Author Topic: गढ़वाल का इतिहास 1223-1804 AD- History of Garhwal Region from 1223-1804 AD  (Read 120095 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
History of Prithviraj Chauhan III and Muhammad Ghori with context of History of Chauhan Clan in Garhwal and Haridwar
   

           History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -20

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -265
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                         Prithviraj Chauhan marrying Sanyogita

        No doubt, Prithviraj Chauhan III was a brave king but he is also culprit to invite indirectly Ghori to India.
            After Prithviraj Chauhan III defeated Muhammad Ghori, he became arrogant. According to Prithviraj Raso and other folk stories or writings, there was Swaymabar of Sanyogita the princess daughter of Gaharwal- Kannauj Jai Chand. Prithviraj Chauhan kidnapped Sanyogita by force. The army of Jai Chand Gaharwal followed Prithviraj and killed the armed force of Prithviraj. Prithviraj Chauhan lost many capable army chiefs. Prithviraj Chauhan III was successful in reaching Ajmer with Sanyogita.

                      Third Attack by Muhammad Ghori

         After defeat from Prithviraj Chauhan III, Muhammad Ghori reconciled his armed forces. For one year, Ghori was busy in preparing for attack on India. Prithviraj Chauhan III forgot that it always the loser attacks on the winner. He was busy with torturing Indian kings. In 1192, Ghori reached Tarain battle field with huge army of one lakh cavalier soldiers. A few enemy Indian kings of Prithviraj Chauhan III were also with Ghori to defeat Prithviraj Chauhan III.
          The armed forced capacity of Prithviraj Chauhan III was far more than Ghori. Prithviraj Chauhan III had more cavaliers and elephant armed force. Muhammad Ghori came forward to have treaty with Prithviraj Chauhan III. Prithviraj Chauhan III believed on his natural enemy. A couple of ministers were spies of Ghori. Prithviraj Chauhan III and his army started celebrating the treaty with wine, women, dance and songs. In that night, Ghori sent his huge battalion towards back side (Indian side) of tents of Prithviraj Chauhan III army.  In morning, before the armed force of Prithviraj Chauhan III awoke, Ghori’s one battalion, attacked on Prithviraj Chauhan III. Initially, army of Prithviraj Chauhan III defeated army of Ghori. However, the reserved force and the battalion of Ghori from Indian side attacked on Prithviraj Chauhan III. Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan III. Ghori captured Prithviraj Chauhan III. Ghori did not forgive Prithviraj Chauhan III but killed him. Now, Ghori had rule over western India, Ajmer and Delhi.

** Read more about Prithviraj Chauhan and his connection with Garhwal and Haridwar History Features in next chapter …..
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 18/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993 , The Doon Valley Down the Ages



(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -266   
Xx
History of Prithviraj Chauhan III and Muhammad Ghori with context of History of Chauhan Clan in Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Prithviraj Chauhan III and Muhammad Ghori with context of History of Chauhan Clan in Bhabhar Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Prithviraj Chauhan III and Muhammad Ghori with context of History of Chauhan Clan in Pauri Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Prithviraj Chauhan III and Muhammad Ghori with context of History of Chauhan Clan in Chamoli Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Prithviraj Chauhan III and Muhammad Ghori with context of History of Chauhan Clan in Rudraprayag Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Prithviraj Chauhan III and Muhammad Ghori with context of History of Chauhan Clan in Tehri Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Prithviraj Chauhan III and Muhammad Ghori with context of History of Chauhan Clan in Uttarkashi Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Prithviraj Chauhan III and Muhammad Ghori with context of History of Chauhan Clan in Dehradun Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Prithviraj Chauhan III and Muhammad Ghori with context of History of Chauhan Clan in Garhwal and Jwalapur Hat Haridwar; History of Prithviraj Chauhan III and Muhammad Ghori with context of History of Chauhan Clan in Garhwal and Mayapur Hat Haridwar; History of Prithviraj Chauhan III and Muhammad Ghori with context of History of Chauhan Clan in Parsari Gram Garhwal and Khailpur Haridwar;

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1

History of Non-Visionary Prithviraj Chauhan with context History of Garhwal and Haridwar

           History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -21

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -266

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

             Characteristics of Prithviraj Chauhan III

Personal Characteristics- Personally Prithviraj Chauhan III was brave, courageous, enthusiastic, inspiring and was capable to handle weaponries.
Respecting Scholars- Prithviraj Chauhan respected and sheltered scholars. Jayanak, Vidyapati Gaud, Bageshwar Janardan, Vishwaroop poet, and Prthivibhat Charan were his court scholars.
          Serious Flaws- Historian Dashrath Sharma writes about Prithviraj Chauhan III,” But with all virtues, Prithviraj Chauhan had faults serious enough to deny him a place among greatest rulers of India.”
           Prithviraj never paid attention on consolidation relationship with neighboring kingdoms and instead made them enemies.
      When the army should have been alert, he and his army was engaged in entertainment in battlefield. By this unwarranted event created ways for Ghori evading India.

                      Other Chauhan Kingdoms
  After the death of Prithviraj and rule of Ghori on Delhi and Ajmer, Chauhan shifted their capital to Ranthambhaur and ruled till fourteenth century.
 Chauhan captured Chandravati and Abu from Parmar. Chauhan also captured Sirohi, Bundi, Kota in Rajsthan; Mainpuri and Chadravad in Uttar Pradesh and in Patna too. 
  There is no record available about regional Chauhan commanders of Haryana, Ambala, Western Uttar Pradesh including Saharanpur, Bhabhar and Shivalik foot hills. 
 However, there are folk stories, folklore s available on Chauhan in Garhwal.

** Read more about j Chauhan clan connection with Garhwal and Haridwar History Features in next chapter …..
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 18/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993 , The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -267   
Xx
History of Non-Visionary Prithviraj Chauhan with context History of Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Non-Visionary Prithviraj Chauhan with context History of Dehradun Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Non-Visionary Prithviraj Chauhan with context History of Shivalik Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Non-Visionary Prithviraj Chauhan with context History of Bhabhar Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Non-Visionary Prithviraj Chauhan with context History of Chamoli Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Non-Visionary Prithviraj Chauhan with context History of Pauri Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Non-Visionary Prithviraj Chauhan with context History of Rudraprayag Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Non-Visionary Prithviraj Chauhan with context History of Uttarkashi Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Non-Visionary Prithviraj Chauhan with context History of Tehri Garhwal and Haridwar; History of Non-Visionary Prithviraj Chauhan with context History of  Garhwal and Jwalapur Hat Haridwar; History of Non-Visionary Prithviraj Chauhan with context History of Garhwal and Mayapur Hat Haridwar;

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
History Features of Folklores about Chauhan Chieftains (Gadhpati) of Garhwal and Haridwar

           History of Garhwal (1223- 1804 AD) –part -22

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -267

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

               Lack of Historical Records

      The folklores state that by thirteenth century, there were Chauhan chieftains (Gadhpati) were ruling major Gadhis of Garhwal. No records, inscriptions, coins are available in support of these folklores.
  It seems that Chauhan Kings of Delhi replaced Tomar commanders of western Uttar Pradesh Garhwal and Haridwar by Chauhan commanders. When Ghori (1192) captured Delhi and Rajasthan, Chauhan commanders took shelter in Shivalik foot hills and into Garhwal.

                   Chauhan Chieftains of Sapadlaksh
  Around and after 1192, Ghori, his successors and commanders were busy in administrating and reconciling their rule over Punjab, Delhi, Ajmer and Yamuna-Ganga Doab. The northern parts Himachal and Uttarakhand did not have much importance for Ghori’s successors. 
Below Himalayan foot hills, there was Shivalik hills and its foothills. Muslim historian mentioned it Sivalik and Bodh Gaya inscription of Sahanpal mentioned this region as Savalak.
 There is no mention of Sapaldaksh in Mahbharat. There is no mention of Sapaldaksh mountain series in Kalidas, Ban, Barahmigiri and Raj Shekhar literature.
 There is mention of Sakambhar-Sapaldlakshdes in Kumari Khand of Skandh Puran. The first record of mentioning Sapdalkshgiri name is in rock inscription of Sahanpal (1194). Historians guess that Chauhan named this region as Sapadlaksh.

             Establishing Ajmer in South Garhwal
  Ajmer was capital of Chauhan Kings before Ghori killed Prithviraj Chauhan. There is Gangasalan region within smaller Himalaya and Shivalik hills. There is one Patti (administrative region) called Ajmer. There is Ajmer Garh. Most probably, Chauhan who were in search of safer territory from Ghori and his successors might have established Ajmer. Later on, a Payal chieftain capture Ajmer Garh.


** Read more about  Chauhan clan connection with Garhwal and Haridwar History Features in next chapter …..
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 21/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993 , The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -268   
Xx
History Features of Folklores about Chauhan Chieftains (Gadhpati) of Garhwal and Haridwar; History Features of Folklores about Chauhan Chieftains (Gadhpati) of Ajmer Garhwal and Haridwar; History Features of Folklores about Chauhan Chieftains (Gadhpati) of Gangasalan Garhwal and Haridwar; History Features of Folklores about Chauhan Chieftains (Gadhpati) of Pauri Garhwal and Haridwar; History Features of Folklores about Chauhan Chieftains (Gadhpati) of Chamoli Garhwal and Haridwar; History Features of Folklores about Chauhan Chieftains (Gadhpati) of Rudraprayag Garhwal and Haridwar; History Features of Folklores about Chauhan Chieftains (Gadhpati) of Tehri Garhwal and Haridwar; History Features of Folklores about Chauhan Chieftains (Gadhpati) of Uttarkashi Garhwal and Haridwar; History Features of Folklores about Chauhan Chieftains (Gadhpati) of Dehradun Garhwal and Haridwar;

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
              History Features of Chauhan of South Garhwal including Haridwar 

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -23

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -268

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

 Around 1192, Ashokchall was ruling Uttarakhand including Shivalik region. We have knowledge of dozen of Chauhan branches in Garhwal,

                        Chauhan of South Garhwal
       The folklores provide following Chauhan branches
1-   Chauhan chieftain of Ajmer Gadhi – Already described in earlier chapter.
         2-Chauhan of Ratan Gadh
            Ratan Gadh was supposed to be above Brahmpur in Kunji. The chieftain (Gadhpati) of Ratan Garh was Dhammada Bisht. Dhammada Bisht are called the Chahman or Chauhan clan.
                      Chauhan of Jwalapur Hat
 According to folklore there were two main Thakurai or Gadhi in Gangadwar (Haridwar) – Mayapur Hat and Jwalapur Hat. In Uttarakhand, Hat word is used for capital. Pundir rulers were chieftains of Mayapur Hat (Haridwar). Nearby Mayapur, there was another Garhi called Khailpur or Jwalapur Hat Gadh. Dhamdev Chauhan was one of the chieftains of Jwalapur Hat Gadh.
    As per folklore, the predecessors of Dhamdev Chauhan were Urmi Nag, Kurmi Nag, Ray Mangal. Afti, Mafti. Dham Dev had six brothers (Himalayan Folklore, page 34,146). It seems that Adhipati Chauhan the ruler of Jwalapur Hat was uncle of Dhamdev Chauhan. Adhipati Chauhan had seven sons. Only four names are referred in folklore and they are Jeet Singh, Bhup Singh, Kedar Singh and Uttam Singh.
                    Battles between Pundir and Chauhan

           There was regular fighting between Pundir of Mayapur and Chauhan of Jwalapur for smallest possible reason. There was fierce battle between Pundir and Chauhan for a bird. Pundir killed Adhipati and his seven sons and Dhamdev and his six brothers.
 According to folklore, after defeat from Pundir, Chauhan of Jwalapur Hat (Haridwar) migrated to Parsari Gram of Garhwal and from they were called Parsara Rawat.
                   There is no other source for history of Chauhan of Jwalapur. Second Folklore states that Ameerdev Pundir was strong ruler of Mayapur Hat. The Katyuri King Preetam Dev married with Maldei the daughter of Ameerdev Pundir. The ruling period of Preetam Dev is around first part of eleventh century.
 By calculation of Chauhans migrating to Parsara village and other folklores, it seems Pundir defeated Chauhan at the end of twelfth century.

** Read more about Chauhan clan connection with Garhwal and Haridwar History Features in next chapter …..
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 22/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993 , The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -269   
Xx
History Features of Chauhan of South Garhwal including Haridwar; History Features of Chauhan of Ajmer South Garhwal including Haridwar; History Features of Chauhan of Udaypur Patti South Garhwal including Haridwar; History Features of Chauhan of Dhangu South Garhwal including Haridwar; History Features of Chauhan of Langur South Garhwal including Haridwar; History Features of Chauhan of Sheela South Garhwal including Haridwar; History Features of Chauhan of Bhabhar South Garhwal including Haridwar; History Features of Chauhan of Kunji South Garhwal including Haridwar; History Features of Chauhan of Brahmpuri South Garhwal including Haridwar; History Features of Chauhan of South Garhwal including Mayapur Haridwar; History Features of Chauhan of Jwalapur South Garhwal including Haridwar; History Features of Chauhan of Tala Dhangu South Garhwal including Haridwar;


Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
             History of Chauhan Aswal of East Garhwal

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -24

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -269

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                Alaknanda River divides Garhwal into two vertical parts –Eastern and western Garhwal.  Chahman or Chauhan ruled east and west Garhwal. Aswal means Aswar or cavalry soldier. The coins of Delhi Chauhan rulers show cavalry soldiers on the coins. Before Panwar took over Garhwal, Aswal Chauhan chieftains ruled various Gadhi. There is saying
Adho Aswal, Adho Garhwal (Half Garhwal, Half Aswal)
There is famous Patti in the name of Aswal as Aswalsyun.
Aswal were Thokdar (subordinate chieftain)  of Shila Patti in Gangasalan, South Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal. 


** Read more about Chauhan clan connection with Garhwal and Haridwar History Features in next chapter …..
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 23/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993 , The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -270   
Xx
History of Chauhan Aswal of East Garhwal; History of Chauhan Aswal of Aslwalsyun, East Garhwal; History of Chauhan Aswal of Maniyarsyun, East Garhwal; History of Chauhan Aswal of Kafolsyun East Garhwal; History of Chauhan Aswal of Banelsyun East Garhwal;

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
History of Chauhans of Western Alaknanda Valley in Garhwal

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -25

 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -270

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)


   There were major three Gadhis (fortes) of Chauhan in western Alaknanda Valley.
Ramola Garh- The branch of Chauhan Ramola ruled for many years on Ramolagarh. There are folklore available for Ramola Garh. Ramola Garh was situated in Ramoli Pargana.
Rainka Garh- a Chauhan branch (Ramola) ruled over this Rainka Garh of Rainka Pargana.

 Uppu Garh- Uppu Garh was situated in west of Alaknanda River near Shrinagar. There was Rope Bridge to cross Alaknanda River. At danger the Uppu Garh army used to cut bridge. There is no record for Chauhan capturing Uppu Garh or building fort here. The Last chieftain of Uppu Garh was Kaffu Chauhan. Ajaypal the Panwar King defeated Kaffu Chauhan and Ajaypal captured Uppu Garh.


** Read more about Chauhan clan connection with Garhwal and Haridwar History Features in next chapter …..


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 24/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993 , The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -271   
Xx
History of Chauhans of Western Alaknanda Valley in Garhwal; History of Chauhans of Western Alaknanda Valley in Tehri Garhwal; History of Chauhans of Western Alaknanda Valley in Udaipur Patti, Tehri Garhwal; History of Chauhans of Western Alaknanda Valley in Ramola Pargana, Tehri Garhwal; History of Chauhans of Western Alaknanda Valley in Rainka Pargana Tehri Garhwal; History of Chauhans of Western Alaknanda Valley in Ranika Garh Tehri Garhwal; History of Chauhans of Western Alaknanda Valley in Ramola Garh Tehri Garhwal; History of Chauhans of Western Alaknanda Valley in Uppu Garh Tehri Garhwal; History of Kaffu Chauhan of Western Alaknanda Valley in Tehri Garhwal;

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
History Features of Lobha Negi (Chauhan) of East-North Border of Garhwal

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -26
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -271

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                    In East North of Garhwal there were two main Gadhis –Lobha or Lohava Gadh or Lobha or Lohava Fortress and Chandpur Gadhi. These Gadhis were defense Gadhi for Garhwal to protect Kumaoni encroachment or attack. Chauhan chieftains captured these Gadhi from Khas chieftains.
       As per Raturi, Dilevar Singh and Pramod Singh had been brave, strong and famous chieftains of Lobha or Lohava Fortress. Already the folklores are lost about chieftains of Lobh Gadh.
 Panwar defeated Chauhan of Lobha Gadh and Chauhan became regional commanders of Panwar Kingdom.  These Chauhan are called Lobhan or Lobha Negi. Lobhan or Lobha Negi always had been brave soldiers in defending Garhwal in Panwar rule. Garhwal King Court Poet and Historian Maularam describes about Lobha Negi as
चढ़ी फ़ौज तब चले कुमाऊं , बाजन लगे ढोल दमाऊ
सवा लाष संग फ़ौज तुलानी , तीन ढोल संग भये सलानी
लोभी अरु बंधाणी आये , तड़ा तोमड़ा संग माहि लाये

(मौलाराम , गढ़राजवंश काव्य , पर्ण 12 ब )


** Read more about Chauhan clan connection with Garhwal and Haridwar History Features in next chapter …..


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 25/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993 , The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -272   
Xx
History Features of Lobha Negi (Chauhan) of East-North Border of Garhwal; History Features of Lobha Negi (Chauhan) of East-North Border of Chamoli Garhwal; History Features of Lobha Negi (Chauhan) of East-North Border of Garhwal border of Kumaon;


Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
         History of Chauhan of Chandpur Garh, East-North Border of Garhwal

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -27
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -272

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                 Chandpur Garh was famous Garh in north east border of Garhwal. This Gadh or fortes was established on top of a hill at right hand of Atagad Rivulet of Pindar valley. Still, the ruins are seen there. There were hills on east, south and west and Pindar River was in north of Chandpur Garh. Therefore, Chandpur Garh was natural fort for protection.
           Baijnath, Lakhanpur and Dwarhat of Kumaon were not for from Chandpur Garh. Therefore, Chandpur Garh had importance from defense strategic point of view. 

                   Bhanu Pratap

            Less is not about Chauhan capturing Chandpur Garh. It is said (Raturi) that before Ajay Pal Panwar captured chandpur Garh, Bhanu Pratap Chauhan was ruler of Chandpur Garh. It is said that the maternal grandfather of Bhanu Pratap declared Prithviraj as Delhi King. Rahul assumes that Bhanu Pratap was from Prirhviraj Chauhan family.
         Among Chauhan chieftains of Chandpur Garh, Bhanu Pratap was strongest chieftain of Chandpur Garh.
   According to folklore, Bhanu Pratap had two daughters. He married one daughter to Kumaon prince Rajpal and another daughter to Kanak Pal. He handed over his kingdom to his son in law Kanak Pal.
 The rulers of Chandpur Garh were equal to Badrinath.
 Whatever may be the case, historical records are lacking about Bhanu Pratap except folklores.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 25/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993 , The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -273   
Xx
History of Chauhan Rulers in Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Pauri Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Pindar valley Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Chamoli Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Tehri Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Dehradun Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Haridwar, Garhwal;

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
           History of Mangal Singh Chauhan of Manglaur, Haridwar 

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -28
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -273

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)
 
             Panwar Capturing Chandpur Garh
           
 Bhanupal the strong ruler of Chandpur Gadhi had two daughters and he married one daughter to    Kumaon prince and other to Panwar brave man Kanakpal. Kanakpal ruled Chandpur Gadhi. According to folklore, Kanakpal entered in Garhwal around 882 CE (Raturi).    But this does not tally with historical aspects.

                    Damag rulers of Mandakini Valley

             There was one hand written note in Tehri Riyasat records that suggest that there was rule of Damag rulers in Mandakini valley before Panwar started ruling Garhwal However, no other record is available about Damag rulers of Mandakini valley.

                       Mangal Singh of Manglaur, Haridwar

               The hand written notes found in Tehri Riyasat record room states that Mangal Singh son of Bhanu Pratap Singh Chauhan established his capital at Kandar Garh (Kandarsyun, Garhwal) in 1218 AD. Another hand written note from the time of Bahadur Shah King of Garhwal (Bhakta Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangat Vibhutiyan) states that the rule of Mangal Singh was extended to Manglaur, Haridwar.  Journal of U.P. Historical Society (July 1943, page 80) supports that Mangal Singh (Chauhan clan) established a huge fort in Manglaur. There was cavalry regiment of Mangal Singh in Manglaur. The horses were breed   for army purpose in Manglaur.  Mangal Singh used to live in Manglaur in winter season and he used to live in Kandar Gadh in other seasons. It might be said that Manglaur was winter capital of Kandar Gadh ruler. Mangal Singh was very strong a brave ruler. His rule was extended to Nagina (south east of Garhwal Bhabhar). The Huge Gates at Nagina hills are said to be constructed by Mangal Singh of Kandar Garh.
 Mangal Singh was prosperous ruler and is believed by people that he had Paras stone.
         Tehri record states that many generations of Mangal Singh ruled over Kandar Garh and Chandpur Garh.

                            The last Chauhan ruler of Kandar Garh Garhwal

             Folklore describes that the last ruler of Kandar Garh was Nar Veer Singh. Panwar king defeated Nar Veer Singh of Kandar Garh. Nar Veer Singh jumped into Alaknanda River and died.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 25/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993 , The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -273   
Xx
History of Mangal Singh Chauhan of Manglaur, Haridwar; Chauhan ruler of Nagina Garh (Bijnor); , Haridwar History of Mangal Singh Chauhan ( Haridwar ) as winter capital; History of Manglaur Fort (Haridwar); History of Chauhan Rulers in Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Pauri Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Pindar valley Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Rudraprayag Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Chamoli Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Tehri Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Uttarkashi Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Dehradun Garhwal; History of Chauhan Rulers in Haridwar, Garhwal; History of Mangal Singh Chauhan extending rule to Nagina (Bijnor) and making Fort; History of Mangal Singh Chauhan of Kandarsyun; History of Mangal Singh Chauhan of Kandar Gadh ..

Bhishma Kukreti

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 18,344
  • Karma: +22/-1
History of Chieftains of Bhilangana Valley and Barahat, Garhwal


           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -29
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -274

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                           Chieftains of Bhilanggadh

                In thirteenth century, barring Barahat and Bhilangana Valley there was Chauhan chieftains rule over Garhwal including Haridwar. There is no record available for chieftains ruling Bhilanggadh of Bhilangana Valley. Bhilanggadh was the capital of Barahat and Bhilangana Valley.

                                         Sonpal of Bhilanggadh
                 One of the Chieftains of Bhilanggadh was Sonpal who married his daughter with the founder of Panwar dynasty Kanakpal Panwar. Sonpal handed over his kingdom to Kanakpal Panwar.
  As per folklore collected by Atkinson, Sonpal was one of the strongest and influential chieftains of Garhwal. That shows that Kanakpal Panwar got influence in inheritance from Sonpal and his other father in law chieftain Bhanupal.
     There disputes among historians for existence of Kanakpal or timing for his arrival in Garhwal.
              There is no mention of Kanakpal in Manodayakavya created in the time of Garhwal King Man Shah. The name of Kanakpal is also not there on hand written notes of Bhavani Shah Record. The list from Almora and Maularam about Panwar family tree mentions Bhauna or Bhagwanpal as the initial Panwar King.
 Wiket and Williams   refers Kanakpal as starter of Panwar dynasty in Garhwal.
 In case, Kanakpal was contemporary of Sonpal and Bhanupratap that showed that Kanakpal married with their daughters for increasing his power and territory. If Mangal Singh was son of Bhanu Pratap , Mangal Singh established his separate kingdom in Kandargarh and South of Garhwal including Haridwar and Nagina (Bijnor).


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 28/2//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993 , The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -274   

 

Sitemap 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22