Author Topic: गढ़वाल का इतिहास 1223-1804 AD- History of Garhwal Region from 1223-1804 AD  (Read 119934 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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History Aspects of Chandpur, Malla Salan and Talla Salan Garhwal after Timur Lang Attack on Garhwal

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -51   
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -296 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                       Delhi Sultanate after Timur
On 17 December 1398, Timur attacked Delhi India to slaughter Hindus (Kafirs). He returned to
             After destructing west Uttar Pradesh, Haridwar, South Garhwal, Himachal and Jammu, Timur reached Samarkand.
 After Timur returning from India, Delhi Sultan Mahmud Tughaluq returned to Delhi from his hiding place.  Sultan could not consolidate his lost territory due to Timur attack. Mahmud Tughluq died in 1413. In 1414, Khizr  Khan captured Delhi Sultanate and founded sayyad Dynasty rule.
                    Attack on Katehar by Delhi Sultan Army
      Katehar (Barely region) Rajput chieftains were always pain on the neck of Delhi Rulers. Katehar Hindu chieftains used to revolt against Delhi Rulers time to time. In 1416, Khijar Khan dispatched his huge army to suppress Katehar Jagirdar Rai Harsingh who declared him independent of Delhi rule refused to pay tributes to Delhi Sultanate. As soon as Sultanate army entered to Katehar, Harsingh hid into dense forest. The Sultanate army surrounded forest and there was battle between Harsingh and Khizr  Khan Army. Harsingh was defeated and he ran towards Kumaon hills.
                  First Attack on Kumaon 

             The Delhi army commander Tazulmulk and his army followed Harsingh in Kumaon region. Harsingh ran towards interior of Kumaon and Delhi Army could not capture Harsingh in Kumaon. Delhi army destroyed many Kumaoni villages and made thousands of people slave. The Muslim Army looted valuables from Kumaon regions.

                           More Attacks on Katehar
                    Khizr Khan came to Katehar region to attack and punish on Harsingh and other Hindu rebellions.  Khizr Khan cut the forests of Sambhal (Moradabad region) and bank of Ram Ganga.  Again in 1420, Delhi army attacked on Katehar. Harsingh had to agree for paying tribute to Delhi Sultanate.
          In 1423, Mubarak Shah (son of Ala ud din Khizr ) attacked on Katehar and collected taxes and tribute. Again when in 1424, Mubarak Shah reached to Ganga bank, Harsingh came to meet Delhi Sultan. Harsingh was kept captive in Sultan camp to agree past taxes and tribute.

              Attack on Kumaon by Mubarak Army
         The Sultanate army entered into Kumaon Bhabhar and then in hills. The army spent some time (definitely destructing the region) and when the season did not suit the army came down in plains through Ramganga bank. On that time, plains of present Uttar Pradesh was suffering from acute famine. The Sultan army returned to Delhi
  The detailed description of Sultan army attacking on Kumaon is not available. However, it is definite that Sultan army crossed Ganga while coming to Katehar and returning to Delhi.
Therefore, it is easy guess that Sultan army entered to Kumaon by marching Talla Salan, Bhabhar, Malla Salan, Chandpur, Dwarhat and Baijnath.
                 Definitely, the people of Talla Salan, Bhabhar, Malla Salan, Chandpur, Dwarhat and Baijnath had suffered the wrath of Sultan army. Definitely Sultan army looted Talla Salan, Bhabhar, Malla Salan, Chandpur, Dwarhat and Baijnath regions.
              Vikram Chandra was the ruler of Kali Kumaon and perhaps the son or heir of Vatsaraj was ruler of Dehradun, Dhangu Garh region. No mention is available of Haridwar in Khilji dynasty 

                       Khizr Rule over Some parts of Haridwar?

The fief of Saharanpur was given to Sayyid Salim in the time of Khizr Khan. That means probably, whole of Haridwar or west of today’s Haridwar was under Khizr Khan.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 23/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -297   

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued…   
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Bhishma Kukreti

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 History Analysis of Agriculture and Crops of Garhwal in Sultanate Period (1206-1500)

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -52   
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -297 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

      Dependency on Muslim Biographers for Historical Analysis of Garhwal in Sultanate Period


           Historians depend on Garhwal history for thirteenth to fifteenth century on Muslim biographers of Muslim rulers or Muslim legends. The Muslim biographers wrote about wins or events of their masters than describing social and cultural situations in the cited regions. The religious sect scholars wrote about pilgrims or their devoted sects.

  Historical Analysis of Population of Garhwal in Tughluq, Sayyed, Timur, Lodhi –Sultanate Periods

           The biographers of Muslim attackers on Garhwal described the population of South Garhwal –Haridwar, Dehradun and Bhabhar on higher side or in exaggerated manners. No doubt exaggerated, it is clear that the population of South Garhwal was dense as also seen in present time. 
                The slaves from Dehradun were counted as seven laksh in Mahmud Ghazani attack on Dehradun.
             It is written that the grandson of Mahmud captured one lakhs Galbar or fire worshippers and were made slaves.
 Timur also captured more than five laks of fire worshippers. 
    The above descriptions by Muslim biographers might be exaggerated but do not create doubt that the population in Salan, Bhabhar (Garhwal); Dehradun and Haridwar was dense.

               History Analysis of Habitats of People in Garhwal in Sultanate Period


              People used to live in villages. The head quarters of Pargana, Chieftain’s kingdom capital were cities and had dense population. In western Garhwal, there were cities as Santur, Salmur; Chandiya )Jandiya), Miyapur (Mayapur), Kapula (Haridwar), Devalgarh (Warangal). It seems Gangdwar or Haridwar was destroyed before Timur attack as there is no mention in Timur biography for destructing temples in Haridwar..
 When there used to be attack on plains of Garhwal, people used to take shelters in hills of north.
 
            History Analysis of Agriculture in Garhwal in Sultanate Period
   
                    Most of people used to depend on agriculture. There was no system importing grains from other region and societies were living in self reliance system. The peasants worked hard and to eke out bare subsistence.  The village headmen and land lords had higher standard of life than ordinary villagers.
               Doon and Bhabhar regions were higher agriculture product producers. That was the reasons that the Kings used to defend that region and Muslim invaders used to attack on that prosperous region. 
  Agriculturists used to have domestic animal herds in numbers. The domestic animal population was also one of the attracting bonanzas for Muslim invaders. Farmers or domestic animal owners (Khadak) used to take their animals from one place to other place as per seasons.
         It seems that people had no shortage of milk, butter and Ghee. Coarse grains were major productions and forest produces was to keep famine away from the region. The two crops with rotation system persisted in the region. Plough by ox pair was common in other Indian parts and definitely it was common Garhwal too. Grass growing near farm land was common aspects as grass was a main fodder.  There might be dozens of grasses in Garhwal used for fodders.
 The land was classified according to structure of land and fertility and according to crop too. Wherever, farmers used to have wheat crops or cane crops in Dehradun-Bhabhar-Haridwar, the leveling and cleaning process was elaborate. Barely cropping was much simpler and people had more barley farms than British era. Less preparation than wheat was done for many millets cropping. 
 Before, ploghing and leveling, it was necessary to have fertilizers in the farm lands. Compost manure of domestic animals was scattered on the farm land. Where the farms were far from villages Goth or animals were kept for night on the fields.
 Perhaps the farmers started to gain Persian knowledge of making reservoirs and irrigation system. However, rain was basic source of irrigation than canals.
 The crops were harvested with the aid of sickles and thrashing was done by wooden clubs and walking of animals on heap of cut stalks of crops. The grains were put into Kuthar or Dabal by putting a layer of ashes and some anti insect leaves.

                         Principal Crops grown in Sultanate Period in India 

Hamida Khatun Naqvi (1984) detailed the following crops in India in Sultanate Period –
Wheat
Rice
Jawari
Bajara
Koda
Jhangwar (millets)
Barely
Gram
Moth
Vetches
Mung
Peas
Lentils
Arhar
Sarson
Til
Linseeds
Sugarcane
Cotton
Hemp
Cotton
Indigo
Raddish
Flowers
Etc
                 Since, Garhwal is having different geographical variations, Garhwal is fortunate to have all types of crops except sea shore crops were harvested. Therefore, it is assumed that all the above crops existed in Garhwal in Sultanate Period.
         Forests were full of fruits, shoots, and underground tubers and bulbs to satisfy the demand of people.
(See also Bhishma Kukreti, उत्तराखंड में कृषि व भोजन का इतिहास)

                 History Analysis of Prosperity in Garhwal in Sultanate Period


   There were strong perceptions among outsiders as Timur that Garhwal/Karachal had ample gold mines, economical animal produces, forest produces as Kasturi; ornaments, coins, metal vessels, clothing materials etc. Timur types of Looters looted wealth of Garhwal in their short attacks. That means Garhwal (especially south Garhwal) was prosperous as compared to other regions.

             




Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 24/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -298   

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued…   
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Notes on History Analysis of Agriculture and Crops of Garhwal in Sultanate Period (1206-1500); History Analysis of Agriculture and Crops of Malla Salan, Garhwal in Sultanate Period (1206-1500); History Analysis of Agriculture and Crops of Talla Salan, Garhwal in Sultanate Period (1206-1500); History Analysis of Agriculture and Crops of Gangasalan, Garhwal in Sultanate Period (1206-1500); History Analysis of Agriculture and Crops of Bhabhar Garhwal in Sultanate Period (1206-1500); History Analysis of Agriculture and Crops of Haridwar Garhwal in Sultanate Period (1206-1500); History Analysis of Agriculture and Crops of Dehradun Garhwal in Sultanate Period (1206-1500); History Analysis of Agriculture and Crops of Pauri Garhwal in Sultanate Period (1206-1500); History Analysis of Agriculture and Crops of Tehri Garhwal in Sultanate Period (1206-1500); History Analysis of Agriculture and Crops of Uttarkashi Garhwal in Sultanate Period (1206-1500); History Analysis of Agriculture and Crops of Chamoli Garhwal in Sultanate Period (1206-1500); History Analysis of Agriculture and Crops of Rudraprayag Garhwal in Sultanate Period (1206-1500);

Bhishma Kukreti

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History Review of Political Scenes in Garhwal in Sultanate Attack Period (1206-1500)

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -53   
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -298 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                At the end of fourteenth century there was rule of one King on whole of Garhwal. There were regional chieftains under Garhwal King too. These chieftains used to help Garhwal king for fighting external attacks of Sultanate army or Timur army. The Garhwal King or chieftains used to offer shelters to Sultanate rebellions without fear of Sultan ire.
              Less is known about names of chieftains or kings and their territories. The chieftains and Kings were lacking to make defense strategies for defending Bhabhar, Dehradun and Haridwar.
       Army of Garhwal chieftains in Sultanate Attack Period (1206-1500)

  The Muslim biographers suggest that Garhwal kings used to have huge army.
   The King who defended Muhammad Tughlaq attack had d huge army.
Vatsraj and Ratansen who defended their territories had remarkable army.Other chieftains also helped those two Kings.
Horsemen and pedestrian /artillery army was common at this period.
  Arrow-Bow; sword, Khukri, spear were main weapons of Garhwal army. In some cases, camels were used for carrying war materials and food.



Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 25/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -299   

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued…   
Xx
History Review of Political Scenes in Garhwal in Sultanate Attack Period (1206-1500); History Review of Political Scenes in Pauri Garhwal in Sultanate Attack Period (1206-1500); History Review of Political Scenes in Chamoli Garhwal in Sultanate Attack Period (1206-1500); History Review of Political Scenes in Rudraprayag Garhwal in Sultanate Attack Period (1206-1500); History Review of Political Scenes in Tehri Garhwal in Sultanate Attack Period (1206-1500); History Review of Political Scenes in Uttarkashi Garhwal in Sultanate Attack Period (1206-1500); History Review of Political Scenes in Haridwar Garhwal in Sultanate Attack Period (1206-1500); History Review of Political Scenes in Dehradun Garhwal in Sultanate Attack Period (1206-1500);

Bhishma Kukreti

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  History of Upper Caste in Garhwal from 00 to 1500 and Spread of Untouchability and Caste based Slavery

                   (Garhwal me Kaun Jati Kahan Se Ayi aur Kahan Basi)
       History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -54   
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -299 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

          Historian Harikrishna Ratudi offered us the brief history of various upper castes came to Garhwal from 800. It is said that his base of history of Upper Castes was based on record from the day the caste person started offering Tax or other Panwar government records.  As per his record, the following is briefest history of Upper Caste migrated to Garhwal from various places.
                        Rajputs Migrating to Garhwal
Caste/jati ka Nam Old caste/From where they came Year of Coming in Garhwal AD Original Village in Garhwal First person of the Caste settled in Garhwal
Panwar (Parmar) Parmar /Dhar Gujarat 888 Became King of Garhwal King
Kumar (Parmar ) Parmar / Dhar Gujrat 888 Younger Brother of king King family
Rautela Parmar/Dhar Gujrat 888 Family members of King King Family
Aswal Chuhan / ranthambhor /Delhi 888 Aswalsyun There is a proverb: Adha Garhwal Addha Aswal
Bartwal Parmar/Ujjain 888 Bardet Relative of King

Ramola Chauhan /Mainpuri 200 Ramoli NA

Caste ----   ---Old caste/Place----   -Year of Coming to Garhwal (AD)-   -Original Village in Garhwal -   -First or Main persons -
Chauhan ----   -Chauhan/Mainpuri but Karmath ji says from Delhi -   -Not Available -   -Not Known -   -Not –Known-
Minyan Rawat -   -Suket and Jammu -   -Not known -   -Near Shrinagar -   -Ram Singh, Dham Singh et all -
Dikola Rawat -   -Marhattha /Maharashtra-    -357-   -Dikola -   -Not known -
Gorla Rawat -   -Panwar /Dhara Gujrat -   -750-   -Gurad --   -Not Known -
Ringwada Rawat -   -Katyur/ Kumaon-    -1356-   -Ringwadi -   -Not known -
Bangari Rawat -   -Bangar -   -1605-   -Bangar -   -Not Known -
Butola Rawat -   -Tomar/Delhi -   -744-   -Not Known -   -Buta Singh -
-Jayada Rawat -   -Near Delhi -   -Not Known -   -Jayadgarh-    -Not Known -
Parsara Rawat -   -Chauhan/Jwalapur Haridwar -   -1045-   -Parsari -   -Not Known -
Farswan Rawat -   -Mathura or Doti Nepal-    -375-   -Farau -   -Not Known -
Bagdwal Bisht -   -Sirmaur Himachal -   -1052-   -Bagodi -   -Not Known-
Chamola Bisht -   -Panwar/Ujjain-   -1386-   -Chamola -   -Not Known-
Idwal Bisht -   -Parihar/Hastinapur/Delhi -   -1256-   -Idgaon-    -Not Known -
Khandwari Negi -   -Haridwar -   -545-   -Khandwari Bichhla Udaypur -   -Not Known -
 
Rajput III
Caste    Old Caste/Place of Migration to Garhwal    Year of Establishing in Garhwal (AD)   Original Place in Garhwal    First Person of the Caste in Garhwal
Bakhani Rawat    Tomar/Masigarh    1422   Not Known    Not Known
Mulani Bisht    Kaintura of Kumaun    1346   Mulani    Not Known
Padiyar Bisht    Parihar/Gujrat    1243   Not Known    Not Known
Pundir Negi    Delhi/Saharanpur   1645   Not Known    Not Known
Khunti Negi    Minyan/Nagarkot Kangda    1056   Khunti    Puran Singh
Sipai Negi    Nagarkot Kangda   1600   Shrinagar    Domichand
Khadkola Negi    Kaintura Kumaun    1112   Khadkola    Not Known

Brahmins Migrating to Garhwal
Caste- from Where came, Year of Coming to Garhwal, Settled First village , First person or persons

Nautiyal(Majkhola, Palyal, Dhngan, Gajldi ) Dhar, Ujjain Madhy Pradesh -889Ad Nauti Devidas was settled in Neelkanth (near Shrinagar
Maithani Gaud , Bengal 912 Ad- Maithana (Chandpur) Rup Chandra
Semalti Veerbhumi, Bengal 909 Ad Semalta Ganpati
Gairola Ady gaud 915 AD Gairoli Jaya nand , Vijaya nand
Chamoli South India or below Vindhyachal 922 AD Chamoli Dharnidhar, Harmi-Virmi
Thapliyal Adygaud , gaud Desh, Bengal 923 AD Thapli Chandpur Jay Chand, May Chand
Dimri Karnataka /border Kerla Most probably , first time came with Rawals of Badrinath Dimmar Ballbhadra
Dyundi Dyund
Kartwal Kadti ( malla Dhangu)
Parandiyal Parand uday pur
Khanduri Ady Gaud , Veer Bhumi Bengal 886 AD, Khandudi Sridhar and Maheshwar
Raturi Gaud desh 923 Ratyud Satya nand , Rajbal
Semwal Ady Gaud 923 Sem Gaon Prabhakar and Niranjan
Navani Gujrat 923 Naun
Hatwal Bengal 1002 AD Hatgaon Sudarshan , Vishshwar
Kothiyal Adi Gaud Koti
Bijlwan Gaud Bijju (Tihri ) Bijju
Sati Sati , Gujrat
Lakheda Ady Gaud , Bengal 1060 AD Rishilakheda (Rikhyad) Lakhed Narad and Bhanuveer

Bahuguna Ady Gaud, Bengal 923 Bugani Krishna Nand and Achyuta Nand
Dangwal Dravid, Karnataka 926 Dang Dharni Dhar
Dobhal Kanykubj , 888 Dobh Karn Jeet
Uniyal Maithli, Mithla (Bihar ) 924 Uni /Veni gaon Jayanand , Vijayanand
Ghildyal Ady Gaud 1043 Ghild Luthan Dev
Naithani Kany Kubj, Kannauj 1143 Nathana (Maniyarsyun ) Karn Dev

Painyuli Gaud 1150 Painyala/Ramoli Brahmnath

Mamgain Gaud, Ujjain Stayed in the village of mama

Kukreti Dravid Bilhat 1352 Jaspur, Mlaa Dhangu (Kukarkata ) Gurupati
Balodi Dravid, South 1343 Balod
Barthwal Gaud, Gujrat 1443 Bareth ( Malla Dhangu) Sury Kamal
Name of Caste Old caste/From where they came Year of coming in Garhwal Village in Garhwal First Person in Garhwal
Devrani Gujrati Bhatt 1440 Divran Malu and Talu

Dabral Maharashtra 1366 Dabar Raghunath, Vishvnath


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 26/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -300   

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued…   
Xx
History of Upper Caste in Garhwal from 00 to 1500 and Spread of Untouchability and Caste based Slavery; History of Upper Caste in Pauri Garhwal from 00 to 1500 and Spread of Untouchability and Caste based Slavery; History of Upper Caste in Chamoli Garhwal from 00 to 1500 and Spread of Untouchability and Caste based Slavery; History of Upper Caste in Uttarkashi Garhwal from 00 to 1500 and Spread of Untouchability and Caste based Slavery; History of Upper Caste in Dehradun Garhwal from 00 to 1500 and Spread of Untouchability and Caste based Slavery; History of Upper Caste in Haridwar Garhwal from 00 to 1500 and Spread of Untouchability and Caste based Slavery; History of Upper Caste in Tehri Garhwal from 00 to 1500 and Spread of Untouchability and Caste based Slavery;

Bhishma Kukreti

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            History of Jat Gotra of Haridwar


History of Upper Caste in Garhwal including Haridwar from 00 to 1500 and Spread of Untouchability and Caste based Slavery Part -2
                                 
                   (Garhwal, Haridwar me Kaun Jati Kahan Se Ayi aur Kahan Basi)
       History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -55     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -300 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                               
                                        Badgoti Jat in Haridwar

  Badgoti means Bada Gotra or Upper Caste in Jat. Badgoti are found in Haridwar, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Badgoti or Badgotri are also called Bargoti Lor or Badgoti Laur. Laur and Khatri Jat are of same Gotra or caste and they don’t marry with each other as in Garhwal Kukreti does not marry with Kukreti. Badgoti/Bargotis are rich Jats in west Uttar Pradesh and in some parts of Haridwar.
           Lav (Son of Lord Ram Chandra) was the First Person of Badgoti Jat
 Laur/Lor Badgoti/Bargoti are said to be descendent of Lav (Son of Lord ram Chandra).
           Slowly, Lav Vashi were called Lauh (Iron) and lastly Lor or Laur or Lauras Khatri. It is definite that they came to Haridwar region before 1500.

      Beniwal/Behniwal/Venhwal/Bainiwal Gotra in Haridwar

Beniwal or Behniwal Gotra came from Rajasthan to Haridwar and seems came before 1500.They were ruler of Jagldesh (central Asia). Beniwal/Behniwal/Venhwal/Bainiwal Gotra are branch of Chauhan clan.
Today, Beniwal/Behniwal/Venhwal/Bainiwal Gotra are found in villages- Dhiyaki and Mandawali of Haridwar district.
Late Chaudhari Kalyan Singh of Mandavali village was the first Jat British Magistrate (Rurkee).


               History of Dhama, Dhami, Dhaman, Dham Jat Gotra of Haridwar

 Dhama, Dhami, Dhaman, Dham are mentioned in Mahabharata and other Puran and said to be descendents of Asur Krodhaavsa. According to Jat Bard, Dhama Gotra are descendent of Dharmpal of Ayodhya Dham.   Dham Gotra is also mentioned in Sanchi, Asoka inscription (Cunningham).
Maheshwari Prasad considers them as originated from Trigarta Clan as Dhamni.
   Dhami from this Gotra is now, Muslim Jat Gotra.
 It may be concluded that Dhama, Dhami, Dhaman, Dham were living before 1500 in Haridwar region.
Dhama, Dhami, Dhaman, Dham reside near Rurkee Tehsil of Haridwar district

                    History of Jatrana, Jatu,Jatri, Jitrana or Jatu Jat Gotra

                 Jatrana, Jatu,Jatri, Jitrana or Jatu is a Tunwar clan and were ruler of Delhi. Chauhan rulers pushed them from Delhi to other regions.
Nagla Salaru, Mannakhedi and Udhal Hedi are prominent villages in Haridwar of Jatrana, Jatu,Jatri, Jitrana or Jatu Gotra.

            History of Jatri Jat Gotra

 Jatri were originally from Chitaurgarh. From Chitaurgarh, they had to migrate at various places. Jatri also found a Kingdom Jartauli near Aligarh. Later Nohwars occupied this state. Abrahim Lodi forces Jatri to migrate elsewhere. Jatri have a couple of villages in Haridwar. It is sure Jatri settled in Haridwar before 1500.

                 History of Kharb/Kharub/Kharap/Kharab Jat Gotra of Haridwar

        Kharb/Kharub/Kharap/Kharab Jat Gotra is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vedas too. The Samudragupta’s inscription wherein Kharaparikas word is connected with Kharb/Kharub/Kharap/Kharab Jat Gotra
           Today, Kharb/Kharub/Kharap/Kharab Jat Gotra reside in Mohammadpur Jat and Amirpur Badayal villages in Haridwar.

Reference for this chapter, Dilip Singh Ahlavat, Jat History
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 27/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -301 

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued…   
Xx
History of Jat Gotra of Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Kankhal Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Jwalapur Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Rurkee Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Sakrauda Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Landhaura Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Laksar Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Manglaur Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Sultanpur Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Jhabarera Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Pathri Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Mohammadpur Jat  village Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Amirpur Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Nagla Salaru Udhal Hedi Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Mannakhedi Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of  Udhal Hedi Haridwar; History of Jat Gotra of Haridwar in Dhiyaki. History of Jat Gotra of Mandavali Haridwar;


Bhishma Kukreti

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History Aspects of Devprayagi or Badrinath Pandas those perceived other Brahmins as good as Untouchables
History of Upper Caste in Garhwal including Haridwar from 00 to 1500 and Spread of Untouchability and Caste based Slavery Part -3
                                 
                   (Garhwal, Haridwar me Kaun Jati Kahan Se Ayi aur Kahan Basi)
       History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -56     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -301 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student

 Dr Mohan Babulkar provided the brief history of Devprayagi (Badrinath) Pandas in Devprayagiyon ka Jatiya Itihas.
The histroy of Devprayagi Pandas start from the time when Jagadguru Shankracharya established Badrinath /Kedarnath dham and established Raghunath Ji temple in Dev Prayag around 800 AD. from that time, the Brahmins related to Shankrachary Math (South India) started to come to Garhwal and settled there  including Dev Prayag
There are eight Thoks of Dev Prayagi Pandas in Dev Prayag (Many are migrated to many places)
Thok -1 : Pujari and Karnatak
Thok-2 : Arjunya, , Raibani and Babuliye
Thok-3 : Akhniyan and Maliya
Thok-4: Kothiya (Later on settled in Koti)
Thok-5- Todriya
Thok -6 -Tailang, , Tevadi, Bandoliya and Chaube
Thok-7- Dhayani or Dhyani (now, settled in many places as dev Prayagi Bhatt )
Thok 8- Maharashtra and Palyal
These Thoks are no mre in existence:
Pujari bans and Bavan Hajai
            Mohan Babulkar states that these Pandas are Dravid, Tailang, karnatak, Guad or Maharashtrian
       Mohan Babulkar offered the inscriptions proofs that show most of above Thok of Pandas entered in Garhwal before 1500.
 Devprayagi Brahmins were very rigid in obeying the upper caste system and even they did not use to eat food cooked by their own relatives from Saryul Brahmin as Bahuguna and Uniyal etc. This class is also responsible to create division among Brahmins (Bhat Khana etc). Devprayagi Brahmins still do not wish to marry other than Pandas group.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 28/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -302 

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued…   
Xx

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Upper Caste in Garhwal including Haridwar from 00 to 1500 and Spread of Untouchability and Caste based Slavery Part -4
                                 
                   (Garhwal, Haridwar me Kaun Jati Kahan Se Ayi aur Kahan Basi)
       History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -57     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -302 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student

                                Pandas of Haridwar
  There is mention in Mahabharata that Dhritrashtra visited Haridwar for offering Tributes to dead (Pind dan) in Kurukshetra war. That means Panda system persisted in Haridwar. That suggests that Savarn and Shudra or caste System existed in Haridwar too.


                                    Savarn and Shudra System

                 The caste system existed in Mahabharata period too. Shudra or Doom system existed in that period.
                However, the migrated Rajput and Brahmins to Garhwal from all over India made the local inhabitants of Garhwal as Doom or Shudra. Rajput and Brahmins migrated from other regions became Bith or Savarn. These migrated Rajput and Brahmins were offered land by kings and the local inhabitants were deprived from land ownership. The Shilpkar (Doom or Shudra) were deprived from various human rights and rituals.
               The upper caste Rajputs and Brahmins (especially migrated to Garhwal from other regions) made the original inhabitants their slaves. This slave system or Doom system existed till 1947.
 The Muslim attackers on Garhwal captured lakhs of Garhwalis and made them slaves. Those captives were taken as animals. Nobody knew their pains as slaves.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 28/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -302 

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued…   
Xx

Bhishma Kukreti

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History Review -Religious Beliefs in Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500)
                               
                   (Garhwal, Haridwar me Kaun Jati Kahan Se Ayi aur Kahan Basi)
       History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -58     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -303 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student

                In the Period of Delhi Sultanate Period in Garhwal, there were many religious sects. Muslims attack and their repeated vocabulary made all sects as Hindu. Otherwise, there was no sect as Hindu in India. Hindu came from Sindhu River. Arabic and Persian pronunciations made Sindhu as Hindu and Hindu meant those live beyond Sindhu River. The place where Hindu (Sindhu) live was called Hindustan. In English, ‘H’ is silent when pronounced. European called Hindus/Sindhus as Indus or Indian. 
  There were following Hindu sects in Garhwal from 1200-1500.
                   Buddhists

      Shahi army at Karachal attack destructed a very famous Buddhist temple where Chinese pilgrims used to visit.
                Kumaun king Purushottam Singh built a Buddhist temple in Chakrawang Purushottam Singh was disciple of Mahayana Buddhist sect as his predecessor Ashokchalla. Purushottam Singh built a Gandhkuti in Bodh Gaya with help of Ashokchalla and Chhind King.
       There were followers of Mahayana in Garhwal and the effects of Mahayana on Hindus were experienced by Atkinson in British period too especially in Upper Garhwal region.
                                 Fire Worshippers 

              Muslim historians, biographers mentioned Gabar (Agnipujak or Fire worshippers). Ibrahim captured one lakh Gabar (Fire worshipers) from Derapur (Dehradun?).
  Timur mentioned Gabar (Fire worshippers) army. Timur called Malik Shaika (Shekhar?) as Gabar. Timur used Hindus as Gabar or fire worshippers. He used Hindus and Gabar in Kutil Darra. It might be that there was sect Fire Worshipper in Garhwal at that time.

             Ganga Worshipping

 Buddhist or Gabar both used to believe on heavenly power of Ganga.
 Hindus used to visit Haridwar for head shaving ceremony and used to have dip into Ganga. Hindus had Jaenu dhari priest in Haridwar. Hindus used to donate to Brahmin priests. Hindus used to disperse bones of their deceased ones into Ganga at Haridwar. People used to throw coins into Ganga at Haridwar.
.Definitely, Kumbh was common in Haridwar. Kings were ready to protect and repair Haridwar temples.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 30/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -304 

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued…   
Xx
History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Bhabhar Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Rishikesh Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Dehradun Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Dhangu Patti Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Udaipur Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Ajmer Patti Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Langur Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Badalpur Patti Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Paino Patti Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Dabralsyun Patti Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Kankhal Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Jwalapur Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Laksar Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Mandsaur Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Rurkee Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Rurkee Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Bhagwanpur Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History Aspects of Religious Beliefs in Sakrauda Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500);


Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Pilgrim Places in Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500)
                               
       History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -59     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -304 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student

Pilgrim Places in Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500)

               Ganga had been a poise River for Indians of all sects from the beginning of Human society in Uttarakhand. Therefore, from Mahabharata or Vedic period, the places of Ganga bank were pilgrim places for Indians.
               The inscriptions of Dev Prayag and Gopeshwar suggest that pilgrims used to reach those difficult places. Gangotri and Yamnotri had been witnessing landslides from the old age.  Therefore, we don’t have inscriptions found in these places. However, definitely, pilgrims definitely used to visit those places too.
   Shaivya, Vaishnava, Shakt sects encouraged pilgrim places of Uttarakhand. Kedar or Kailas and Mansarovar Kailas had bee Shaivya pilgrim places from the ages. Ramnath Math of Kedarnath is one of five auspicious Maths of Shaivya. Badrinath was one of main Maths of Vaishnavas. Shakt had Maths or Peeths in Garhwal and Haridwar as Haridwar (Gangadwar), Rishikesh, Shripur (Shrinagar), Kailas (Kedarnath), Bhrigukhal, Bhrigupanth and Badrinath.
  Indians used to come to Garhwal for paying tributes to their dead forefathers (Purkhon ka Pinddan).
The following piligrim places were famous from 1200-1500 in Garhwal
Gangadwar –Haridwar
Kankhal
Kanwashram
Rishikesh
Dev Prayag
Rikhyad (Rishiadda ) Udaipur , Salan
Gopeshwar
Kalimath
Jyotirmath
Badrikashram
Kedar
Badahat
Temple of Jaunsar

            Siddh Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500)

                Siddham and Oum Namo Siddham phrases were famous religious phrases before first century. Aorund tenth century, Bamamargi and Vajrayani Buddhists were called Siddh.
  Around thirteenth century, Muslim attackers destroyed Buddhist and Sanatani /Vedic/Hindu/Garab worshipping places and religious Conferences Places. Buddhist worshipping places at Bijnor, Moradabad, and Haridwar were destroyed too. The monks and administrating monks of Buddhist worshipping places migrated to Bhabhar and Himalayan and Siwalik Hills of Garhwal. Siddh influenced people of Garhwal.
                    Siddh using promoting Languages 

            Siddh took shelters in villages rather than in capital of chieftains. Those Siddh started creating Mantra in local language that is Garhwali of their time. The Siddh preaching were revolutionary and against Sanatani or customary preaching. However, Siddh were promoting blind faith too. Due to Muslim disturbances there was political, social, cultural, economical instability and turmoil all over. Therefore, new experimentations, new research and developmental works in agriculture, infrastructures, medical science, forestry, water resources, were stand still. People had only one hope and that was GOD. Siddh fulfilled the need of people. Siddha created Mantra in local language. However, those mantras language took newer shapes always with the changing time. However, beliefs on Mantra still exist in Garhwal in present time.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 31/3//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -305 

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued…   
Xx
History of Pilgrim Places in Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Pauri Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Chamoli Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Rudraprayag Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Tehri Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Uttarkashi Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Pilgrim Places in Dehradun Garhwal around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500);History of Pilgrim Places Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500)

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Nath Sect and Guru Gorakhnath in Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500)
                               
       History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -60     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -305 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student

                                                 Nath Sect
     Nath sect is an important sect of Garhwal too. Most probably, Nath sect bifurcated from Siddh sect.
          Nath perceive that Shiva and Adinath are their originator.
            Guru Gorakhnath provided a solid shape to Nath sect.

                    Guru Gorakhnath in Garhwal
 Guru Gorakhnath did Tapasya in Dhaulya Udyari (Dhaula Cave). There are mentions of Dhaulya Udyari in a couple of Rakhwali Mantra. Epic Kedarkhand mentions that Guru Gorakhnath did Tapasya at Mandakini bank near Kedarnath.
  Guru Gorakhnath was great Siddh person and he influenced Indians as Shankaracharya. No other devotional personality could influence as Guru Gorakhnath and Sahnkarachary could influence the Indian psych.
         Guru Gorakhnath simplified the complexities of Vajrayan- Sprituality of Siddh sect. He became darling of common men. He used local language to make common men understand the spirituality.
 His period is adjudged around tenth century. It is definite that Nath sect prospered in his life time as Garhwalis changed names of Shiva and Vaishnu temples ending with Nath as Badrinath, Kedarnath, Tungnath etc.
 It is said that Guru Gorakhnath travelled from Asam to Peshavar. Definitely he travlled Garhwal and established his disciple to spread the Nath sect in Garhwal.

                          Satyanath Sect in Garhwal
 It is said that the disciples of Guru Gorakhnath established twelve Panth or sub sects under Nath sect.
 One of his learned disciples Satyanath established Satyanath Panth in Patal Bhuvneshwar of Orissa.
 Still today, there is one branch of Satyanath Panth in Devalgarh (near Shrinagar) Pauri Garhwal. There is no record about time of establishment of Satya Nath Panth in Devalgarh. That shows that there was cultural bridge between Orissa and Garhwal in tenth –eleventh centuries. The architect historians suggest that there is influence of Orissa temple structure on Garhwal temples of tenth century. There is one temple Patal Bhuvneshwar in Kumaon.
 Many suggest that Satyanath sect was established before Gorakhnath.
   It is also clear that by fifteenth century, there were many Satyanath Panth centers in Garhwal. Satyanath sect priests had great influence on Garhwal rulers and Kumaon rulers as Garhwal king Ajay Pal used to pay tributes to Satyanath Devalgarh centre and Champawat King Kirtichand used to take advices from Nagnath the disciple of Satyanath.
 Satyanath Gaddi has importance near Devalgarh. The elder son becomes heir of Gaddi.
Satyanath panth has many Muslim rules to follow.
     
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 1/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -306 

                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on  South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued…   
Xx
History of Nath Sect and Guru Gorakhnath in Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Nath Sect and Guru Gorakhnath in Pauri Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Nath Sect and Guru Gorakhnath in Chamoli Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Nath Sect and Guru Gorakhnath in Rudraprayag Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Nath Sect and Guru Gorakhnath in Tehri Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Nath Sect and Guru Gorakhnath in Uttarkashi Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500); History of Nath Sect and Guru Gorakhnath in Dehradun Garhwal-Haridwar around Sultanate attack Period (1200-1500);

 

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