           Ganga Ji
 Ganga was a or is a reverend river of Garhwal and India. People used to come to conferences of Ganga for bathing on auspicious days as Baishakhi, Makraini etc.People used to vouch Ganga Ji or used to take Ganga Ki Saugandh.
                  River source means Dham
 There were worshiping places or Dham at the source of reverend rivers. There are five Main such Dham-
Gangotri (Ganga Source)
Yamunotri (Yamuna Source)
Kedarnath (near Mandakini Source)
Badrinath (near Alaknanda Source)
Nanda Devi
There were Panch Kedar (Five Kedar) and Panch Badri (Five Badrinath )


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 15/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -513
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on Garhwal ka Itihas, Garhwal ka Madhy Yugin Itihas , South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत
 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Beliefs on Bhut, Ghost, Spirit, Specter, Ghoul   in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -76 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -266     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -513
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

            Belief on Ghost goes before prehistoric time. Malari culture shows that people believed on dead transforming into spirit.
         People had to travel in night, on lonely dangerous places in day light, had to sleep in Goth (camp in field) and definitely they were afraid of Ghost too. Every village used to face the so called attack of Ghost every week.
 There were Mantrik or Tantrik in every village for getting rid of Ghost. People used to put spiky plant branch on their door head to stop Ghost entering into house. When people taking dead body to funeral place they used to keep spiky plants on the road that spirit of dead one did not return back to the village.
   Bhotiya people used to go with ‘Sara’ or ‘Ragosha’ for stopping disturbance of ghost.  People of Shrinagar had beliefs that Bhut used to come from all nearby hills to Shrinagar. King Shyamshah died because of sinking into Ganga and people believed that his spirit used to wander in Shrinagar in night.
 Many elites, Kings, army chiefs, soldiers died in abnormal conditions and still people worship their spirit as Ranbhut as Jeetu Bagdwal. Many army commanders died in war also worshipped as Ranbhut.
 Gharbhut- Many times still in present time, people keep Ghadela for satisfying the unsatisfied soul of their dead family members called Hantya Pujai. 

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 17/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -514
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on Garhwal ka Itihas, Garhwal ka Madhy Yugin Itihas , South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
Beliefs on Bhut, Ghost, Spirit, Specter, Ghoul   in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Beliefs on Bhut, Ghost, Spirit, Specter, Ghoul   in Haridwar Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Beliefs on Bhut, Ghost, Spirit, Specter, Ghoul   in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Beliefs on Bhut, Ghost, Spirit, Specter, Ghoul   in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Beliefs on Bhut, Ghost, Spirit, Specter, Ghoul   in Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Beliefs on Bhut, Ghost, Spirit, Specter, Ghoul   in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Beliefs on Bhut, Ghost, Spirit, Specter, Ghoul   in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Beliefs on Bhut, Ghost, Spirit, Specter, Ghoul   in Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era;
स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत


Bhishma Kukreti

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            Devi -Devta, Deities and Goddesses of Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -77 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -267     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -514
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
 The people believed on pan Indian mythological, historical and Deities and Goddesses. The Garhwal people also worshipped their own local Deities and Goddesses.
Nag Raja –Many Nags as Dhauli Nag, Fedi Nag, Hari Nag, Vasuki Nag
Narsingh
Nanda Devi
Devi or Durga –Many forms
Kailash
Shiva
Vishnu
Kali
Mahakali
Bhairav
Ghantakarn
Gaurja
Shakambari
Chandravadani
Durga
Five Pandav
Draupadi
Kunti
Duryodhan
Karna
Rawan (only one place in Uttarkashi)
Krishna
Rukmani
Hanuman
Satyabhama
Parishram
Panchnam
Nirankar
Gwill or Gorul
Sidhuva
Vidhwa
Seema Ji
Ajandi Bubu (Milk related Deity)
Satyanath
Malaynath
Latu Devta
Maimanda
Khetarpal
 Bhumya
 Mithal
, Ghandyal  and many more local deities
Anchheri- Fairies were among Bhut




Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 18/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -515
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on Garhwal ka Itihas, Garhwal ka Madhy Yugin Itihas , South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
Devi -Devta, Deities and Goddesses of Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Devi -Devta, Deities and Goddesses of Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Devi -Devta, Deities and Goddesses of Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Devi -Devta, Deities and Goddesses of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Devi -Devta, Deities and Goddesses of Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Devi -Devta, Deities and Goddesses of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Devi -Devta, Deities and Goddesses of Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era; Devi -Devta, Deities and Goddesses of Haridwar, Garhwal in Pal /Shah Era;
स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत


Bhishma Kukreti

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                 Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period and of Later Period

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -78 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -268     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -515
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

            In this chapter, the author would like to offer information about the entire major Pilgrim places of Pal Period and later period too.
                  Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Dehradun
Guru Ram Rai Darbar Sahib
Tapkeshwar Mahadev
Vaishnodevi Gufa Mandir
Lakshman Siddh Peeth
Chandravadani
Tapovan
Sahstradhara
Baudh temples
Temples of Rishikesh
Historical temples in Jaunsar Bhabhar
Asoka Pillars, Kalsi
Jatgram Badwala
Bairatgarh
Chaitrrath
Bindusar
Nagthat
Bhadraj mandir
Devthal
Mahasu Lakhwad
Rudreshwar
Lakhamandal
Beespuriya Gufa
 Kartikey Gufa
Kedar Mandir Bhatad village
Mahasau Temple, Hanol
Mahasu all
          Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Pauri Garhwal 
Mahadev Chatti
Vyaschatti
Godeshwar , Thantholi, Dhangu
Silsu Devta , kadthi, Dhangu
Silsu Devta , Silsu, Banelsyun
Neelkanth
Bhuvneshwari Siddhpeeth
Yamkeshwar
Kanvashram
Tadkeshwar temple
Kalo dand (Lansdowne)
Kaleshwar
Binsar Mahadev
Dudhatoli region
Bridh Bharsar mandir
Paithani
Jwalpa Devi Mandir
Bharav Garhi
Langurgarh
Ekeshwar Mahadev
Dangleshwar Mandir
Bhuvaneshwari Sanguda
Mundaneshwar or Khairling
Jhali Mali Devi
Adeshwar
Danda Nagraja
Kyunkaleshwar
Kandoliya
Nag Devta Mandir
Lakhmi Narayan
Lakshman Dev Temples Deval
Valmiki Ashram
Shrinagar
Kamleshwar , Shrinagar
Kansmardani , Shrinagar
Keshoray Math, Shrinagar
Shankar Math, Shrinagar
Gorakhnath Math, Shrinagar
 Satyanath Math, Devalgarh
Rajrajeshwari, Devalgarh
Gauradevi Mandir, Devalgarh
Lakhmi Narayan ,Devalgarh
Murli Manohar   ,Devalgarh
Som manda  ,Devalgarh
Bhairav Gufa ,Devalgarh
Caves and Samadhis  ,Devalgarh
Ashtawkar Mandir
Gauradevi mandir
Nagarasani Mandir
Indragavan
Taileshwar Mahadev
Dharidevi
Bunkhal Kalika Devi
Deeva Devi
Mata Shyam Sundari
Vaishno Devi
Godeshwar
Manjughosh Mahadev
Bhumyal Devi
          Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Tehri Garhwal 


 Devprayag and temples
Chandravadani
Sarkunda Devi
Kunjapuri
Budha Kedar
Nathpanth Sthal
Kailapir
Balikheshwar Mahadev
Jwalamukhi
Siddhpeeth, hankuti
Nagraja Dev mandir
Neelchameshwar Mandir 
Seemmukh Nagraja
Kilkileshwar
Ghantakarn Region
Surya mandir regions
Bhilleshwar
Koteshwar
            Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Uttarkashi Garhwal     
 Vishwanath Mandir
Temples of Uttarkashi
Gangotri
Yamnotri
Kandar Divta mandir
Pundir Nag
Nagni Mata Mandir
Renuka Mandir
Ghandiyal Divta
Ringali Devi Mandir (Dunda)
Surya Mandir (Manjiyali)
Gomukh
Mukhva Gram
Gharali mandir
Pabsik Mahasu Mandir, Thadiyar Ganv
Karnmandir , Devragaon
Sameshwar mandir
Shilashraya
Pokhu Maharaj
Kamleshwar
Kapil Muni mandir
Ashwamedha Kshetra
Odaru jakhandi Dev
Kaliya Nag mandir
Rudreshwar
Shivgufa Badkot
Bhadrakali Paunti
Raghunath mandir Pujeli
Yamdigna Ashram
Renuka Devi
Hanuman mandir
Kharsaali

                              Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Chamoli  Garhwal 
Badrinath
Ganesh Gufa
Vyasgufa
Adibadari
Karnaprayag
Uma Devi mandir
Govind Mandir groups Simli
Badhan gadhi mandir
Nagnath , Pokhari
Navdurga Gadhi
Nand Prayag
Nanda jat
Nanda Devi karud
Nanda Devi jat Yatra Marg
Vairaskund
Gopeshwar Temples
Datatrey Janma Sthal
Rudranath
Dhyan Badri
Kalpeshwar
Urgam region temples
Banshinarayan
Panchkedar
Bridhbadari
Painkhanda Temples
Joshimath
Adi Shankarachary Mandir
Narsing Mandir
Auli Gursaun Mandir
Hanuman Mandir
Tapovan
Gauri Shankar Mandir
Bhavishya Badri
Neeti Valley temples
Vishnu Prayag
Hemkund
Lokpal
Kakbhushandi lake
Pandukeshwar temples
Seeta tapsthali
Koteshwar
Gandera mahadev
Girsa Mandir
Jilasu

                  Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Rudraprayag  Garhwal 
 Kedarnath
Rudraprayag
Koteswar
Umanarayan
Agystmuni Mandir
Saneshwar Mandir
Ukhimath
Tungnath
Makkumath
Guptkashi
Narayankoti
Jakhdevta
Kalimath
Kaviltha
Kotimahashwari
Rucch Mahadev
Kalishila
Triyuginarayan Region temples
Gaura mai Mandir
Kartikey Swami
Hariyali Devi
Mathiyana
Nanda Devi mandir , Kameda
Narayan Mandir, Gadmil
Narayan Mandir , Chopda
Temples in Bairangana
Shivalay Marud
Nanda Devi , Ratuda
Lakshmi Narayan mandir , Shivanandi
Vanasur Gadh mandir
Jamu (jamdneshwar ) mandir
SOnprayag temples
Shakmabari Devi
Durga Devi mandir, Fegu
Rajrajeshwari , Taltoli
Lalita Devi mandir, Nala
Ashtbhuja Mandir , Byung
Mahrshimardani Mandir
Kushmanda Devi mandir
Ufrain Devi mandir
Rnajit Rishi Mandir
Bhimsen Mandir
Aniruddh Mandir , Lamgaundi
Ganesh Mandir , Mund Katya
Bhairav mandir Chaibasa
Garud and other temples in Garudchatti buddh temples , nala






Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 19/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -516
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on Garhwal ka Itihas, Garhwal ka Madhy Yugin Itihas , South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period and of Later Period; Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Dehradun, Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period and of Later Period; Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period and of Later Period; Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period and of Later Period; Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period and of Later Period; Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period and of Later Period; Pilgrim Places, Shrines of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period and of Later Period;   
स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत

Bhishma Kukreti

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  History aspects - Entertainment by Folk Games in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period
                     Entertainment in Garhwal – 1
Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -79 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -269     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -516
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

  Folk Games of Garhwal could be divided into following types-
Folk Games for special Occasions
Competitive Traditional Games
Guessing Folk Games and games where drawing is involved
Hunting Folk Games
Board or Paper based Folk Games
Gambling Folk Games
Physical Skill Folk Games
Water Folk Games
Cradle Folk Games
Imitation games
Singing Games
 The scholars can classify Traditional Folk Games/Sports from Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar as under –
Women Folk Games
Men Folk Games
Children folk games
Women and Men Folk Games
Children and Older men –women Game 
 Folk games of Garhwal could also be divided into following types
Indoor Folk Games from Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand)
Outdoor Folk Games from Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand)
Marriage or Specific Event Folk Games from Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand)
Board Folk Games from Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand)
Property Folk Games from Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar (Uttarakhand)

           -In old time, following games used to played by people-

Ayedi or folk game - hunting
Antakshari
Various Marriage party folk games
Iktangdya or Langdi Tang
Gilli Danda
Luka Chhipi
Ankh michauli
Chor Sipahi
Pathri Fod
Kabbadi
Ritha Bhainswal
Gari or pebbles
Kho kho
Kusti
Jumaping
Chhaumpa Daud or racing
Climbing on trees
Swimming
Swinging on tree
Various other old Indian games




Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 19/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -517
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on Garhwal ka Itihas, Garhwal ka Madhy Yugin Itihas , South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
History Aspects of Entertainment by Folk Games in Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Entertainment by Folk Games in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Entertainment by Folk Games in Haridwar Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Entertainment by Folk Games in Pauri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Entertainment by Folk Games in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Entertainment by Folk Games in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Entertainment by Folk Games in Tehri Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period; Entertainment by Folk Games in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal /Shah Period;
स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत


Bhishma Kukreti

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History Aspects- Entertainment by Folk Dance and Songs in Garhwal in Pal and Shah Period
                Entertainment in Garhwal – 2

Administration, Social and Cultural Characteristics History of Garhwal in Shah Dynasty -80 

   History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -270     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -517
 
                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
 There were various types of Folk Dance –Song for entertainment in Garhwal as -
1-Mangal Geet: K-Awhahan Puja geet, Kh-Puja Geet, G-Vivah geet
2-Jagar : Narsingh, , Ngarja, Devi, Hantya, Pandav, Bhairon etc
3-Panwade (Chivalry songs ): Historical and non -historical
4-Tantra Mantra
5-Thadya
6-Chaufula
7-Khuded
8-Baramasa
9-Kulachar
10-Pasara
11-Vasanti
12-Hori
13-Bajuband
14-Laman
15-Chhopati
16-Lori geet
17-Patkhai men Chhuda
18-Naunyali
19-Chaumasa
20-Duda
21-Samayik

The Garhwali Folk Scholar Dr, Nand Kishor Hatwal divided Garhwali Folk dance- Songs from the point of view of Poetic Styles in following types-
1-Tek Shaili or Style
2-Pattdar Shaili or Style
3-Tek aur Pattdar or Tek shaili and Pattdar Style
4- Bina  Tek aur bina Pattdar or Without Tek shaili and Pattdar Style
5-Sanvadatmak Shaili or Dailogue Style
6-Sambodhan or Vocative Style

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 20/12/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -518
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter ….
History of Characteristics of Garhwal Kings Shah dynasty, to be continued

XX    
Notes on Garhwal ka Itihas, Garhwal ka Madhy Yugin Itihas , South Asian Modern Period  History of Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Pauri Garhwal; South Asian  Modern Period   History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Tehri Garhwal;  South Asian Modern  History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Modern  History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Modern Period   History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian Modern Period  History of Haridwar district, South Asian History of Bijnor old Garhwal
Xx 
History Aspects - Entertainment by Folk Dance and Songs in Haridwar Garhwal in Pal and Shah Period; Entertainment by Folk Dance and Songs in Dehradun Garhwal in Pal and Shah Period; Entertainment by Folk Dance and Songs in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Pal and Shah Period; Entertainment by Folk Dance and Songs in Tehri Garhwal in Pal and Shah Period; Entertainment by Folk Dance and Songs in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Pal and Shah Period; Entertainment by Folk Dance and Songs in Chamoli Garhwal in Pal and Shah Period; Entertainment by Folk Dance and Songs in Pauri Garhwal in Pal and Shah Period;
स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत


 

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