Author Topic: History of Kumaon (1000-1790AD) -कुमाऊं का इतिहास (1000 - 1790 ई. )  (Read 68314 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Asian History of Kumaon King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah


              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 193

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

 Time Period of King Gyan Chand -1668-1708
Inscriptions –
1-Copper Inscription for Jagir to Kulomani Pande-1701 AD
2-Copper Inscriptions for Krishna Nand Joshi- 1703 AD
3- Donation for Patal-Bhuvneshwar temple -1708
4- A Copper inscription for transferring right of Chautha daftar to Shrinath Adhikari from Prayag Das Joshi
 Contemporary Kings of Gyan Chandra
Garhwal King – Fate Shah (1664-1716)
Delhi Mogul emperors Aurangzeb (1659-1707) and Bahadur Shah (1707-1712)

 Twelve Years Continuous Infighting between Kumaon and Garhwal Kingdoms

                King Udyot Chand handed over regime to his son Gyan Chand in his life. Usually, in past, the tendency was that newly Kumaon King would attack on Katyuri Kingdom. However, now the newly Kumaon King had started attacking on Garhwal.
              In his early years of ruling, Kumaon king Gyan Chandra attacked Garhwal. Gyan Chandra attacked Pindar valley, till Tharali and looted the people.
          In 1699, Kumaon King Gyan Chandra attacked on Badhan region of Garhwal and looted Nanda Devi temple and brought Nanda Devi idol with him.
         In 1700, Kumaon King Gyan Chand attacked on Savli, Khatli and Saindhar Patti of Malla Salan Pargna and looted there.
                   In 1701, Garhwal King Fate Shah attacked on Ginvad and Chaukot of Pali Pargana of Kumaon Kingdom. On these years there were attacks from both sides on the bordering regions of Garhwal and Kumaon. People migrated from those regions as they were not sure they would cut the crop sown by them. The bordering regions became forest land.
                   In 1703, Kumaon army entered Garhwal kingdom. There was fierce battle in Dudholi of Garhwal between Kumaon army and Garhwal army. Kumaon army defeated Garhwal army.
               Kumaon King Gyan Chand attacked Bhabhar region of Doti in 1704. The Kumaon army looted Bhabhar region of Doti kingdom. However, Kumaon army caught by fever of Bhabhar. Hundreds of Kumaon soldiers died due to Bhabhar fever and hundreds of soldiers fell ill for many years.
 In 1707, Kumaon king attacked with huge army on Garhwal. Kumaon army captured Juniya Garh of Garhwal. Kumaon army reached to Chandpur Garhi via Panuvakhal, Divalikhal and Bharadigad. Kumaon army looted Garhwal region and return back to Almora.
                                Honor to Scholars by Kumaon King Gyan Chand
 
               In 1690, Poet Matiram wrote poetry collection ‘Alankar Panchshika’ in praise of Prince Gyan Chand. That means Gyan Chand was looking after rule in his father life. Matiram praised Garhwali king and Kumaon king in ‘Vritkaumadi’. Bhushan (1613-1715) the court poet of Shivaji also visited courts of Kumaon, Garhwal and Nepal.
                   
                               Donation and Religious works by Kumaon King Gyan Chandra

 Gyan Chandra visited Haridwar in 1700.
 In 1703, Gyan Chand repaired Baidyanath temple at Gomati bank.
In 1703, Kumaon King Gyan Chandra built Badrinath temple in Katyur region.
In 1704, Kumaon king Gyan Chand built a building near Dharanaula , Almora.
In 1704 He donated land and a house to Vishwaswarup Pant.
Gyan Chand built a water reservoir in Haval bag Bhabhar –Tarai.
 Kumaon king Gyan Chand died in 1708.
His son Jagat Chand got kingdom.
  Rudra Datt  Pant refers Gyan Chandra as capable king. 




Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 21/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -194   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on South Asian History of Kumaon King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah; South Asian History of Kumaon, Uttarakhand King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah; South Asian History of Kumaon, Himalayan King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah; South Asian History of Kumaon , North Indian King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah; South Asian History of Pithoragarh-Kumaon King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah; South Asian History of Champawat- Kumaon King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah; South Asian History of Dwarhat-Kumaon King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah; South Asian History of Bageshwar- Kumaon King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah; South Asian History of Almora-Kumaon King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah; South Asian History of Nainital-Kumaon King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah; South Asian History of Udham Singh Nagar -Kumaon King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah; South Asian History of Ranikhet- Kumaon King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah; South Asian History of Haldwani- Kumaon King Gyan Chandra: A Capable King Contemporary of Mogul Emperors Aurangzeb and Bahadur Shah;

Bhishma Kukreti

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                 Central Himalayan, South Asian History of Kumaon King Jagat Chandra

              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 194

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

 Ruling Time Period of Kumaon King Jagat Chand/Chandra -1708-1720
Contemporary North Indian Rulers –
Garhwal- Fate Shah (1664-1716); Upendra Shah (1716-1717); Pradip Shah (1717-1772)
Delhi Mogul Emperor – Bahadur Shah (1707-1712); Jahandar Shah (1712-1713); Farukhshiyar Shah (1713-1719) and Muhammad Shah (1719-1749)

                     Historical Analysis of Attack on Garhwal by Kumaon King Jagat Chand
            In the time of King Gyan Chandra, there were wars for twelve years between Kumaon and Garhwal Kingdoms.
                    Due to regular wars between Kumaon and Garhwal kingdoms the bordering regions became human less and region were as good as barren forest land.
                According to Atkinson, in 1708, Kumaon king Jagat Chandra attacked on Loha Garh the border region of Garhwal and established army camp there.
    According to Atkinson, in 1709, Kumaon King Jagat Chand reached to Shrinagar via Pindar valley and Garhwal King Fate Shah ran away to Dehradun.  Jagat Chand distributed loot to his army and poor. Jagat Chand donated Shrinagar to a Brahmin. The story is ridiculous. Fate Shah was a brave Garhwali King who did fight with Guru Govind Singh too. Garhwal King Fate Shah fought with Hoon region (Tibet). Fate Shah captured Saharanpur from Mogul (though the rule could be for some time). Such King would have fought with Kumaon King. It is ridiculous that there was no Garhwal army from Kumaon border to Shri Nagar. There is no record of Donation of Shrinagar by Kumaon King to Brahmin.           There is no record of such war at all. The inscriptions of Jagat Chand do not scribe winning Shrinagar at all.
                      Garsar donation by Garhwal King Fate Shah
 Garhwal King ordered his (inscription of 1710) Badhan army commander that he had offered land of Garsar in Katyur Kumaon for Badrinath temple. Fate Shah ordered Badhan army commander that he would see that Kumaon King does not harass the subject of Garsar. This inscription was also used as witness for Garsar as tax free zone in British rule too.

                   Religious Donation by Kumaon King Jagat Chand
  Jagat Chandra donated thousand of caws. He spent money on religious rituals too. Kumaon King Jagat Chand donated land for temples of Punyagiri, Bhramaridevi, Baijnath, Nagnath and Bhuvneshwar. Jagat Chand also donated land to Pundit Devi Datt family.
 In his ruling period, Padma Dev Pandey wrote ‘Jagat Chandrika’.

                                   Administration in Jagat Chand
 
               Kumaon king Jagat Chand had annual income of nine lakhs rupees from Tarai region. Jagat chand was sober person. The Joshi of Jhinjhad, Joshi of Galli , Joshi of Danya were on high post of court . Manik Gaida Bisht, Sur Singh Aidi, Pahad Singh Gusain were on high post in Jagat Chand court.
      Jagat Chandra offered Najarana (gift or tribute) as Horses, elephants, Chanvar, Khanda, Peshkash, khunkri, Musk, herbal medicines and gold-silver utensils to Delhi Mogul Emperors.
  Kumaon King Jagat Chand was habitual of gambling. Jagat Chandra levied tax to his subject on gambling.
          Jagat Chand died due to small pox in 1720 and his son Devi Chandra got kingdom.





Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 22/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -195   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on Central Himalayan, South Asian History of Kumaon kingdom and King Jagat Chandra; Central Himalayan, South Asian History of Pithoragarh -Kumaon Kingdom ; Central Himalayan, South Asian History of Champawat-Kumaon kingdom and King Jagat Chandra; Central Himalayan, South Asian History of Bageshwar-Kumaon kingdom and King Jagat Chandra; Central Himalayan, South Asian History of Almora-Kumaon kingdom and King Jagat Chandra; Central Himalayan, South Asian History of Nainital-Kumaon kingdom and King Jagat Chandra; Central Himalayan, South Asian History of Kumaon Udham Singh Nagar-kingdom and King Jagat Chandra;

Bhishma Kukreti

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        History of North Indian, Himalayan Foolish /Mad Kumaon King Devi Chandra

              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 195

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

 Ruling Period of Himalayan, North Indian Kumaon King Devi Chand /Chandra- 1720-1760
Contemporary Garhwal King – Pradip Shah 1717-1772
Contemporary Delhi Mogul Empowers- Muhammad Shah -1719-1748

               Attack on Garhwal Kingdom by Kumaon King Devi Chand
               As per his predecessor’s customs, Kumaon King attacked on Garhwal just after getting the Kumaon crown. Garhwal Army defeated Kumaon army and dispatched Kumaon army from Badhan and Lobha regions.  Garhwali army followed Kumaon army and reached to Ranchula above Baijnath temple in Kumaon. Kumaon army defeated Garhwal army.  Devi Chand tried to attack Shrinagar but failed miserably.
                   Drama of winning Shrinagar by Devi Chand
          When Devi Chandra failed in winning even a small portion of Garhwal kingdom, he created a drama. He called a hill as Shrinagar. There he put some symbols of capital. Devi Chandra attacked that hill and won Shrinagar. Devi Chandra named the hill as Fatehpur (the place of winning). B.D Pande states that this hill was ‘Havalbag’

         Influence of Migrated Garhwali army brave men

             Before, Devi Chand, Pant, Pande, Joshi, Aidi and Gusain were on high positions of court and army. However, in the time of Devi Chand, the  Migrated Garhwali brave army commander Manik Gaida Bisht and his son Puranmall became powerful than Pant, Joshi, Pande etc.
                              Title of Vikaramaditya
           Devi Chandra was always anxious to hear praiseworthy words. The court employees took the advantage of self praise addiction of the king. Devi Chand tried to have a ‘New Calendar’ (New Shak) as Vikramaditya established New Year from his name. It is said that Devi Chand spent three crores rupees on establishing a ’New Calendar’ on his name. However, Dr. Dabral discard the theory of Devi Chand spending three crores though logic. Dr. Dabral estimated that Devi Chand might have spent around fifty-sixty lakhs rupees.
             Donation by Devi Chandra
              B.D. Pande called Devi Chand as ‘Pagal Raja’ (Mad King). Dr. Dabral called Devi Chand as ‘Muhammad Tuglak’ of Kumaon.
 Devi Chandra donated land and money to various religious men or temples.
1-In 1722, land to Jagishwar temple
2- In 1724, land to Narsingh temple of Tikhun
3- In 1725, land to Prem Ballabh pant
4- In 1726, land to Jageshwar temple
5-Land to Bhramari temple
            Devi Chand donated 1000 caws. He performed Tuladan ritual for six times.  Devi Chand decided to pay the loans on people from state bank.  Devi Chand spent state revenue for his name.
 
                 Winning other Territories Planning by Devi Chand
                 Brahmins encouraged Devi Chand to create a new calendar by donations. Cunning Manik Gaida Bisht and his son Puran Mall advised Devi Chand to become Samrat (emperor).  Kumaon King Devi Chand hired Afghani Daud Khan a professional fighter and having his own private army. Prior to taking job in Kumaon Kingdom Daud Khan was serving with Mudar Shah of Katehar (Rohilkhand). Devi Chand offered Daud Khan the responsibility of defending forts of Bhabhar-Tarai.
      With the aid of Kumaon army of Bhabhar-Tarai and his own battalions, Daud Khan started looting the regions of Moradabad-Rohil regions.  Moradabad Faujdar Vajir Kamaruddin Khan Itimad Uddaula had to take action against Daud Khan and Kumaon King. The Delhi Mogul minister got information that the 20000 armed force and chivalry of Daud Khan was busy in harassing farmers and people in Moradabad and looting the travelers in the region. The Mogul minister came to know that Daud Khan and Kumaoni army had captured many villages of the region and Jameendar (landlord) accepted the rule of Daud Khan.  The Jameendar or land lords of Moradabad regions stopped paying tax to Mogul court.
  Mogul court ordered Nayab Faujdar Ajmat Ullakhan Lakhnavi the deputy of Kamaruddin to suppress the revolt of Daud Khan and Kumaon king. Nayab Faujdar Ajmat Ullakhan Lakhnavi asked the help from regional administrator of Bareli. Both representatives of Mogul empire attacked on Daud Khan and company. There was fierce battle between army of Mogul army led by Nayab Faujdar Ajmat Ullakhan Lakhnavi and Bareli representative and Daud Khan –Kumaon armed force at Rudrapur (Bhabhar-Tarai of Kumaon).  Kumaon and Daud Khan Army were defeated and ran towards river. The incident is of 1721.
         Daud Khan changed the side and became friend with Nayab Faujdar Ajmat Ullakhan Lakhnavi without informing Devi Chand. Devi Chand was also present in Rudrapur. Mogul army was ready to capture Devi Chand but patriotic Kumaon soldiers save the king. Mogul army regained power on their territory.
                            Devi Chand reached Kakaddhar. Kumaon King invited Daud Khan to take his salary and compensation.  Daud Khan reached to Kakaddhar. Devi Chand caught Daud Khan and his aides. Devi Chand ordered to kill Daud Khan and he was killed.  The army of Daud Khan took employment under Mogul army of Moradabad. 
                             History of Sabir Shah
                There is mention of Sabir Shah in ‘Tarikh-e-Hindi’ written by Rustam Ali Shahabadi in 1741-42. The book describes that a Sabir Shah reached to court of Devi Chandra in 1725. He introduced to Devi Chandra as the heir of Timor Lang. Sabir Shah requested Devi Chandra to help him in getting Delhi Kingdom.  Devi Chandra ordered his Bhabhar –Tarai army to help Sabir Khan. Devi Chand also ordered his representative to make red camp for Sahib Khan as per design of Mogul ruler. Kumaon army representative of Bhabhar –Tarai collected forty thousand of Rohila armed force.  Shekh Ajmat Ulla Khan the Mogul regional army commander of Moradabad and Sambhal attacked on Kumaon army and its hired Rohila army. Mogul army defeated Kumaon army and Rohila army in first attempt. Sabir Shah ran to east and took shelter under BurahanuLmulk. BurahanuLmulk handed over Sabir Shah to Mogul representative Murid Khan who took Sabir to Delhi. Mogul Emperor sent Sabir Shah into prison.
        Historian Atkinson reports that Mogul army did not capture Kumaon territory as Devi Chand paid tribute to local Mogul representative. Devi Chand ran to Almora.

                 Attack from Doti and Garhwal
                    When Devi Chand was busy in fighting with Mogul army, Doti King from east and Garhwal king from west attacked on Kumaon Kingdom.   Devi Chand offered friendly treaty with Doti and ordered his army to fight with Garhwal Kingdom. He himself reached to his Entertainment palace in Devipur in Bhabhar.
                                 Murder of Devi Chand
   In winter of 1726, Dev Chand was in his entertainment palace at Devipur. He used to spend winter in Devipur palace.
                    Manik Gaida Bisht and his son had a conspiracy with palace guard Ranjit to kill Devi Chand. On fifth February 1727, Manik, Puranmall and Ranjit killed Devi Chand. The trio informed people that the King died because of snake bite. His wives became Sati (dying in pyre with husband) in Almora
 Devi Chand was childless. Bisht and his son capture all power with them.  In reality the death of Devi Chand was the end of Chand dynasty.
             Devi Chand will be remembered a Mad ruler of Kumaon.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 23/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -196   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of North Indian, Himalayan Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Pithoragarh-Kumaon King Devi Chand; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Dwarhat-Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Bageshwar-Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Almora- Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Nainital-Kumaon King Devi Chand; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Ranikhet-Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Haldwani-Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Udham Singh Nagar-Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Bhabhar- Kumaon King Devi Chandra; History of North Indian, Himalayan, Tarain-Kumaon King Devi Chand..

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Ajit Chandra: A Kumaon King the victim of Gaida Gardi (Cruel Interfering Rule of Gaida family)

              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 196

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
 Ruling Period of Ajit Chand- 1726-1729
Inscription -1729
Contemporary Rulers
Garhwal King- Pradeip Shah (1717-172)
Delhi Mogul Emperor – 1719-1748

             International fame historian Dr. Dabral states Ajit Singh as Imagery King (Kalpit Chand Naresh).
           Manik Bisht, his son Puranmall and a palace guard Ranjit Singh murdered Kumaon King Devi Chandra in 1727. Devi Chandra died childless.
                         Manik Bisht, his son Puranmall took over power in their hands and started searching a king who can be under them but they could enjoy the real power.  Due to heavy resistance, it was not feasible that Bisht or his son ascend on the crown. Therefore, they started searching a Rautela (Chand family and relative clans). The Katehar King Narpati Singh used to live in Pipli. His wife was daughter of late Kumaon King Gyan Chand.  Narpati Singh and Kumaoni princess had a young son Ajit Singh. Manik Bisht called Ajit Singh in Almora. Bisht and group declared Ajit Singh as King of Kumaon.
           At the time of anointment on crown of Ajit Singh, there held two rituals –coronation and Vratbandh or thread ceremony of Ajit Singh.  Narpati Singh and nineteen Jagirdar (Kings or Thakurs) of Katehar; Anand Singh from Garhwal Kingdom attended the coronation ceremony.
              Ajit Singh lived till 1729. He was leveled the father of a Khavasin (dancer) in 1729. It means that his age would be more than seventeen years. 
                      Gaidagardi

          After crowning Ajit Singh as King, Bisht and family stared completing their job to control the court. Bisht group killed Minister Bhava Nand Joshi of Digoli by sinking him into Saryu River. Bisht group appointed Veerbhadra Joshi as minister in place of Bhava Nand Joshi. Now, on behalf of king, Gaida Bisht group started exploiting the subject so cruelly that the period is called Gaidagardi.  Bisht group called the Brahmins who got donations from earlier Kings. The reversed the earlier orders of land donations.
                  Puranmall had illicit relation with Bijuli a court Khavasin (dancer). She delivered a son from Puranmall. Puranmall and his father Manik declared that the son is from Ajit Singh. Puranmall went to congratulate with gifts to Ajit Singh that King became father. Ajit Singh did not accept the conspiracy of Manik and Puranmall. Manik Bisht and Puranmall became restless that Ajit Singh might revolt in future. In night, Puranmall and his servants entered into Palace and killed Ajit Singh. Bisht group spread the news that Ajit Singh died of paralysis attack.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 24/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -197   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Balo Kalyan Chand: an Eighteen Days Old (One of Youngest Kings in world history) Kumaon King

(South Asian History of Kumaon King Balo Kalyan Chandra when he was in Diapers)

              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 197

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
 Ruling Period of Balo Kalyan Chand- 1729
Contemporary Rulers
Garhwal King- Pradip Shah (1717-172)
Delhi Mogul Emperor – Muhammad 1719-1748
                 We have some data of youngest kings crowned when they were in diapers
Oyo a Toro of Uganda king was crowned at the age of thee in 1995.
Puyi the last Chinese emperor was ascended on crown at the age of two years in 1908.
Pomare III was crowned Tahit Kingdom at the age of 17 months.
Henry VI was eight month old when he became king of England and France in 1442.
Shobhuza II was crowned as Swaziland Kingdom King at the age of four months old (in twentieth century)
Emperor Shang of Han was barely 100days old when he was declared Emperor of China.
James was 17 months old when he was crowned Scottish Kingdom and another James was also crowned as Scottish King when he was 13 months old. Surprisingly daughter of first James and mother of second James became queen at the age of six days old.
John I became Franc king as soon as he was born in 1316.
Alfonso XIII became Spain king on the day when was born.
Shah Shapur Ii was crowned before he was born in 309 AD in Persia. The Persian Nobles put crown on the belly of pregnant widow queen of Shah Hormizd.

                 Kumaon King Balo Kalyan Chandra when he was in Diapers

  Balo Kalyan Chand was son of Khavanis Bijri and Puranmall Bisht. Manik Bisht and his son Puranmall killed King Ajir Chand and declared that he died because of paralysis.
         Manik Bisht and Puranmall wanted king as per their choice. They sent message to Narpati Singh King of Katehar to send his younger son to Kumaon. Narpati Singh was aware about murdering his son Ajit Chandra by Gaida Bisht group. Narpati Singh sent message that he did not want his younger son as sacrificing goat for Kumaon kingdom politics.
    Cunning Gaida Bisht group ascended eighteen days old son of Puranmall Bisht from Khavasin Bijuri on the crown as King Balo Kalyan Chandra In 1729.
        Bisht group started ruling on behalf of Balo Kalyan Chandra. Bisht group started distributing Jagir /Thokdari as rulers.
 
                           Rebels   among Subject and Nobles
          Due to cruelty and unlawful ruling of Bisht group the Kumaoni subject present and old nobles became opponents of Bisht group.
           Mara and Fadtiyal groups were in favor that a successor of Narayan Chandra (who took asylum in Doti age back) should be appointed Kumaon King.
         A group went to Doti in search of successor of Narayan Chandra. They saw a poorest most farmer in jungle and brought to Kumaon as family successor of Narayan Chandra.  The Fadtiyal and Mara group took vow from the farmer that he would fight with Gaida Bisht group.
 Fadtiyal and Mara groups declared that farmer now as Doti Kalyan Chandra the King of Kumaon in 1730.
  On the record, Balo Kalyan Chandra was Kumaon King for 1729.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 24/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -197   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
South Asian History of Balo Kalyan Chand: an Eighteen Month Old (one of Youngest Kings in world history) Kumaon King; South Asian History of Balo Kalyan Chand: an Eighteen Month Old (one of Youngest Kings in world history) Pithoragarh Kumaon King; South Asian History of Balo Kalyan Chand: an Eighteen Month Old (one of Youngest Kings in world history) Dwarhat-Kumaon King; South Asian History of Balo Kalyan Chand: an Eighteen Month Old (one of Youngest Kings in world history) Bageshwar-Kumaon King; South Asian History of Balo Kalyan Chand: an Eighteen Month Old (one of Youngest Kings in world history) Almora- Kumaon King; South Asian History of Balo Kalyan Chand: an Eighteen Month Old (one of Youngest Kings in world history) Nainital Kumaon King; South Asian History of Balo Kalyan Chand: an Eighteen Month Old (one of Youngest Kings in world history) Ranikhet-Kumaon King; South Asian History of Balo Kalyan Chand: an Eighteen Month Old (one of Youngest Kings in world history) Haldwani-Kumaon King; South Asian History of Balo Kalyan Chand: an Eighteen Month Old (one of Youngest Kings in world history) Udham Singh Nagar -Kumaon King; South Asian History of Balo Kalyan Chand: an Eighteen Month Old (one of Youngest Kings in world history) Kumaon , region of Uttarakhand King; South Asian History of Balo Kalyan Chand: an Eighteen Month Old (one of Youngest Kings in world history) Kumaon , North India King;

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings

              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 198

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

Ruling Period of Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chandra-1730-1747
Doti Kalyan Chandra ruled till 1747 and died in 1748
Inscriptions – 1731 (six ) ,32,33 (three),34 (Three),35,36,37,40,44,45,46 AD
Contemporary Kingdoms
Garhwal- Pradip Shah
Delhi Mogul King- Muhammad Shah -1719-1748

       It is believed that Doti Kalyan Chandra was successor of Narayan Chand who was exiled from Kumaon long back.
                 The Fadtwal and Mara group brought Kalyan Chand from Doti. They already made understand to Kalyan Chand that Gaida Bisht group is deceptive and harmful to all. People and administration were fed up from suppressive, oppressive methods of Gaida Bisht group led by Manik Bisht and his son Puranmall Bisht.  The oppression and suppression of Bisht is called Gaidagaridi in Kumaon history. Those  brought Kalyan Chand as Kumaon king from Doti they advised Kalyan Chandra to destroy Gaida group.
                    When at the time of crowning of Kalyan Chandra, Manik Bisht and his son Puranmall came to pay tribute to the new King; Kalyan Chandra ordered to capture Manik Bisht and Puranmall Bisht. Newly coroneted King Kalyan Chand ordered to kill both. The soldiers killed Bisht and their family members in the court.
 The wife of Puranmall was pregnant. She was handed over to an old Muslim. She delivered a son and named as Bairishal. At the age of 18, this boy was returned his property snatched by Shivdev Joshi. The orphan disowned king Balo Kalyan Chand was handed over to a Muslim Chobdar and was converted from a Hindu Rajput to Muslim.

                      Killing of Rautelas (relative of Chand king family members)
       Doti Kalyan Chandra was a poor farmer. He got the Kingdom by chance and he never dreamed to be King at all. Doti Kalyan Chand was always conscious that somebody would deceive him and would take the Kingdom from him. The cunning administrative officers took disadvantages of the fear of uneducated, rural oriented, inexperienced in ruling, inexperienced in internal politics of ruling, Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chandra.  The cunning officers used to tell him false story that somebody is against the king and Doti Kalyan Chand used to punish the so called culprit. The selfish officers told him that Rautelas the relatives of old Chand kings would take over the crown from him. Doti Kalyan Chandra ordered to smash all Rautelas from Kumaon.  The government agencies started killing Rautelas from Kumaon territory.
                     The government agents killed Rautela men –women from Danpur to Bhabhar. Those were not killed they were exiled from the Kingdom.
             The spies used to roam from village to village to find out Rautela.  The person who used to inform about Rautela, the King used to reward the informer. Many people were taking disadvantage of such tactics of the King and were informing the government agencies about their enemies as Rautela.

 Kumaoni People did not oppose the cruel genocide of Rautelas by King Doti Kalyan Chand
                     The Kumaoni people did not oppose the genocide acts against Rautela families by Doti Kalyan Chand. The reason was that when Chand Kings came to power they displaced old local village in charges and appointed cruel Rautela (family members of Chand dynasty). These regional administration heads Rautelas were very cruel and selfish. The old village council chiefs were Katyuri and they were not cruel as Rautelas were. When King Doti Kalyan Chand started destroying Rautelas the subject became glad. 
 Many Rautelas ran away from Kumaon and took shelters under Katehar or Bareli rulers. One of them was Himmat Gusain.


@@ Read more about Cruel King Doti Kalyan Chand in next chapter
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 26/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -199   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on South Asian History of Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Pithoragarh-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Almora- Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Dwarhat-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Champawat-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Nainital-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Bageshwar-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Ranikhet-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings;  South Asian History of Haldwani-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Kumaon –a Uttarakhand region King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings;  South Asian History of a north Indian region Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; 


Bhishma Kukreti

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          History Aspects of Employees and Donations in the rule of Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand


              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)

         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 199

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                              Employees of Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand
               Uneducated, Doti Kalayan Chand did not have any knowledge of politics and court ruling system. The King had to depend on those who were helpful in getting crown.
   The higher posts in Doti Kalyan Chand court were given to Joshi of Danya. The Joshis of Jhinjhad, and Chaudhri and Ratgali were also in court.
   Sur Singh Bisht, Harsingh Gusain were Bakshi and Divan respectively.
          Bhavani Datt Pande of Bairati was Chief of Police.
 Kisan Dev Bisht, Nand Bisht and Parmanand Adhikari were minister at one time. 
  The King handed over the administration of Mall (Tarai and Bhabhar) to Shiv Datt Joshi.
 Ram Datt Adhikari was in charge of Kota Bhabhar.
 At later stage Doti Kalyan Chandra handed over the charge for Almora to Hariram Joshi.

               Donations and Religious Rituals by Doti Kalyan Chandra
                Doti Kalyan Chandra got crown by chance or by luck. Therefore, Doti Kalyan Chand had beliefs that deities and goddesses provided him kingdom to rule.
 Doti Kalyan Chandra donated land for temples.
In 1731, Doti Kalyan Chandra donated land three times to Jageshwar temples, and to Bridhkedar , Ganesh and Ghatotkach temples.
In 1733, Doti Kalyan Chandra donated land to Baleshwar temple.
In 1734, he donated land to Nagnath, Kshetrapal and Bhuvneshwar temples.
In 1735, the Kumaon king donated land for Purnagiri temple.
In 1736, Doti Kalyan Chand donated land for Ghatotkachh temple.
In 1737, he donated land to Sheetladevi temple.
In 1740, Kumaon King donated land for Kalika-Shitala Devi temple. These temples were in Kumaon.
  King Doti Kalyan Chand got shelter in Garhwal around 1734-44 against Rohila attacks. Garhwal King Pradip Shah helped him in getting back Kumaon kingdom.  In 1744, King Doti Kalyan Chand donated land to Badrinath and Kedarnath temples of Garhwal.
   Doti Kalyan Chandra donated land to families of Ganga Datt Joshi, Kulomani Pande, Bishan Datt Joshi and Devi Datt Chaudhari.





@@ Read more about Cruel King Doti Kalyan Chand in next chapter
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 27/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -200   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on South Asian History of Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Pithoragarh-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Almora- Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Dwarhat-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Champawat-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Nainital-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Bageshwar-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Ranikhet-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings;  South Asian History of Haldwani-Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; South Asian History of Kumaon –a Uttarakhand region King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings;  South Asian History of a north Indian region Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand: One of the Cruelest Kumaon Kings; 

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Misrule, Conspiracy, Groups and Mistrust in the Rule of Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand


              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 200

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti
  The historians, people will remember the   Doti Kalyan Chand rule for misrule; mistrust; mismanagement; mean mien by officers and ministers; misanthropy; misapplication of power; misapprehension; misappropriation of court money; mischief behaviors of King and his deceptive supporters; misinformation to the King by conspiracy methods; misjudgment by King; wrong counseling by ministers and Nobel s to the King; misdeeming deeds of King and his ministers; misgiving etc.
                 Since the King Doti Kalyan Chandra did not have any experience of Kingdom politics he was always afraid of conspiracy against him.  Doti Kalyan Chandra was always afraid that his servants would kill him and throw him out of power.
            Doti King created a strong network of spy to find his enemies or who might be his opponent.  The spies did pay less attention on conspiracy against the King but took disadvantages by announcing criminal cases against their own personal enemies , The advisors , officers, spies of King too advantages for settling their own enmities.
                     Taking Out Eyes of Brahmin Group
    There were many Brahmin groups fighting with each other for power in the court of Doti Kalyan Chandra.  One day, Bhavanipati Pande of Bairati , Dwarhat informed (conspiracy) the King that a group of Brahmins and Khasya group had made strategy to kill him (the King) and these groups wanted to crown the prince of Jaipur King (Rajasthan). 
             The King became insane hearing this information. The king Doti Kalyan Chandra ordered to take out eyes from the bodies of those Brahmins and Khasya immediately.  King did not give second thought for his inhuman order.
  The court workers took out eyes of those Brahmins mentioned by Bhavanipati Pande.  Nine iron pans (Kadhai or Bhadola) were filled by the eyes of so called anti King Brahmins. There were only cry of poor Brahmins and blood in that place. The so called anti King Khasya were killed and their dead bodies were thrown into Suval River valley. The vultures and craws were busy for eating the dead bodies. Most of the Brahmins were Pant, Joshi from Jhinjhad.
                  After killing Rautelas and Khashyas and making Brahmins blind; the King though for repent. The King Doti Kalyan Chand built a Mahadev temple in Binsar for repenting his sinful deeds. Frequently, King Doti Kalyan Chandra used to visit Binsar Mahadev temple.



@@ Read more about History of Cruel King Doti Kalyan Chand in next chapter
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 27/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -201   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)
Xx
Notes on History of Misrule, Conspiracy, Groups and Mistrust in the Rule of Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chand; History of Misrule, Conspiracy, Groups and Mistrust in the Rule of Kumaon (including Pithoragarh ) King Doti Kalyan Chand; History of Misrule, Conspiracy, Groups and Mistrust in the Rule of Kumaon (including Dwarhat) King Doti Kalyan Chand; History of Misrule, Conspiracy, Groups and Mistrust in the Rule of Kumaon (including Bageshwar) King Doti Kalyan Chand; History of Misrule, Conspiracy, Groups and Mistrust in the Rule of Kumaon (including Champawat ) King Doti Kalyan Chand; History of Misrule, Conspiracy, Groups and Mistrust in the Rule of Kumaon (including Almora) King Doti Kalyan Chand; History of Misrule, Conspiracy, Groups and Mistrust in the Rule of Kumaon (including Nainital) King Doti Kalyan Chand; History of Misrule, Conspiracy, Groups and Mistrust in the Rule of Kumaon (including Udham Singh Nagar ) King Doti Kalyan Chand; History of Misrule, Conspiracy, Groups and Mistrust in the Rule of Kumaon,  Uttarakhand King Doti Kalyan Chand; History of Misrule, Conspiracy, Groups and Mistrust in the Rule of Kumaon,  Central Himalaya King Doti Kalyan Chand; History of Misrule, Conspiracy, Groups and Mistrust in the Rule of Kumaon, North India  King Doti Kalyan Chand; History of Misrule, Conspiracy, Groups and Mistrust in the Rule of Kumaon,  South Asia King Doti Kalyan Chand;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Encroachment and Capturing of Kumaon Tarai  by Muslim Rulers in Doti Kalyan Chand period

              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 201

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                             Encroachment in Tarai of Kumaon by Muslim Rulers

         Doti Kalyan Chandra was busy in killing or punishing his suspected enemies in hills.  The commanders of Avadh Nabab Mansurali Khan captured Sarbana and Bilhari Parganas of Kumaon Tarai. Avadh regional commanders were planning to capture balance portion of Kumaon Tarai.
        From Rohilkhand (Bareli region), Ali Muhmmad Khan Rohila was ready to capture Tarai Mal of Kumaon.
                       Doti Kalyan Chandra appointed a courageous, hard worker nationalist Shiv Datt Joshi as regional commander for Tarai. Shiv Datt Joshi took necessary steps and recaptured Sarbana and Bilhari regions from Avadh commanders.   Joshi built a fort in Tarai region for stopping encroachment. Shiv Datt Joshi appointed Hariram Joshi as his deputy for looking after Tarai region.

                              Murder of Himmat Gusain

                Himmat Gusain was from Chand king family. Doti King took out his eyes. Himmat Gusain came to Tarai Bhabhar.
          Himmat Gusain collected army in Kashipur region to oust Doti Kalyan Chandra. Doti Kalyan Chandra came to know the conspiracy by Himmat Gusain. Doti Kalyan Chandra came to Tarai with army. His army pushed the army of Himmat Gusain. Himmat Gusain had to flee and took shelter in Anvla under Ali Muhammad Khan Rohila.
  Around 1742, Hakim Ram Datt Adhikari informed the King that Himmat Gusain was taking shelter under Ali Muhammad Khan Rohila. Doti Kalyan Chandra was conscious that Himmat Gusain could attack on Kumaon with Rohila army.
  Doti Kalyan Chandra sent Hedi spy killers led by Duli Chand from Bhavar to camp of Ali Muhammad Khan Rohila. Duli Chand killed Himmat Gusain.   Ali Muhammad Khan had already gathered necessary information about all weak points and strong points of Kumaon kingdom from Himmat Gusain.
 Now Ali Muhammad Khan Rohila was ready to capture part or complete Kumaon kingdom
   



@@ Read more about History of Attack on Kumaon by Rohila Commander Ali Mohammad Khan in the period of Doti Kalyan Chand in next chapter
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 29/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -202   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

Bhishma Kukreti

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              History accounts of Attack of Ali Muhammad Khan on Kumaon Kingdom

              (History of Kumaon from 1000-1790 AD)
   
         (History of Chand Dynasty Rule in Kumaon)
History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar) - Part 202

                                              By: Bhishma Kukreti

                  Brief about Rise of Ali Muhammad Khan

  Ali Mohammad khan was a Jat Muslim. However, the regional commander of Moradabad Daud Khan adopted   Al Muhammad Khan and Ali Muhammad Khan was counted as Rohila (Afghan decedent). Ali Mohammad khan left the service of Moradabad ruler and captured a territory near Chandausi. Within shortest period, Ali Mohammad Khan captured the pert of territories of Moradabad, Sambhal, Shahabad, and Shahjahanpur. Ali Muhammad Khan started paying tribute to minister of Delhi Mogul Emperor.
                      Through looted wealth, by 1742, he had huge army of thirty forty thousand Afghan soldiers. Now, Ali Muhammad Khan wanted to become Badshah as  Shershah Suri and Salim Shah the Afghan decedents. He planned to capture Awadh in east, Pathan rule in south and Kumaon in north. It was not easy to capture east and south and in west to attack on Delhi Mogul rule.  He first decided to attack on Kumaon in north as Kumaon kingdom was weak due to internal infighting problems. With the cause of killing of his father Daud Khan long back by Kumaon King and Himmat Gusain in his camp by spies of Doti Kalyan Chandra, Ali Mohammad Khan decided to attack on Kumaon.

                      Strategies for   Attacking on Kumaon by Ali Muhammad Khan 
   Ali Muhammad Khan took necessary steps for winning Kumaon hills. First he strengthened the war needs in Tarai of Kumaon that was captured by him.  Ali Mohammad khan collected necessary weapons and ammunitions for war in Kashipur (Kumaon). He well arranged transportation medium for those weapons to hills of Kumaon.  Ali Muhammad Khan appointed three generals Hafiz Rahmat Khan, Paidakhan and Bakshi Sardar Khan for Kumaon campaign. There were ten thousand Afghan soldiers under each general.  Muhammad Khan had strict instruction that no civilian would travel with the army.
         Rohila army was fearful from numbers of point of view. However, the Rohila army became stronger due to army management style too.  Every soldier of any brigade had a gun. At least for a hundred soldiers there was a supervisor. Each battalion of hundred soldiers or ten soldiers would have specific flag and the flag keeper would march in before the line of each battalion. The army was divided into small infantries. The micro level divisions were positive points to run such huge army. There were arrangements to motivate the soldiers.  The army was expert in flanking and guerilla wars. The army could attack collectively or attack individually as per need.  On that period, the army of Ali Mohammed Khan was controlled scientifically and motivated psychologically.

                    Ignorance and Sluggishness in Kumaon court
        The Kota -Bhabhar deputy in charge Ram Datt Adhikari sent message to Kumaon King Doti Kalyan Chandra about the preparation of Rohila army for attack on Kumaon. The Kota –Bhabhar in charge Shiv Datt Joshi sent message for money that because of money the attack of Rohila would be stopped. On that time it was custom and was easy to corrupt the enemy soldiers by tributes.  The selfish minister advised to the King that Shiv Datt Joshi was asking money for his own. Fadtyal group cut a few trees and destroyed a couple of bridges to stop future march by Rohila army.
          The selfish advisors and King did not pay attention on the messages of Shiv Datt Joshi and Ram Datt Adhikari.  Due to groups in the court no needed actions were taken to stop Rohila campaigns.


***  Read more about capturing of Kumaon kingdom by Ali Muhammad Khan in next chapter -203

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti -bckukreti@gmail.com 30/11/2013
 
                                      References

Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag 10, Kumaon ka Itihas 1000-1790
Badri Datt Pande, 1937, Kumaon ka Itihas, Shri Almora Book Depo Almora
Devidas Kaysth, Itihas Kumaon Pradesh
Katyur ka Itihas, Pundit Ram Datt Tiwari
Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
Atkinson, History of District Gazette
Menhadi Husain, Tuglak Dynasty
Malfujat- E Timuri
Tarikh -e-Mubarakshahi vol 4
Kumar Suresh Singh2005, People of India
Justin Marozzi, 2006, Tamerlane: Sword of Islam
Bakshsingh Nijar, 1968, Punjab under Sultans 1000-1526 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 13 page 52 
Bhakt Darshan, Gadhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
Mahajan V.D.1991, History of Medieval India
Majumdar R.C. (edited) 2006, The Sultanate
Rizvi, Uttar Taimur Kalin Bharat
Tarikhe Daudi
Vishweshara nand , Bharat Bharti lekhmala
Aine-e Akbari
Akbari Darbar
Tareekh Badauni
Eraly Abraham, 2004 The Mogul Throne
The Tazuk-i-Jahangiri
Maularam- Gadh Rajvansh Kavya
Ramayan Pradeep
Annatdev’s Smriti-Kaustubh
Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzeb
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
   
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -203   
History of Kumaon (1000-1790) to be continued….
Himalayan, Indian History of Chand Dynasty rule in Kumaon to be continued…
  (Himalayan, Indian History (740-1790 AD to be continued…)

 

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