Author Topic: History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD) -कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )  (Read 68314 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Battle between Champawat king Kirati Chand (Kirti Chandra) and Garhwali King Ajay Pal 

             (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 163

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                There are a couple of evidences those imply that Kirati Chandra/ Kirti Chand or Kirti Chandra attacked on Garhwal kingdom when Ajay Pal was king.
              The folklore related to Baba Nagnath state that Nathpanth priest Nagnath suggested Kirati Chand to attack on Garhwal for taking advice from Baba Satyanath (who was Guru of Nagnath and was settled in Garhwal).  Kirati Chandra cancelled his campaign to win over on Garhwal due to sudden death of Baba Satyanath.
          Hari Krishna Raturi (1920)wrote that in 1500AD, as soon as Ajaya Pal succeeded Garhwal kingdom, the Champawat king attacked on Garhwal from Badhan region. Champawat king defeated Garhwal king and Ajaya Pal ran away to a hill. There Baba Satyanath inspired to defend again against Champawat king. Ajay Pal attacked on Champawat king and defeated Champawat king. Champawat King had to make peace with Garhwal king.
     B.D. Pandey (1927) wrote that after capturing various territories of Katyuri and Khasa from Kumaon region, Kirati Chandra attack on Garhwal and won some territories. However, in return of Gold as tribute from Garhwal king, Kirati Chandra returned the territory to Garh –King. Kiratichandra decided Deghat as border dividing region. It seems Deghat was in Garhwal kingdom and Kirati Chandra captured this territory from Garhwali king.
    Pundit Medhkar Bahuguan the court poet of Pradip Shah (1717-77AD) king of Garhwal wrote in Ramayan-Pradip that a Katyuri king from Champawat attacked and defeated Ajay Pal and snatched the gold throne. Later on Ajaypal defended and got his golden throne back. Ajaypal shifted his capital from Chandpur Garhi  to Shrinagar. Since, historians are unaware any Katyuri king in 1500 who was so powerful it seems that Medhakar described Kirati Chandra as king of Katyuri rulers.
                     Death of Kirati Chandra

                 The last inscription of Kirati Chandra is dated 1505AD and first inscription of his successor is dated back 1510 AD. That means Kirati Chandra died in between 1506-1510.
   The Folklore praised the brave characteristic of Kirati Chandra. However, folklore declared him the cruel most Chand king too. People loved Katyuri kings very much that still people worship Katyuri as deities.
                                   Nathpanth
                 In the time of Kirati Chandra Nathpanth progressed in Kumaon and at the same time Nathpanth progressed in Garhwal too. Satyanath was Guru of Ajay Pal of Garhwal and Nagnath was Guru of Kirati Chandra. Kirati Chandra donated land for Nath temple. There is Samadhi (burial place) and temple of Nagnath in Champawat. There is Samdhi and temple of Satya Nath in Devalgarh near Shri Nagar Garhwal. The present people of Garhwal and Kumaon have great respect for Nath priest.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 7/10/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -164
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Pratap Chandra: An Average Chand king of Kumaon of Middle Age

             (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 164

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

          Ruling Period of Pratap Chandra (1506-1511)

                   The list ‘A’ and “C’ provide information that the ruling period of Chand king Pratap Chandra is 1503-1517 and Atkinson supports the same period.
         However, the Bhojpatra inscription by Kirati Chandra gieven to Krishna Raut is of 1505AD. Kirati Chandra donated land to Krishna Raut and Prince Pratap Chandra and Bhiku Gusain are witness of the land donation in Bhojpatra inscription. The inscription clearly suggests that Pratap Chandra got rule only after 1505.
   There is a Bhojpatra inscription of 1511 AD by Bhishma Chandra or Vishnu Chand. Bhishma Chandra provided copper inscription to Krishna Raut for witnessing for donating the land to raut. The inscription writer is same who wrote the inscription of Kirati Chandra. The copper inscription by Bhishma Chandra suggests that Pratap Chandra was no more king  at the time of 1511.
   No other memorable historical records are available from the time of Pratap Chandra. It seems that Pratap Chandra consolidated his Kingdom got from his father Kirati Chandra. It might be correct that Pratap Chandra defended perfectly his kingdom. 
 


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 8/10/2013

                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -165
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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                   Chand King Bhishma Chandra who was killed by Khasa revolutionists 

             (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 165

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                               Ruling Period of Chand King Bhishma Chandra

        There are differences for ruling period of Bhishma Chandra a Chand king of Medieval Age. However, the logical argument of Dr. Dabral seems to be correct that Bhishma Chandra ruled from 1511-1559 AD. His name was also Vishnu Chandra.
 There are inscriptions of Bhishma Chandra available for 1511, 1512, 1519 and 1533.
 
                              Shelter to Khawaskhan

                    Sher Shah Suri (1486-1545) defeated Mogul King Humaun in 1540 AD. However, when his younger son Islam Shah was crowned in 1545, there were resistances and rebels from the supporter of his elder brother Adilkhan who was denied crown by Sher Shah Suri.
       Islam Khan defeated Adil Shah and Adil Shah ran away from the battle field forever. Islam Khan sent his huge army of 45000 soldiers in the leadership of Ajam Humaun to defeat Khawaskhan the stern supporter of Adil Shah in Sarhind region.  However, Ajam Humaun did conspiracy against Islam Khan and paved way for Khawaskhan and Khawaskhan ran to Katehar via Shivalik hill zones. Khawaskhan resided near Tarai region of Kumaon and started looting Islam Khan Territory that was adjacent to Kumaon and Garhwal Tarai region.
 Khawaskhan reached Ambala to suppress Niyazis the rebellions of Ismail Khan. Niyazi were defeated. Khawaskhan returned to Tarai of Kumaon.  Khawaskhan reached Kumaoni Tarai region from Ambala via Sirmaur, Dehradun, Salan Bhabhar of Garhwal.
            The Champawat Kumaon king provided land as Jagir (land for gaining revenues) to Khawaskhan and also fixed daily allowances.
Delhi Sultan Islam Khan sent his commander Tejkhan Kirani to capture Khawaskhan. Tejkhan sent messages to Khawaskhan but Khawaskhan did not come into trap. Tejkhan Kirani sent messages to Champawat Kumaoni king to hand over Khawaskhan to Sultan.  Champawat Kumauni King answered that he could not hand over the person who was under Champawat shelter. It was just difficult for Sultan army to win Kumaoni king due to hill region.
    Islam Khan sent letter to Khawaskhan and created trust in the mind of Khawaskhan. Khawaskhan started his journey to meet Sultan at Delhi.  Khawaskhan reached Sirsa via Bhabhar Garhwal, Dehradun, Sirmaur. At Sirsa, Tejkhan Kirani killed Khawaskhan and filled straw into dead body of Khawaskhan.

               Disturbance in Doti
                    Doti king family member Hari Sahi married his daughter with Prince Balo Kalyan Chandra. There was some disturbance in Doti and Katyuri king was unable to suppress the disturbance. Bhishma Chandra sent prince e Balo Kalyan Chandra to help Doti King to suppress the disturbances. Prince Balo Kalyan Chandra reached to Doti.
                        Revolt in Champawat Kingdom
  Due to cruel suppression of Kirati Chandra, Pali and Syunara were under Chand kingdom. However, the Khasa people were against Chand King ruling on them
  As soon as Prince Balo Kalyan Chandra reached to doti, the Khasa people of Pali and Syunara revolted against Chand king. Bhishma Chandra reached to Khagmara. Gajua Thinga was leading rebellion people. Gajua Thinga killed Bhishma Chandra and his supporters.
  Balo Kalyan Chandra heard the news and had a confluence with Doti kingdom. Balo Kalyan Chandra reached to Khagmara.  Cruelly, Balo Kalayn Chandra killed Khasa people of Khagmara. People still sing folk song for the sinful cruelty of Balo Kalyan Chandra. 
 By logical means and study of inscriptions, it might be said that Bhishma Chandra was killed in 1559 and Balo Kalyan Chandra got crown in 1559 AD. It seems Bhishma Chandra died at the age of 74.
 Bhishma Chandra had a desire to shift his capital from Champawatkot to Khagmara and he discussed the same with his courtiers.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 9/10/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -166
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Balo Kalyan Chandra: A Chand king Struggled and captured Gangoli, Sor and Danpur, Kumaon

             (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 166

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                     Ruling or Regime Period of Chand king-Balo Kalyan Chandra

 Ruling period of Chand king Balo Kalyan Chandra is 1559-1565.
His inscriptions are available of 1559.

          Shifting of Capital from Champawatkot to Khagmara, Almora

                   Bhishma Chandra the predecessor of Balo Kalyan Chandra had decided to shift the capital from Champawatkot to Khagmara, Almora. The place was in centre to control the won territories by Chand Kings especially Kirati Chandra. However, Bhishma Chandra could not complete his decision.
             The hill was called Khashiyakhola (the place of Khasa) and Balo Kalyan Chandra established the capital as Alamnagar in this hill. In this hill, Almoda (a medicinal plant) and a bush Kilmoda (a spiky medicinal, flower and fruit plant) were found abundantly. The flowers of these plants were brought daily for rituals at Katarmal temple. This hill was also called Almoda due to growing of Almoda plants.  In inscription the new capital was named as ‘Rajapur’. Alamnagar became part of Almora.
       Almora was at central place of the Chand kingdom. There was abundant availability of wood and building materials for creating capital in the new region.
              The capital was nearby Devalikhan, Tadikhan, Bilolikhan and Chinakhan.  Balo Kalyan Chandra gave ten times more land in Chhakhata to successors of Shri Chand a Gujrati Brahman for land in Syunara. Chand King Balo Kalyan Chandra built his palace at Nail Pokhar in Alamnagar or Almora. King Balo Kalyan Chandra provided land to his family members near his palace. Balo Kalyan Chandra provided land to Joshi families of Champawat too to settle in the capital. However, Chautara Brahmans did not agree for settling in Alamnagar. For many years after Almora being a capital, some administrative works were done in Champawat the old Capital. Champawat was additional capital till 1611.
  There was disappointment among people of Kali Kumaon for shifting the capital. Therefore, balo Kalyan Chandra settled mara, Fadtiyal, Chauthan Brahmins in Almora. Balo Kalyan Chandra also settled the Brahmins, Khasa, Rajput from Bramandal, Pali, Faldakot, etc in the new capital
                                  Capturing Gangoli
         
       Manikoti King Narayan Chandra was ruler of Gangoli at east north of Almora.  Balo Kalyan Chandra attacked Gangoli and Narayan Chandra accepted over rule of Balo Kalyan Chnadra by providing tributes.
 There is copper inscription of Prithvi Chandra available of dated 1610. Prithvi Chandra was succsor of Narayn Chandra. 
 Lakshaman Chandra the successor of Prithvi Chandra freed Gangoli from Chand kingdom in 1620.

                   Capturing Sira and Sor by Balo Kalyan Chandra

   Rattan Chandra captured Sor in 1468 from Katyuri. However, Doti king freed the territory immediately.
 At the time of Balo Kalyan Chandra, his brother in law Raymall Sahi Katyuri was ruler of Katyuri territory of Sor.
 Balo Kalyan Chandra sent his wife to Sor and she asked Sor territory from her brother as dowry for her husband Balo Kalyan Chandra. The Katyuri king Raika Maharaj Raymall Sahi refused to accept the rule of Balo Kalyan Chandra.  Balo Kalyan Chandra attacked on Sor and captured Sor territory.  Balo Kalyan Chandra also attacked on Sira. However, Sira army defeated Balo Kalyan Chandra and he had to flee to Almora.

                             Winning Danpur

  Due to defeat at Sira, the honor of Balo Kalyan Chandra was far below down in the region. Danpur a small kingdom was there at North West of Gangoli. There were many Khasa tribal chieftains in Danpur. Balo Kalyan Chandra attacked the territory. The army of Balo Kalyan Chandra was organized and his army won the territory easily. Balo Kalyan Chandra took all Khasa Thakurai into Chand kingdom.
           
                                Rautela as Thokdars
   
            Rautela families used to support Chand kings for getting opportunities looting the people. Chandra kings used to reward Rautela army men the land Jagir or Thokdari to rule. There were huge chains of Rautela Thokdars under Chand kingdom. This chain of Rautela Thokdars supported Chand kings in extending territories.
       Balo Kalyan Chandra died in 1565 and his son Rudra Chandra was crowned in 1565.
                 History will remember Balo Kalyan Chandra for his struggle to extend Chand kingdom.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 9/10/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -167
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Champawat, Kumaon; History of Sor Kumaon of Middle Age; History of Almora east Kumaon of Middle Age; History of Danpur Kumaon of Middle Age; History of Doti (now in Nepal) Kumaon of Middle Age; History of Nainital Kumaon of Middle Age; History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon of Middle Age; History of Khagmara Kumaon of Middle Age; History of Alamnagar Kumaon of Middle Age; History of Almora Kumaon of Middle Age; History of Faldakot Kumaon of Middle Age; History of Baramandal Kumaon of Middle Age; History of Pali Kumaon of Middle Age;  History of Gangoli Kumaon of Middle Age;  History of Ranikhet Kumaon of Middle Age;  History of Didihat Kumaon of Middle Age;  History of Chaukharga Kumaon of Middle Age;  History of  Pithoragarh Kumaon of Middle Age;  History of  Dwarhat Kumaon of Middle Age;     

Bhishma Kukreti

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 History of Chand King Rudra Chandra: A Contemporary King of Akbar the Great 
 
             (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 167

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

    Ruling period of Chand King Rudra Chandra – 1568-1597
              The Rudra Chandra inscriptions are available of years- 1565, 1567,1568,1575,1581,1594,1596,1597.
           The Chand king Rudra Chandra was contemporary to Akbar the Great (1556-1605); Garhwali kings Sahajpal (1548-1581); Balram Shah (1581-1591) and Man Shah (1591-1611).
                 Akbar the Great rule also affected Uttarakhand as the rule affected other Indian territories culturally and politically.
  When Chand king Balo Kalyan Chandra died his son Rudra Chandra was quite young.

               The Chand Kingdom at the time of Rudra Chandra Coronation 

   When the Chand king Rudra Chandra was crowned, the Chand kingdom was recently extended and the rule was not stable. In 1559, his grandfather king Bhishma Chandra was killed by rebellions.
  The Danpur and Sor were recently included in Chand Kingdom.  The Danpur people were called as monsters. Sor people were also famous for their cunningness and conspiracy deeds.
  When Balo Kalyan Chandra died his queen did not burn herself with the king as her son was in his teen. Rudra Chandra was intellectual and brave from his childhood. The queen arranged for his studies. Rudra Chandra used to take advices from his mother. The queen (his mother) was under the influence of Purohit or trusted Brahmins. That means there was influence of his mother and Purohit (Brahmins) on the Chand King Rudra Chandra.

                                  Establishing Baleshwar Temple
                 Immediately after his coronation, Rudra Chandra got the information that the Jagirdar of Kanth-Gola (Shahjahanpur) captured Mal (plains or Tarain of present Kumaon). A sage from Champawat (Baleshwar) informed King Rudra Chandra that an idol of lord Shiva is under the earth in Baleshwar. The Sage Ram Datt advised Rudra Chandra to dig out the Shiva idol and establish the temple. There was an idol when the digging was started in Baleshwar. The king built Shiva temple at Baleshwar (in Champawat).  The King ordered each nearby farmers of Baleshwar territory to donate a Nali cereal to the temple. The King appointed Ram Datt as chief priest of Baleshwar temple.  There is a Samadhi/burial place of Ram Datt in Baleshwar. It is said that the priests of Gannath temple are successors of Ram Datt.

*** Read about attack on Uttarakhand from Jagirdars of Akbar the great in History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 168

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 17/10/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham , 2004 The Mogul Throne

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -168
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Chand King Rudra Chandra: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Pithoragarh, Kumaon: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Dwarhat, Kumaon: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Baleshwar, Kumaon: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Danpur, Kumaon: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Sor Kumaon: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Gangoli, Kumaon: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Almora, Kumaon: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Bageshwar, Kumaon: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Champawat Kumaon: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Nainital Kumaon: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Ranikhet, Kumaon: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Udhamsingh Nagar Kumaon: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Kumaon, Uttarakhand: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Kumaon, Himalaya: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Kumaon, North India: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great; History of Chand King Rudra Chandra of Kumaon, South Asia: A Contemporary of Akbar the Great;

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Brutal Attacks on Uttarakhand by Cruel Jagirdars (Chieftains) of Cruel, Cunning Akbar the so called Great
             (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 168

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                  The so called great Akbar was in fact a cunning Badshah. The historians of Ain-e- Akbari and Tarikhe Badauni tell the brutality by chieftains of so called great Akbar.
                      According to Ain-e-Akbari , the Kanth- Gola (Shahjahanpur) chieftain of so called the great Akbar (most probably Husain Khan Tukdiya) attacked and looted Uttarakhand and destroyed Hindu temples and worshipping places. The chieftain of Kanth-Gola (Shahjahanpur) of so called the great Akbar was mean, cruel, and inhuman.  The brutal Kanth –Gola Jagirdar (chieftain) of so called the great Akbar learned that there are huge quantity of gold and silver in the temples of Shivalik mountain series and above region. The brutal, dead set against Hindu, Kanth –Gola chieftain of so called the great Akbar attacked various regions of Kumaon and looted the regions viciously.  The Tarikhe Badauni states that cruel chieftain of so called great Akbar reached to that hill region where Sultan Muhmmad was killed by Chand or Katyuri soldiers. It is said in the above book that cruel, mean, malicious, unkind chieftain of so called the great Akbar paid tribute to Sultan Muhamad. Neither historical evidences nor folklores support the events of  Tarikhe Badauni but the accounts show the brutality of Shahjahanpur chieftain of so called the great Akbar. According to Tarikhe Badauni, Husain Khan reached to Raika kingdom (now in Nepal) near Tibet and looted there. Tarikhe Badauni states that Kumaoni soldiers paid pain to soldiers of cruel chieftain of so called the great Akbar.
                    Around 1575, the army of Shahjahanpur chieftain of so called the great Akbar attacked on Vasantpur of Kumaon. Vasantpur was very wealthy city. There in Vasantpur, the army of Shahjahanpur chieftain (Jagirdar) of so called the great and secular king Akbar destroyed the Hindu worshipping places, destroyed villages and looted the region with brutal means. Kumaoni soldiers resisted and the cruel chieftain Husain got wound on his solder. After looting and destroying Vasantpur region, the cruel chieftain returned to Shahjahanpur and he died in Gadhmukteshwar.   
                 Now the question is raised on the historians who titled Akbar as the Great. Without permission from Akbar, his chieftain could not attack on any territory and looted inhumanly. It means by nature, the so called great Akbar was mean, cruel, inhuman and brutal. The so called great Akbar used to order his chieftain to loot worshipping places and harass, suppress the Hindu people and before people, he used to show that he was kind and secular. 
** Read other cruelty and brutality of chieftains Akbar in History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 169

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 18/10/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham , 2004 The Mogul Throne

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -169
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Historical aspects of brutal destruction and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on Bhabhar; Historical aspects of brutal destruction and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on hills of Kumaon; Historical aspects of brutal destruction, and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on Udham Singh Nagar; Historical aspects of brutal destruction and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on Kumaoni hills; Historical aspects of brutal destruction and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on Hills of Doti; Historical aspects of brutal destruction and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on Khatima region ; Historical aspects of brutal destruction and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on Champawat kingdom; Historical aspects of brutal destruction and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on Chand king ; Historical aspects of brutal destruction and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on Kumaon Tarain; Historical aspects of brutal destruction and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on Uttarakhand ; Historical aspects of brutal destruction and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on Central Himalaya; Historical aspects of brutal destruction and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on Dehradun; Historical aspects of brutal destruction and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on Bhabhar Garhwal; Historical aspects of brutal destruction and looting by chieftains of the so called great Akbar on Senapani region of Kumaon

Bhishma Kukreti

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Attack by Cruel Sultan Ibrahim the Chieftain of the so called Great Akbar on Kumaon

        (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 169

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                        From Uttarakhand point of view, Akbar was simple a cruel ruler and not greater ruler. According to Tabkat –i-Akbari, Sultan Ibrahim was chieftain of Akbar for Auba near Hirat. According to Tabkat –i-Akbari, Ibrahim won Koh-iDaman the Kumaoni territory. The time period is not known. It seems the event took place after death of Hussain Khan Tukadiya, 1575.
  According to Kumaoni folklore s, at the time of death of Husain Khan, Rudra Chandra the Chand king (1565-1597) started taking decision without interference of his mother and officers. Rudra Chandra reached to Tarai region of Kumaon and he compelled Muslim Savants to run away from Kumaon. Knowing the incident that Rudra Chandra compelled Muslim commanders leave from Kumaon Tarai, the Mogul ruler of Delhi sent huge army to help Katehar Mogul commander. Mogul army marched to Kumaon Tarai. Rudra Chandra knew that it is not possible for him to win over mogul army. Rudra Chandra offered an advice to Mogul Commander of Katehar that it would better to fight one to one that people are not harassed. The Katehar Mogul commander agreed upon the advice of Chand King Rudra Chandra. There was fight between soldiers on one to one basis. It was decided that the sub commander of Mogul would fight with sub commander of Rudra Chandra on one to one basis. Commander of Rudra Chandra defeated Mogul sub commander. Mogul Katehar commander returned to Knowing the win of Rudra Chandra, Badshah Akbar invited Rudra Chandra to meet him in Lahore.
  However, there is no logic in this folklore. No Mogul commander would accept the offer of Rudra Chandra for one to one fight between commanders. It might be true that Sultan Ibrahim might have attacked on Rudra Chandra and Rudra Chandra would have defeated Sultan Ibrahim
  Historians as Dr Dabral suggest that Rudra Chandra paid tribute to Akbar in Lahore in 1588AD.

 **Read more about Muslim fanatics opposing Akbar and the political situation in Kumaon in History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 169


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 21/10/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -170
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Attack by Cruel Sultan Ibrahim the Chieftain of the so called Great Akbar on Kumaon;  Attack by Cruel Sultan Ibrahim the Chieftain of the so called Great Akbar on Plains of Kumaon; Attack by Cruel Sultan Ibrahim the Chieftain of the so called Great Akbar on Hill foots of  Kumaon; Attack by Cruel Sultan Ibrahim the Chieftain of the so called Great Akbar on Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon; Attack by Cruel Sultan Ibrahim the Chieftain of the so called Great Akbar on North of Pilibhit, Kumaon; Attack by Cruel Sultan Ibrahim the Chieftain of the so called Great Akbar on North of Moradabad that is Kumaon; Attack by Cruel Sultan Ibrahim the Chieftain of the so called Great Akbar on North of Brelli that is Kumaon; Attack by Cruel Sultan Ibrahim the Chieftain of the so called Great Akbar on Bhabhar region of Kumaon; Attack by Cruel Sultan Ibrahim the Chieftain of the so called Great Akbar on North of Rampur that is Kumaon;         

Bhishma Kukreti

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Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of a Kumaoni King Rudra Chandra

        (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 170

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                        The historians have two three medium of knowing the history of Rudra Chandra a Chand King of certain Kumaon regions.  Ain-e-Akbari-; Tarikhe Badauni, Akbari Darbar, Akbarnama and folklores from Kumaon region are the medium of knowing about history aspects of Rudra Chandra a contemporary of Akbar .
                 It is said that the commander of Rudra Chandra defeated the commander of Katehar chieftain of Akbar in Tarai region. Akbar invited Chand king Rudra Chandra to talk in 1581. However, due to soft corner of Akbar for Hindus raged the Muslim fanatics not only in India but in his forefather territory too.
              The opposition from Muslim fanatics changed the affected political situation all across India including Middle Himalayan region –Garhwal and Kumaon.
 The chieftains of Bengal and Bihar were displeased from social reform by Akbar. The fanatical Islamic religious leaders decided to crown Muhammad Hakim (brother of Akbar and was regional head of Kabul) for India. The Islamic religious leader/Kaji of Jaunpur declared (fatava) that it was a duty of each Muslim to oppose Akbar.  There was revolt against Akbar in Bihar, Bengal, Awadh, and places as Allahabad.   Muhammad Hakim started his journey to come Agra (the capital of Mogul). Akbar started his journey to Punjab for suppressing the revolt of his brother Muhammad Hakim. The chieftain of Katehar revolted against Akbar when Akbar was in Punjab. The Mogul commanders Arab Bahadur, Niyamat Khan and Shahddan of Sambha revolted against Akbar and surrounded Bareli fort.  The armies of these commanders started looting Kumaoni people in Bhabhar, Tarai and hill regions.   Akbarnama by Shrivastava describes that chieftains of Kumaon regions also started looting the Mogul territory. Raja Ram Shah, Mukutsen and Karan of Kumaon regions also inspired people under Mogul territory to revolt against Akbar.
 The Mogul chieftain of Bareli Ain-e-Mulk discarded among rebellions and got Niyamat Khan and Kumaoni chieftains on his side. Ain-e-Mulk defeated the rebellions Arab Bahadur   and Shahddat. They flew into hills of Kumaon. Arab Bahadur started looting people of Kumaon hills and Bhabhar region. Abdul Fatah killed Arab Bahadur in Sherkot Pargana of Kumaon.
                      Akbarnama describes Raja Ram Shah, Mukutsen and Karan as hill kings. However, such names are not found there in Kumaoni history of that time. It seems that Raja Ram Shah, Mukutsen and Karan were Thokdar or regional heads of Chand king.
   
**Read more on Seera conquer by Rudra Chandra in History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 171

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 24/10/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -171   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of a Kumaon region; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of a Champawat; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of Almora a Kumaon region; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon region; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of  Ranikhet Kumaon; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of Nainital  Kumaon; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of  Danpur Kumaon; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of  Sore, Kumaon; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of  Gangolihat Kumaon; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of Khagmara Kumaon; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of  Faldakot Kumaon; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of  Pali Kumaon; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of  baramandal Kumaon; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of  Kumaon north to Pilibhit; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of  Kumaon north to Bareli ; Opposition of Akbar from Muslim fanatics at the Time of Rudra Chandra the king of  Kumaon Moradabad;     

Bhishma Kukreti

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Winning Seera Territory by Rudra Chandra a Chand King contemporary to Akbar

     (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 171

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                In 1581 AD, there was instability in north India due to opposition of Akbar from fanatic Muslim chieftains and hard core Muslim religious leaders. 
  Gangoli and Sore were already under Chand regime in Kumaon. Balo Kalyan Chandra father of Rudra Chandra tried to win Seera territory of Katyuri Rajwar family but did not get success. On the contrary Balo Kalyan Chandra was killed in the war. 
               Rudra Chandra attacked on Seera territory ruled by Katyuri –Rajwar family ruler. However, Raika king Hari Mall defeated Rudra Chandra very badly.  Rudra Chandra was forced to flee from Seera and took shelter in Gangoli. Rudra Chandra returned to Almora.
             Rudra Chandra came to conclusion that without knowing the power and strategic points of Raika King of Seera, he could not win over Seera.  There was Purushottam Pant a wealthy and knowledgeable person in Gangoli.  It was believed that Pant got wealth from Manikoti kings (the earlier rulers of Gangoli). Rudra Chandra came to know that only Purushottam Pant could offer him the inside story and strategic points of Raika king of Seera.
           Rudra Chandra called Purushottam Pant to his court. Initially, Purushottam Pant pretended to come to court. Rudra Chandra threatened Pant that if he did not come to court Pant would be fined for one lakh rupees. Purushottam Pant had to come to court.  The Chand king of Almora Rudra Chandra handed over Pant to chalk out strategy for winning over Seera Garh, Kumaon and Badhan Garh Garhwal.
  Purushottam Pant and Rudra Chandra attacked Seera Garh for three times. Every time, the ruler of Seera Raika Hari Mall defeated Rudra Chandra every time. Every time, Rudra Chandra lost his soldier’s lives.
              There was maternal uncle from Bichral caste of Purushottam Pant in Seera. With the aid of a Brahmin woman from Seera, Purushottam Pant came to know that there was an underground canal to supply water to army of Seera. Purushottam Pant also came to know the road through which Seera army used to get food supply.
  Initially, Rudra Chandra attacked on peripheral border of Seera and Raika King of Seera had to send his armed force in parts from Seera to various border regions.  By deploying armed forces of Seera Garh in parts to various destinations, the power of Seera army was reduced.  Purushottam Pant stopped the supply of water of underground canal and also cut the food supply to Seera Garh.  Rudra Chandra defeated Seera king Hari Mall. Hari Mall ran away to Doti. Now, there was rule of Rudra Chandra over Seera.
               Rudra Chandra exiled the exiled high post people and rich men dedicated to Katyuri family and appointed Rautela in place of Katyuri dedicated administrators.
                   As soon as Rudra Chandra won over Seera Garh, the western terrorizes t of Kali River as Askot, Johar, Darma also came under Chand regime. Here, too, Rudra Chandra appointed Rautela in administration and did send the Katyuri dedicated administrators into exile. 
        It is said that after winning Seera, Askot, johar, Darma , the mother of Rudra Chandra became Sati.

                                   Awarding Purushottam Pant by Rudra Chandra

                 Due to strategic actions of Purushottam Pant, now, Chand regime had rule over all over Kumaon or Manas Bhumi barring Manil and Katur.  Rudra Chandra awarded land to Purushottam Pant and ordered a copper inscription in 1581. Purushottam Pant became Jagirdar.  The copper inscription describes the bravery, poise acts etc of Balo Kalyan Chandra and Rudra Chandra. In this copper inscription, there is praise for Purushottam Pant as knowledgeable, great minister who dishonored Doti king.     


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 25/10/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -172   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History aspects of contemporary of King of Kumaon -Rudra Chandra a contemporary  to Akbar ; History aspects of contemporary of King of Pithoragarh Kumaon -Rudra Chandra a contemporary  to Akbar ; History aspects of contemporary of King of Bageshwar Kumaon -Rudra Chandra a contemporary  to Akbar ; History aspects of contemporary of King of Dwarhat Kumaon -Rudra Chandra a contemporary  to Akbar ; History aspects of contemporary of King of Almora Kumaon -Rudra Chandra a contemporary  to Akbar ; History aspects of contemporary of King of Nainital Kumaon -Rudra Chandra a contemporary  to Akbar ; History aspects of contemporary of King of Ranikhet Kumaon -Rudra Chandra a contemporary  to Akbar ; History aspects of contemporary of King of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon -Rudra Chandra a contemporary  to Akbar ; History aspects of contemporary of King of Kumaon (North India) -Rudra Chandra a contemporary  to Akbar ; History aspects of contemporary of King of Kumaon (Middle Himalaya  -Rudra Chandra a contemporary  to Akbar ; History of Kumaon, History of Uttarakhand

Bhishma Kukreti

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Characteristics of Rule in Kumaon by Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar -1

     (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 172

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                                       Administration in Askot in Rudra Chandra rule

        Various territories of Katyuri came under the rule of Rudra Chandra. However, Rudra Chandra did not disturb the ruling Askot by Rajwar Katyuri. Now, Rajwar Katyuri was chieftain under Rudra Chandra and not under Doti. It was not necessary for Rajwar chieftain to attend the court of Rudra Chandra. Kuru Gusain was a Kunvar or prince from Katyuri family. Kunwar Kuru Gusain was having good knowledge of Darma and Johar. Rudra Chandra appointed Kuru Gusain as in charge of Land management and tax /revenue collection for Darma and Johar regions.
                Jumala ruler was in charge of Vyans-Chaudans.
                  Rudra Chandra settled Rajput Jameendar (dasila, Bhainsoda, Malada, Mansara and Chilal)  of Chaugarkha, Baramandal, Mansari in Seera region.

                               Jagir of Tarai in Rudra Chandra rule
          Kanth-Gola Jagirdar Husain Khan Tukdiya of Akbar or Mogul captured a Tarai portion of Chand Kingdom. After death of Husain Khan, Rudra Chandra tried to free Tarai from Mogul territory but a Mansavdar of Akbar that is Sultan Ibrahim failed the acts of Rudra Chandra.
 Till 1581, Rudra Chandra was busy capturing Katyuri territory or consolidating the captured territory.
                   Meeting with Akbar

     In 1588, Rudra Chandra met Badshah Akbar in Lahor with gifts as Yak and dear musk. Rudra Chandra met Akbar with son of Todar mal the interpreter. It seems that Rudra Chandra did not capture Tarai territory by battle but by requesting Akbar.

                 Freedom from not attending Akbar court
 
                 In folklore, it is said that in Lahore, Badshah Akbar sent Rudra Chandra to attend Naguar fort. Where, the soldiers of Rudra Chandra showed many brave acts. Pleasing from bravery of Kumaoni soldiers, Akbar returned Chaurasi Mal to Rudra Chandra and freed Rudra Chandra for attending Mogul court to. Rudra Chandra appointed Birbal (minister in Akbar court) his priest. The successors of Birbal used to visit Kumaon and used to collect donations from Chand kings till 1789.


*** Characteristics of Rule in Kumaon by Rudra Chandra a King contemporary to Akbar to be continued in History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 172


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 26/10/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -173   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
 Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Middle Himalayan, Indian Medieval Age History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

 

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