Author Topic: गढ़वाल का इतिहास 1223-1804 AD- History of Garhwal Region from 1223-1804 AD  (Read 120077 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of King Ajeypal Sacrificing Human for His Marvelous Palace of Shrinagar, Garhwal

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -82     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -327 
 
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                 Around first part of nineteenth century (around Gorkhali), there was a big fort in Shrinagar Garhwal called Ajeypal ku Kot or Ajeypal Palace.  The Ajeypal Palace was built with big stone pieces and lime.
  The Palace had three big portions. Every portion was four floors high. There were stone overhanging eves (chhajja) and their bases were made artistically.  It is said that wood was not used in building palace. The window nets were made by cutting stone. The door nets were also made by stone as wooden window.
           The main door was very strong, heavy and had artistic works and defense mechanism. A Kukreti family folklore describes that many men were required to shut and open the doors (See Kukreti Vanshavali) . Dr. Dabral also vouched the same that numbers of people used to move the doors. It is said that when door were mad nobody could lift those doors to fit on palace. The King Ajeypal had a ritual and he lifted the door. A maid servant saw the King lifting heavy doors. The King killed the maid servant and nobody could know the secret.
 There was custom of human sacrifice for new building or building other infrastructure as Bhad Madho Singh sacrificed his son life for Maletha canal. It is said that king Ajeypal sacrificed maid servant for his newly built palace.
It is said that there was a secret tunnel from palace to Alaknanda River through which palace women used to go for bathing. A four mile water canal was dig from Alaknanda to the palace for water needs.
 The palace was fallen down in earth quack of 1803 and the palace ruins fled away in 1894 flood.
   
               Building Temples
 According to Raturi, Ajeypal built Satyanath Bhairav temple and Rajrajeshwari yantra , Gaurjadevi temple in Devalgarh. There are sculptures or idols in the temples. It seems that the temples built by Ajeypal in 1552 or around were renovated on later stages and changed drastically.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 27/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -328 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX
History of Devalgarh King Ajeypal Sacrificing Human for His Marvelous Palace of Shrinagar, Garhwal; History of Chandpur King Ajeypal Sacrificing Human for His Marvelous Palace of Shrinagar, Garhwal; History of Alaknanda Valley King Ajeypal Sacrificing Human for His Marvelous Palace of Shrinagar, Garhwal; History of Mandakini Valley King Ajeypal Sacrificing Human for His Marvelous Palace of Shrinagar, Garhwal; History of Pindar King Ajeypal Sacrificing Human for His Marvelous Palace of Shrinagar, Garhwal; History of Vishnu Ganga Valley King Ajeypal Sacrificing Human for His Marvelous Palace of Shrinagar, Garhwal; History of Bhagirathi valley King Ajeypal Sacrificing Human for His Marvelous Palace of Shrinagar, Garhwal; History of Bavan Garhi winning King Ajeypal Sacrificing Human for His Marvelous Palace of Shrinagar, Garhwal;
 




 




Bhishma Kukreti

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History of King Ajeypal Killing Udaipur Chieftain Kaffu Chauhan

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -83     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -328 
 
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
 
                   A famous Garhwali folklore tells the story of brave Chieftain of Udaipur region of Tehri Garhwal.  Ajeypal won over many Garhpati (smaller rulers in Garhwal) and established his capital in Shrinagar. At the time of a ceremony for Shrinagar capital, most of chieftain (under Ajeypal), elites and many other important personalities from all over Garhwal attended the said ceremony. The Chieftain of Uppugarh of Udaipur (Tehri Garhwal) Kaffu Chauhan did not attend the ceremony. Kaffu Chauhan sent message with the messenger of Ajeypal that he (Kaffu) is lion among wild animals and Hawk among birds and would not accept the overruling of Ajeypal. Ajeypal warned Kaffu Chauhan to experience his attack. Kaffu Chauhan sent message that he would destroy the capital of Ajeypal.
 Ajeypal sent his army for attacking Kaffu Chauhan. There was a grass rope way bridge for crossing Alaknanda from Shrinagar region (Today’s Pauri Garhwal) to reach Uppugarh. Kaffu Chauhan cut the bridge. Ajeypal had to construct another bridge. Army of Ajeypal reached near to Uppugarh.  Kaffu Chauhan had smaller army than Ajeypal. He and his army fought with bravery. Ajeypal army destroyed Kaffu Chauhan army; Kaffu was left with a smaller numbers of soldiers. Hearing such news, mother of Kaffu got impression that Kaffu is killed in the battle. She burnt her palace and all inhabitants were burnt in the burning palace. Kaffu reached towards his palace. Kaffu Chauhan was deeply sad knowing the incident.
 Ajeypal also reached at the site. Ajeypal ordered his army to behead the head of Kaffu that his head reached to his (Ajeypal’s) feet. Kaffu gulped soil. The soldier of Ajeypal attacked Kaffu by sword and instead the head of Kaffu falling on the feet of Ajeypal fell on his head. Ajeypal was impressed by bravery of Kaffu Chauhan.
Ajeypal cremated Kaffu Chauhan with state honor at Alaknanda bank.
  Garhwalis respect Kaffu Chauhan more than Ajeypal.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 28/4//2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -329 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX

Bhishma Kukreti

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           History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -84     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -329 
 
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                       Geographical Administrative Units

 According to Raturi, Ajeypal divided his kingdom into –
1-Parganas
2-Parganas were divided into Patti
3- Patti had villages as units
          Dr. Dabral assumed that slowly, this time Garhwal name was being popularized. Kumaon was being mentioned as Kamades and Muslim writers of fourteenth century mentioned Kumaon. In a manuscript of Kumaon, Ajeypal is named as Gadh ka raja.

                              Armed forces at strategic Places

     It is said that Ajeypal held armed forces in Garhis at border and inside the kingdom too. Ajeypal offered the irrigated and plain land of Panai near Gauchar to soldiers who were defending east Garhwal border at Lohabgarh (Jo Dyau Lohabgarh Mundli. So Khau Panai ki Kundali).
        Ajeypal corrected administration and created peace among regional chieftains and among people too. Ajeypal also managed to defend the territory from Muslim attackers and Tibetian attackers.

                          Introduction of Weight and Measuring Units
             
    It is said that Ajeypal introduced measurement units as Dyula Patha for measuring grains. In a Devalgarh inscription it is mentioned ‘Dharmi Patho (Righteous Patha).

                            Enforcement of Saryul all over Garhwal
          Before Ajeypal the difference between sub caste among Brahmins and Rajputs was strong. When Ajeypal came in power his Purohit and cook became Saryul. They were twelve Brahmin castes. The upper caste of Rajput or upper caste of Brahins did not take cooked rice and dal by lower caste Rajput or Brahmin respectively. Even much upper caste Rajput did not take cooked rice from lower caste Brahmins too.
 The Saryul System (that is Rice and Dal cooked in collective party as marriage etc by upper caste Brahmins) became very common all over Garhwal in Ajeypal period.

                   12 Saryul Brahmin Castes of Ajeypal Period


1-   Nautiyal
2-Khanduri
3-Semalti
4-Gairola
5-Maithani
6-Thapliyal
7-Raturi
8-Semwal
9-Chamoli
10-Dimri
11-Kothiyal
12- Lakheda
Uniyal and Bahuguna were also upper caste Brahmins in that period.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 1/5/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -330 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX

           History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context History of Garhwal; History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context History of Pauri Garhwal; History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context History of Bhabhar Garhwal; History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context History of Tehri Garhwal; History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context History of Chamoli Garhwal; History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context History of Dehradun Garhwal; History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context History of Haridwar Garhwal; History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context History of Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context History of Garhwal, Himalaya; History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context History of Garhwal, North India; History of General Administration of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context History of Garhwal, South Asia;


Bhishma Kukreti

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           History Review of Garhwali Culture in Garhwal King Ajeypal Period

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -85     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -330 
 
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)
 
                                    Rituals in Badrinath Dham

         Garhwali king still called Bulaundau Badrinath (Living God or Deity Badrinath). There is no record about people calling Garhwal King as living God or deity. Shankaracharya offered the ritual performances of Badrinath and Jyotirmath to his disciple Totakacharya. The disciple system of Totakacharya had been managing ritual performances of Badrinath and Jyotirmath for four five centuries.  From the establishment of Garhwal Kingdom, the Badrinath ritual management was handed over to Dandiswami. Raturi furnished chronological names 21 Dandiswami from 1500-1833. Later on Rawals from Kerala became the ritual performing head of Badrinath. The first Dandiswami was Balkrishna (1443) and second Dandiswami Haribrahma got Badrinath Gaddi in 1500 . That suggests that Jagtipal was King when Balkrishna became Badrinath head priest and Ajeypal was King at the time of Haribrahma becoming head priest of Badrinath. Rawals of Badrinath also created imagery family tree of Garhwal Kings.

                             Art in Ajeypal Period

              Ajeypal had learned sculpture makers, architect and builders. Those artists built a remarkable palace in Shrinagar and dug four miles canal too.
 The sculpture artists were expert in carving art on stone and wood. The artist were expert of creating tunnel too.
 The Gahadwal art (plains of Uttar Pradesh, Kannauj) influenced on Garhwal art of temple or building in the Ajeypal period.  However, the art of Ajeypal period is inferior to Katyuri period in much sense.


 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 2/5/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -331 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX
History Review of Garhwali Culture in Garhwal King Ajeypal Period in context history of Garhwal; History Review of Garhwali Culture in Garhwal King Ajeypal Period in context history of Haridwar Garhwal; History Review of Garhwali Culture in Garhwal King Ajeypal Period in context history of Dehradun Garhwal; History Review of Garhwali Culture in Garhwal King Ajeypal Period in context history of Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Review of Garhwali Culture in Garhwal King Ajeypal Period in context history of Tehri Garhwal; History Review of Garhwali Culture in Garhwal King Ajeypal Period in context history of Chamoli Garhwal; History Review of Garhwali Culture in Garhwal King Ajeypal Period in context history of Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Review of Garhwali Culture in Garhwal King Ajeypal Period in context history of Pauri Garhwal;

Bhishma Kukreti

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 History Review of Foreign Policy with Kumaon Kingdoms by Garhwal King Ajeypal

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -86     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -331 
 
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

               Diplomatic Relationship of Garhwal King Ajeypal with Kumaon Kings

                Champawat King Kirtichand attacked on Garhwal. Kirtichand did not expire before 1505 as his last inscription is found dated 1505.
    The Son of Kirtichand, Pratap Chand did not expand or tried to expand his ruling territory but was more interested in consolidating the same. Tara Chand (1517-1533) the son of Pratap Chand did not take any remarkable step. The historians have got seven inscriptions of Vishnu Chand or Bhishma Chand (1511, 1512, 1514, 1519 and 1533). That suggests Pratap Chand and Bhishma Chand or Vishnuchand was same.
           Heir of Vishnu Chand Manekchand offered shelter to Khawaskhan the rebellion of Badshah Islam Shah.
                There is no record or folklore those suggests infighting between Kumaon Kings and Garhwal King Ajeypal.  That suggests that Ajeypal and contemporary Kumaon Kings (Champwat, Doti, Askot Kings etc) were busy in consolidating their own Kingdoms.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 3/5/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -332 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX
History Review of Foreign Policy by Garhwal King Ajeypal in context with History of Uttarakhand; History Review of Foreign Policy by Garhwal King Ajeypal in context with History of Haridwar Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History Review of Foreign Policy by Garhwal King Ajeypal in context with History of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History Review of Foreign Policy by Garhwal King Ajeypal in context with History of Rudraprayag Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History Review of Foreign Policy by Garhwal King Ajeypal in context with History of Chamoli Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History Review of Foreign Policy by Garhwal King Ajeypal in context with History of Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History Review of Foreign Policy by Garhwal King Ajeypal in context with History of Uttarkashi Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History Review of Foreign Policy by Garhwal King Ajeypal in context with History of Dehradun Garhwal, Uttarakhand; History Review of Foreign Policy by Garhwal King Ajeypal in context with History of Bhabhar Garhwal, Uttarakhand;

Bhishma Kukreti

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   History Review of Diplomatic Relationships of Garhwal King with Delhi Rulers

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -87     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -332 
 
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                    From 1440-1548, Delhi’s political situation was unstable. Timur attacks disestablished the north Indian region that the Delhi rulers could not make Delhi rule stable. Khijrakhan (1414) established Sayyad rule in Delhi. Bahalolalodi dynasty took over Delhi in 1441. Babar took over the Delhi rule on 20th April 1526. Babar died in 1530. Humayun could not consolidate his rule. Sher Shah Suri took over Delhi rule in 1540 by defeating Humayun. Humayun died in 1545 and his successors could rule for long.
       
                      Sheltering Hindus in Uttarakhand

          Muslim rulers before Akbar suppressed Hindus from social, cultural and religious ways. Hindus were fleeing from their place for secured life where they could be Hindus. Hindus started taking shelters in Garhwal and Kumaon. That is why most of the Garhwali castes settlement is in this era of disturbances by Muslims in Indian plains. Garhwal and Kumaon Kings also offered shelter to Muslims too.

                        Shelter to Khawas Khan by Kumaon King
  Khawas Khan from Marwat clan was one of the best generals of Sher Shah Suri. He was sympathetic to Adil Shah Suri and Khawaskhan was main supporter of Adilkhan the elder brother of Delhi ruler Islamshah. Adilkhan and Khawaskhan wanted their rule instead Islamshah. Khawaskahn helped Humayun.
 Islamshah wanted to arrest Khawaskhan.
     Khawaskhan took shelter in Kumaon under King Manek Chand.

                    Path of Khawas Khan from Garhwal to Kumaon

 When Khawskhan reached to Ambala from Sarhind he crossed through Shivalik hills. According to Muslim folklore writers, Khawas Khan entered Kumaon from Dabar Ghat or port. He lived in Alalhahi.
 The Muslim folklores suggest that Khawas Khan travelled Garhwal region (south Garhwal that is Shivalik and Bhabhar). It seems that contemporary Garhwal King  had sympathy with Khawas Khan and offered path for Khawas Khan to travel through Garhwal.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 4/5/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -333 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX
         History of Diplomatic Relationships of Garhwal Kings with Delhi Rulers; History of Diplomatic Relationships of Garhwal Kings with Delhi Rulers with context of History of Haridwar Garhwal; History of Diplomatic Relationships of Garhwal Kingsl with Delhi Rulers with context of History of Dehradun Garhwal; History of Diplomatic Relationships of Garhwal Kings with Delhi Rulers with context of History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; History of Diplomatic Relationships of Garhwal Kings with Delhi Rulers with context of History of Tehri Garhwal; History of Diplomatic Relationships of Garhwal King Ajeypal with Delhi Rulers with context of History of Chamoli Garhwal; History of Diplomatic Relationships of Garhwal King Ajeypal with Delhi Rulers with context of History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; History of Diplomatic Relationships of Garhwal King Ajeypal with Delhi Rulers with context of History of Bhabhar Garhwal; History of Diplomatic Relationships of Garhwal King Ajeypal with Delhi Rulers with context of History of Pauri Garhwal; 
 

Bhishma Kukreti

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            History Analysis of Strong Personality of Garhwal King Ajeypal
 
History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -88     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -333 
 
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

            According to Bharat Kavi the creator of long Sanskrit poetry ‘Manodaya Kavya’, Ajeypal was very strong person and enemy used to feel dreadfulness by his name announcement.  He was as Yudhistar in battle. His strength was as Bhima of Mahabharata. Ajeypal used to offer shelter to noble personalities. He was prosperous King. Historian Rahul states that Ajeypal consolidated Garhwal Kingdom from Tibet to Chandighat Haridwar, Bhabhar, and Dehradun.
        Though, there is no record of Satyanath but it is true that Satyanath had been a great saint of Garhwal. It is said that Satyanath made treaty between Kumaon King and Ajeypal.  Ajeypal had great respect for Satyanath. Due to his respect for Satyanath, Ajeypal was also included in Nath saint in Nath literature.
         Ajeypal is respected as one of great Kings of Garhwal. He was firm and knew battle strategies very well. Ajeypal behaved with great respect to defeated Kings by him. He created prosperity and peace in Garhwal when there were disturbances in other Indian regions due to Muslim rulers and invaders. He established Shrinagar the capital of Garhwal.


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 5/5/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -334 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX
History Analysis of Strong Personality of Garhwal King Ajeypal; History Analysis of Strong Personality of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context Himalayan History of Haridwar Garhwal; History Analysis of Strong Personality of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context Himalayan History of Pauri Garhwal; History Analysis of Strong Personality of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context Himalayan History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; History Analysis of Strong Personality of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context Himalayan History of Chamoli Garhwal; History Analysis of Personality of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context Himalayan History of Tehri Garhwal; History Analysis of Strong Personality of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context Himalayan History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; History Analysis of Strong Personality of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context Himalayan History of Dehradun Garhwal; History Analysis of Strong Personality of Garhwal King Ajeypal in context Himalayan History of Bhabhar Garhwal;


Bhishma Kukreti

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            History of Garhwal Kings Sahajpal and Balbhadrashah

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -89     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -334 
 
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

  According to Manodaya Kavya by Bharat Kavi, Sahajpal was son of Ajeypal and Manshah was son of Sahajpal. 
 The names between Sahajpal and Manshah offered by Beckett and Maularam are imagery names. There is a name Balbhadrashah in Maulram’s poetry. Rahul suggests that Balbhadrashah is totally an imagery name.
  However, from Ajeypal to Manshah (1500-1610) there are 110 years and there must be at least three or two Kings from Ajeypal to Manshah.
 No doubt, there is no inscription available about Balbhadrashah but there are folklore to suggest that Balbhadrashah was a Garhwal King. It is beloved that Balbhadrashah was brother of Sahajpal who was guardian of prince Manshah in his childhood after the death of Sahajpal.
               Inscriptions of Sahajpal

 There are two inscriptions of King Sahajpal available –
1-An inscription of Raja Sahaj Pal of year 1558 is carved on Stone Door of Kshetrpal Temple at  Deoprayag, Garhwal. The Sanskrit inscription states that Shivraj Buniyal of Ramanand Math built a  Mandap at Math in the time of King Sahajpal.
2-The inscription on the bell of Raghunath Ji temple at Devprayag of year 1561 states that King Sahajpal donated bell to Raghunath Ji Temple.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 6/5/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -335 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX
   Notes on History of Garhwal Kings Sahajpal and Balbhadrashah; Notes on History of Garhwal Kings Sahajpal and Balbhadrashah with context to History of Rudraprayag Garhwal, Himalaya; History of Garhwal Kings Sahajpal and Balbhadrashah with context to History of Chamoli Garhwal, Himalaya; History of Garhwal Kings Sahajpal and Balbhadrashah with context to History of Tehri Garhwal, Himalaya; History of Garhwal Kings Sahajpal and Balbhadrashah with context to History of Uttarkashi Garhwal, Himalaya; History of Garhwal Kings Sahajpal and Balbhadrashah with context to History of Dehradun Garhwal, Himalaya; History of Garhwal Kings Sahajpal and Balbhadrashah with context to History of Haridwar Garhwal, Himalaya; History of Garhwal Kings Sahajpal and Balbhadrashah with context to History of Pauri Garhwal, Himalaya; History of Garhwal Kings Sahajpal and Balbhadrashah with context to History of Bhabhar Garhwal, Himalaya;   
 

Bhishma Kukreti

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History -Diplomatic Relationship (Foreign Policy) of Garhwal King Sahajpal and his immediate Heirs

History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -90     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -335 
 
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)


        Diplomatic Relationship (Foreign Policy) of Garhwal Kings with Himachal Kings

             At the beginning of fifteenth century, Thakar (Thakur) of Kamru (Rampur) were the strongest rulers of Kinnar / Kinnaur Region (Himachal Pradesh).
               It is said that Kamru Thakur chieftain of Kinnar region invited Garhwali weaponry soldiers from Fatehparvat mountain region of Garhwal and settled them in Kinnar or Kinnaur. The Kamru Thakur   defeated Prachand Thakur of Chini with the help of Garhwali soldiers. Kehar Sing the grandson of Kamru Thakur established Ramnagar town in Kinnar in 1554. In 1556, Kehar Singh had a friendly treaty with Tibet. It seems Kamru Thakur was contemporary of Ajeypal the Garhwal King. Fatepur Mountain is in western Garhwal and Garhwali armed soldiers were getting jobs in Kinnar in later period too. It might be possible that with the permission or inspiration from Ajeypal, Garhwali soldiers helped Kamru Thakur of Kinnar, Himachal Pradesh. It shows that Garhwal rulers had amicable relationship with east regional chieftains of Himachal Pradesh.
 
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 7/5/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -336 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued
XX
History -Diplomatic Relationship (Foreign Policy) of Garhwal King Ajeypal,  Sahajpal and his immediate Heirs ; History -Diplomatic Relationship (Foreign Policy) of Garhwal King Ajeypal,  Sahajpal and his immediate Heirs with context History of Pauri Garhwal ; History -Diplomatic Relationship (Foreign Policy) of Garhwal King Ajeypal,  Sahajpal and his immediate Heirs with context History of Chamoli Garhwal ; History -Diplomatic Relationship (Foreign Policy) of Garhwal King Ajeypal,  Sahajpal and his immediate Heirs with context History of Rudraprayag Garhwal ; History -Diplomatic Relationship (Foreign Policy) of Garhwal King Ajeypal,  Sahajpal and his immediate Heirs with context History of Tehri Garhwal ; History -Diplomatic Relationship (Foreign Policy) of Garhwal King Ajeypal,  Sahajpal and his immediate Heirs with context History of Uttarkashi Garhwal ; History -Diplomatic Relationship (Foreign Policy) of Garhwal King Ajeypal,  Sahajpal and his immediate Heirs with context History of Dehradun Garhwal ; History -Diplomatic Relationship (Foreign Policy) of Garhwal King Ajeypal,  Sahajpal and his immediate Heirs with context History of Haridwar Garhwal ; History -Diplomatic Relationship (Foreign Policy) of Garhwal King Ajeypal,  Sahajpal and his immediate Heirs with context History of Bhabhar Garhwal ;

Bhishma Kukreti

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History of Diplomatic (Foreign) Policy of Garhwal Kings from Ajeypal to Balbhadrashah with Kumaon region Kings


History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -91     
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -336 
 
                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

 The following data are available for Kumaon Chand Kingdom Kings from 1546-1597 AD
Kali Kalyanchand – 1546-1551 AD
Purnchand- 1551-1555
Bhishma Chand second 1555-1559
Balo Kalyan Chand – 1559-1565
Rupchand-1565-1597
The predecessors of Rup Chand had amicable relation with Sahajpal.
Balo Kalyan Chand captured Katyuri Kingdoms – Manikot, Shor and Danpur. Rup Chand attacked on Badhangarhi (Garhwal) in 1581


Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 9/5/2014
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -337 
   
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India
26- Nau Nihal Singh, 2003, The Royal Gurjars: their contribution to India, Anmol Publications 
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
Notes on South Asian Medieval History of Garhwal;  SouthAsian Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal;  Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal;  South Asian Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal;  Medieval History of Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  South Asian Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ;  South Asian Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; South Asian History of Haridwar district to be continued


 

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