Author Topic: गढ़वाल का इतिहास 1223-1804 AD- History of Garhwal Region from 1223-1804 AD  (Read 120108 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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               History of Jumla Chieftains of Painkhanda Garhwal


           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -30
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -275

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

        The Tehri Riyasat handwritten note states that there was rule of Jumla Chieftains on Painkhanda the far north of Garhwal.
  UP Historical Society (July1943) stated that forty two Jumla chieftains were the rulers of Painkhanda regions. That means one Jumla chieftain was ruling a village of Painkhanda region. Jumla Chieftains had a federal system for ruling Painkhanda region. The ruling period of Jumla Chieftains is suggested by handwritten note -1270-1321. There is no historical record to prove this folk saying that Jumla were ruling Painkhanda.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 1/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -276   
Xx
Notes on History of Gadh, Garhi and Gadhpati of Garhwal; History of Gadh, Garhi and Gadhpati of Painkhanda Garhwal; History of Gadh, Garhi and Gadhpati of Tehri Garhwal; History of Gadh, Garhi and Gadhpati of Uttarkashi Garhwal; History of Gadh, Garhi and Gadhpati of Dehradun Garhwal; History of Gadh, Garhi and Gadhpati of Hardwar ,Garhwal; History of Gadh, Garhi and Gadhpati of Rudraprayag Garhwal; History of Gadh, Garhi and Gadhpati of Chamoli Garhwal; History of Gadh, Garhi and Gadhpati of Pauri Garhwal;

Bhishma Kukreti

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             History of Ekchakra Bahuban (Chauhan) in Garhwal

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -31
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -276

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

          History Sources for Chauhan Chieftains of Western Garhwal

             There are only folklores about Chauhan (Chahman) Chieftains ruling on Gadhs of Garhwal. No historical reports are available to deny or support the rules of Chauhan in Gadhs of Garhwal.
           However, it is obvious from the Muslim Historians writings that Chauhan ruled in western part of Garhwal for longer than other parts of Garhwal. Islamic Folklores as Tabqaat –i-Nasiri (by Minhaj-i-Siraj, 1260) and Malfujat –i-Timuri state that there were following Kings in west and east of Yamuna in Garhwal –
1-Unknown King – Who provided shelter to rebellion Junaidi the prime minister of Sultan Razia Begum in 1236-37.
2- Rana Devpal- Rana Devpal (1255) provided shelter to Kutalugkhan the Awdh rulwer who revolted against Sultan Nasiruddin and Balvan.
3- King Ratan Sen – Ratan Sen fought with Timur in Kookaprvat or Kaleshwar and Shivalik hills in 1399. 
  Less is known about rulers (1280-1390) of west of Yamuna in Garhwal (Dehradun).
   The Sanskrit classic ‘ Niranayamrit’ by Allatnath or Alladnath Suri  son of Siddh Lakshaman provides details that six or seven Bahuban (Chauhan or Chahuban) rulers ruled in west Yamuna (Dehradun region) around 1280-1390. Ekchakra was the capital of Bahuban or these Chauhan rulers. Ekchakra was at the bank of Yamuna.

                   Nirnayamrit by Allatnath Suri

    Allatnath Suri the court poet of Chauhan King Suryasen created a Sanskrit Code of conduct book (Neeti sutra) as per advice of Suryasen. Allatnath was great scholars of Veda, Shastra, Vyakaran, Smriti etc. Allatnath wrote another book –sakalpuran Sammuchaya.
  Allatnath was expert of Lalit Chanda creation and he wrote about Suryasen too.
              The beginning of Nirnayamrit provides the short details of earlier four generations of King Suryasen, Suryasen, his son and his brother.
       There are references of 28 old Dharma Granth in Nirnayamrit. That is why Nirnayamrit got prominent position as Dharmagranth immediately after its creation by Allatnath Suri. The other Dharmagranth those were created in later stages as NirnaySindhu, Daytatva, Tirthnirnay, Kalnirnay, Nirnaydeepak, Shradhkaumudi, mentioned the references of Nirnayamrit. Two editions of Nirnayamrit were published (Kolkatta and Mumbai). A coy is kept in Bhandarkar Research Institute, Mumbai and a copy of Nirnayamrit is also in Berlin.
       Therefore, the Kings mentioned in Nirnayasmriti is important record for history.

** Read more about Bahuban or Chahuban in the next chapter….
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 2/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -277   
Xx
Notes on History of Chauhan rulers of Garhwal; History of Chauhan Chieftains of Pauri Garhwal; History of Chauhan rulers of Tehri Garhwal; History of Chauhan Kings of Chamoli Garhwal;  History of Chauhan Gadhpati or rulers of Rudraprayag Garhwal; History of Chauhan rulers of Uttarkashi Garhwal; History of Chauhan rulers of Dehradun Garhwal; History of Chauhan rulers of Haridwar Garhwal;     

Bhishma Kukreti

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             Was Chakrata called Ekchakra? A Medieval Garhwal History Discussion

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -32
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -277

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

         Why Bahuban of Ekchakra are Supposed to be Chauhan or Chahman?

             A Sanskrit classic ‘Nirnayamrit’ created by Allatnath or Alladnath states that Bahuban family ruled Ekchakra (today’s Chakrata?) region. On that time, Chauhan were called by various names as Choohan, Chahvan, Chahuvan etc. Perhaps Allatnath or Alladnath used Bahuban for Chahuban or Chauhan. Dr. Bhandarkar and Professor Kane also support the theory of Allatnath using word Bahuban for Chahuban or Chahuban or Chauhan. Therefore, Bahuban of Ekchakra could be called Chauhan rulers.

                               Was Chakrata called Ekchakra in past?
               Allatnath describes that the capital of Bahuban rulers was ‘Ekchakra’ at the bank of Yamuna River. Ekchakra was situated at hills, valley and foot hills and was beautiful geographical place without diseases. The Ekchakra seems to be today’s Chakrata. Mahabharata also describes about Ekchakra a beautiful place without diseases.
     It is now, difficult to tell the boundary of Ekchakra. However, it was sure that its boundary was touching Delhi Sultan rule. Nirnanyamrit describes the tussle between Ekchakra King and Sultan of Delhi.

                       Sarup. Karnadev and Uddhaharn
   
    Nirnayamrit describes about Kings of Ekchakra. The founder King Sarup was born in Bahuban family. Sarup destroyed his enemies.
        Karnadev was son of Sarup Bahuban. Karnadev was brave as Karna and was handsome King. Karnadev was Shiva devotee.
           According to Allatnath, Uddharan was heir of Karnadev and was handsome, brave, serious, patient, and energetic.  Uddharan also pained to Delhi Shaka King (Muslim King). Most probably, Uddharan had war with Delhi Sultan at border of Delhi Kingdom and Ekchakra Kingdom. Uddharan established capital Ekchakra.

                        Chandrasen, Suryasen, Pratapsen and Devsen
    Chandrasen the son of Uddharan was also Shiva devotee. He was great donor. He had strong cavalry army.
     Chandrasen had two sons – Suryasen and Pratapsen. 
           Suryasen used to honor scholars as Allatnath was court poet of Suryasen. Suryasen inspired Alladnath to create Nirnayamrit.
                Pratapsen was devotee of his elder brother as Lakshaman.
  Devsen the son of Suryasen was also Shiva devotee.
 Bhandarkar, Kane calculate that the ruling period of Sarup, Karnadev, Uddharan, Chandrasen, Suryasen and Devsen would be from 1280-1390. 
   Ratansen and his heirs were successors of Devsen. It seems that either Ratansen or his heirs fought with Timur in 1399. The rule of Ratansen and his successors would be from 1390-1420.
     Delhi Muslim rulers attacked Ekchakra and Dehradun many times. Alibeg and Tartak the successors of Changejkhan attacked on Dehradun and Ekchakra in 1305. There was bloodshed in that area by these cruel attackers.
            There was another Muslim attack on the area in 1324.
** Read more about Bahuban or Chahuban in the next chapter….
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 2/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -278   
Xx
Medieval History of Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century; Medieval History of Chakrata Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century; Medieval History of Jaunsar Bhabhar Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century;  Medieval History of Dehradun Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century; Medieval History of Haridwar /Hardwar Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century; Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century; Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century;  Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century; Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century; Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century; Medieval History of Bahuban or Chauhan rule over Chakrata, Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century Medieval History of Sarup Bahuban or Chauhan , Suryasen and Ratansen over Chakrata, Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century;  Medieval History of Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century at the time of Timur attack;  Medieval History of Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century at the time of Changejkhan’s successors attack on Chakrata; Medieval History of Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century at the time of Changejkhan’s successors attack on Dehradun; Medieval History of Hardwar/Haridwar , Garhwal in twelfth and thirteenth Century at the time of Timur attack; Medieval History of Hardwar  in twelfth and thirteenth Century at the time of Timur attack;   


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History of Unknown Martyrs of Garhwal and Haridwar of Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -33
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -278

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                  Lack of Historical Records

          There are no historical records available for knowing the exact History of Garhwal and Haridwar of Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. The last record is Baleshwar inscription of Krachal of 1223. Then till 1450, no authentic record is available.
           No ruler coins are available from 1200-1400 AD. The inscription custom restarted from 1455 of Jagatpal Rajwar.

                                 Dependence on Folklores

           Most of the historians depend on History of Garhwal from eleventh century to thirteenth century on folklores of Garhwal. Most of the folklores of Garhwal are related to central Garhwal and in some cases from upper Garhwal. Less is known for South Garhwal (Gangasalan, Malla Salan , Talla Salan, ) Dehradun and Haridwar.  The folklores do not indicate the ruling period, major incidents and events of Gadhpati or chieftains of Gadh described in folklores. 

                         Muslim Historians

               There are scanty descriptions about South Garhwal (Bhabhar, Dehradun and Haridwar) in a few history records written by Muslim historians. Dr. Dabral appreciates the Muslim historians recording a few events happened in South Garhwal. Dr. Dabral mentions that these records provide some ideas about chronological history of Garhwal.

       Faults in Records of Muslim Historians about History of Garhwal and Haridwar

    No doubt, Muslim Historians provide some ideas about history of Garhwal and Haridwar. However, there are flaws too in the records of Muslim Historians for history of Garhwal including Haridwar.
1-The Muslim historians were taking shelter under Muslim Delhi rulers. Therefore, they could record about Garhwal including Haridwar only that was related to their masters.
2- The Muslim historians described the Muslim attack and looting on Sirmaur (Himachal Pradesh), Shivalik region (Dehradun and Haridwar) and Kumaon. They did not write about political and social situations of Garhwal. Less is described the names of rulers of Garhwal regions in Muslim history records. If they recorded ruler names those names do not tally with actual history. 
3- Since, the Muslim historians were living in Delhi and were not acquainted with names and culture of Garhwal they wrote names as they could hear from others. Therefore, there are mistakes in names. They wrote in Persian and there are also problems of writing Hindu names.
3- Mostly, Muslim Historians of twelfth century had wrong perceptions that Garhwal and Kumaon are in china. Muhammad Tuglaq attacked on Gargachal (Garhwal) and Kurmachal in 1329-1330. However, the historians sitting in Delhi or far perceived that the said region is in China.
4- Muslim Rulers attacked on Bhabhar, Dehradun and Haridwar but not on Central and Upper Garhwal. We don’t have any record for the Central and Upper Garhwal for the period when Muslim Rulers were attacking South Garhwal including Haridwar. 
5- There is mention by Muslim Historians the defense of Garhwal rulers and people against attackers and looters. There are no mentions of conditions and mental conditions of slaves made by looters and conditions of who were attacked brutally. There is mention about organized way of defending by Garhwal rulers and their subjects.
However, , whatever is there in Muslim Historian writings that provide some ideas about  the prevailing situation in Garhwal including Haridwar of that period.
 People were killed in abundant by Muslim attacks and loots in Garhwal. We don’t have records of martyrs of Garhwal including Haridwar.

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 4/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -279   
Notes on History of Garhwal; History of Pauri Garhwal; History of Chamoli Garhwal; History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; History of Tehri Garhwal; History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; History of Dehradun, Garhwal; History of Haridwar ; History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  History of Rurkee Haridwar ; History of Bhadarpur Haridwar ; History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
Xx
History of Unknown Martyrs of Garhwal and Haridwar of Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries; History of Unknown Martyrs of Bhabhar Garhwal and Haridwar of Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries; History of Unknown Martyrs of Salan Garhwal and Haridwar of Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries; History of Unknown Martyrs of Gangasalan Garhwal and Haridwar of Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries; History of Unknown Martyrs of Talla Salan Garhwal and Haridwar of Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries; History of Unknown Martyrs of Malla Salan Garhwal and Haridwar of Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries; History of Unknown Martyrs of Dehradun  of Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries; History of Unknown Martyrs of Haridwar of Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries;

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 History of Muslim Attacks on Garhwal, Dehradun, Haridwar, Saharanpur before Prithviraj Chauhan


           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -34
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -279

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

         King Chand Rai of Sarsava/Sarsawa (Saharanpur)

                           The first Muslim attack on South Garhwal started from January 1019. On that time, King Chand Rai or Raja Chandra of Sarsava (Saharanpur) was ruling over west -south Garhwal. Most probably, King Rai had rule over Bhabhar Garhwal, south of Dehradun Garhwal, Sirmaur region of Dehradun and Haridwar Garhwal. There was strong forte at Sarsava under King Chand Rai. There were strong forts of King Chand Rai in hills parts. Less historical records are available for Chand Rai.
 
           Attack by Muhammad Ghaznavi or Ghazani

                In 1001, Muhammad Ghazani won Jaypal and captured the territory from Kabul to Udmand. He looted cities, villages, temples of Punjab. In 1018, Ghazani looted Bulandshahar, Mathura, Kannauj and captured lakhs of people and made them slaves.
    Returning from Kannauj to Ghazani, Muhammad of Ghazani used rout of foot hills of Himalaya.

             Chand Rai taking Shelter in Dehradun Forests
   Knowing the march of Muhammad of Ghazani through foot hills of Himalaya, the king of Sarsava Chand Rai took shelter along with his army in Dehradun forest. However, Ghazani attacked Chand Rai with suddenness and defeated Chand Rai. Ghazani captured his armed forces including army horses and elephants. Ghazani’s army killed whoever came on their way.

                       Looting Dehradun

  Muslim or Turkish historians describe the looting of Dehradun.
               The army of Ghazani checked the dead bodies (whom they killed) and took away the ornaments. The gold, silver and other gems were counted for the value of three lakhs Dirham. It is said that Ghazani army captured seven and half lakhs prisoners. Each prisoner was sold at ten Dirham. Yavanhaur, Iraq and Khurasan were filled by slaves. The army of Ghazani looted Dehradun region for three days. That means the Ghazani army also looted Haridwar and Haridwar.

                   Administration of Chand Rai

      The Muslim historians describe Chand Rai as one of the capable administrators of contemporary India. He had big army and had strong forts. He was not afraid of Muhammad Ghazani.
      The loot and slave making descriptions suggest that the population in Dehradun, Saharanpur, Haridwar and Bhabhar was quite dense. The people were prosperous. The Ghazani attack was sudden and people could run towards hills of Garhwal.
               Nothing is on record about death of Chand Rai. No record is available whether Ghazani army killed Chand Rai or he escaped. Nothing is written about the administrative parts after Ghazani fleeing from Dehradun and Saharanpur (including Haridwar).
             The archeological findings suggest that Sarsava was a rich and high traffic trading city.

**History of Muslim Attacks on Garhwal, Dehradun, Haridwar to be continued …
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 5/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -280   
Notes on History of Garhwal; History of Pauri Garhwal; History of Chamoli Garhwal; History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; History of Tehri Garhwal; History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; History of Dehradun, Garhwal; History of Haridwar ; History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  History of Rurkee Haridwar ; History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
Xx
History of Muslim Attacks on Garhwal; History of Muslim Attacks on Bhabhar Garhwal; History of Muslim Attacks on Lal Dhang Garhwal; History of Muslim Attacks on today’s Kotdwara Garhwal; History of Muslim Attacks on Dehradun; History of Muslim Attacks on Dehradun; History of Muslim Attacks on Rishikesh Dehradun; History of Muslim Attacks on Harbatpur Dehradun; History of Muslim Attacks on Gadhi Dehradun; History of Muslim Attacks on Haridwar; History of Muslim Attacks on Rurkee Tehsil Haridwar; History of Muslim Attacks on Laksar Tehsil Haridwar;

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History of Disturbances by Muslim Attackers in Dehradun Region including Haridwar

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -35
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -280

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

                 In mid of eleventh century, Tomar captured the east and west valleys of Dehradun or south Garhwal region including Haridwar. The said to be period is supposed to be peaceful and calm period of Garhwal including Haridwar. After sixty years of the defeat of Chand Rai, Muslim invaders attacked South Garhwal (including Haridwar).
   Ibrahim the grandson of Mahmud got the Ghazni Kingdom in 1059.  The forts of Sarhind, Jalandhar, Agra, and Budhiya were won In Ibrahim period. The historians wrote that Ibrahim attacked a place called Dera, Derapur of North India and one lakh Fire worshippers were captured there. .
 
                  Geographical Situation of Dera or Derapur

    According to Muslim historians, before, winning Derapur or Dera, Ibrahim won a fort called Damal that was situated on top of hill. The river was flowing on one side of fort and spiky forest was on other side of fort. After winning Damal, Ibrahim won another territory Derapur (described in Tarikh-i-Alfi) or Dera (Described by Farista)  that was never won or seen before. There was pond in Derapur that never dried.
              Is Dera or Derapur as Dehradun?
 
  The court poet of Ibrahim described that Ibrahim won Budhiya fort and then won Derapur. It seems Derapur of Ibrahim period is of today’s Dehradun. The geographical situations described by court poet resemble with Dehradun. Only never drying lake or pond does not support the theory that Dera /Derapur of Ibrahim period Dehradun. However, Williams comments on the comments of Elliot that there might be lake in Dehradun of past. Dr. Dabral provided proofs of many lakes in Dehradun and Bhabhar of pat time.  The capturing of one lakh people seems to be exaggerated figure.
 It is not sure that Dera name was famous in eleventh century for Dehradun. Before Mogul era, there is no record of Dera word for Dehradun. Dehradun was more famous by name Shivalik or Sirmaur. There is no doubt that fire worshippers were living in Dehradun at the time of Ibrahim in eleventh century.
 However, historically, less is known about political scenario of Dehradun in eleventh century.

**History of Muslim Attacks on Garhwal, Dehradun, Haridwar to be continued …
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 5/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -281   
Notes on Early Medieval History of Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  Early Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
Xx
History of Disturbances by Muslim Attackers in Dehradun Region including Haridwar (Garhwal); History of Disturbances by Muslim Attackers in Jaunsar, Dehradun Region including Haridwar (Garhwal); History of Disturbances by Muslim Attackers in Gadhi Dehradun Region including Haridwar (Garhwal); History of Disturbances by Muslim Attackers in Sahaspur, Dehradun Region including Haridwar (Garhwal); History of Disturbances by Muslim Attackers in Ranipokari , Dehradun Region including Haridwar (Garhwal); History of Disturbances by Muslim Attackers in Danadlakhaund Dehradun Region including Haridwar (Garhwal); History of Disturbances by Muslim Attackers in Veerbhadra, Dehradun Region including Haridwar (Garhwal); History of Disturbances by Muslim Attackers in Dehradun Region including Haridwar (Garhwal);


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History of Hindus taking Shelters in Garhwal Hills (including Haridwar)

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -36
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -281

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Student)

History of Hindus taking Shelters in Garhwal Hills (including Haridwar) due to Muslim Suppression


               Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan in 1192 and captured Chauhan Kingdom and Hindu kings lost their Kingdom from Ganges to Brahmaputra. Muslim rulers were not only cruel and aggressive but they used to suppress the self esteem of opposite religious people. Though, Hindu people were brave but never liked to get their religion diluted.
 Due to rule of Muslims on North and Central India and parts of east India (Maghad), Hindus started taking shelters in forests and hills. 
            From the time of Muslim attacks, Hindus took shelters in hills of Garhwal including Haridwar, Bijnaur, and Saharanpur too.

             Hindus taking the Shelter in Western Garhwal (including Haridwar)

           According to Tabkat –i Nasiri (edited by Elliot and Dowson), there were a few strong rulers in Garhwal, Haridwar, Bijnaur  (Garhwal of that Period) were ruling Garhwal region and those rulers refused to be subordinating rulers under Muslim rulers of Delhi (1249-1449).
                 There must be twelve or thirteen rulers might have been ruling the Garhwal region. However, Muslim historians referred only three rulers of southwest Garhwal. Muslim rulers of Delhi used to attack on South-West Garhwal (today’s Bhabhar Garhwal, Haridwar, Dehradun and Bijnaur and part of Saharanpur). Those Muslim attackers used to attack, loot the region but could not rule the region.

               Attacks on Shivalik Hill Region
  There was a Muslim rule of Delhi on Ganges-Yamuna regions. The boundary of Delhi rules was touching south Garhwal (including Haridwar). The Muslim rulers were busy in expanding their rules on plains of India and they did not pay attention on hills of Garhwal.
             In 1211, Iltutmish the son in law of Kuttubdden ascended the  crown of  Delhi Kingdom. At the time of Kuttubdeen, Iltutmis was commander in chief of Bulandshahar (Baran).
                 Iltutmis had rule on Meerut and bordering region of Garhwal. The Hindu chieftains of Badayun, Farukhabad, Bareli used to rebel against Iltutmish. Iltutmish had to have wars several times with those chieftains of Badayun, Farukhabad, and Bareli. 
        In 1223, Krachala was ruler of Garhwal whose rule was expended to Bijnaur and Saharanpur. In 1227, Iltutmish attacked on Mandur Garh of Shivalik hills and looted properties and people.
             Today, there is no knowledge of exact location of Mandur Garh. There a a few places in Shivalik hills with the name as Mandal, Maandal, Mandalaa. These names are similar to Mandur. There are ruins of fort in Danda Mandal 8-9 Kilometers in east of Haridwar. According to local folklore, a Shahi (Muslim) army destroyed the fort of Danda Mandal. 
            Historian Hague suggests that Mandavar Garh of Bijnaur is the fort that was attacked by Iltutmish.
          According to Tabkat –i-Nasiri and Farishta, Iltutmish won over Shivalik territory. The Shivalik shrine is extended for three hundred fifty kilometers. It is difficult to judge the exact location of Iltutmish rule on Shivalik hills. No mention is the time period of rule of Iltutmish on Dehradun or Shivalik hills.
        When Razia the daughter of Iltutmish took over Delhi rule , many ministers and nobles had conspiracy to dethrone Razia. One of conspirators was Junaidi . After exposure of conspiracy Junaidi took shelter with the ruler of Sirmaur (Dehradun region). That means Siramur or Dehradun was not under Razia or Iltutmish.


**History of Muslim Attacks on Garhwal, Dehradun, Haridwar to be continued …
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 5/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -282   
Notes on Early Medieval History of Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  Early Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
Xx
History of Iltutmish attacking on Shivalik Hills; History of Iltutmish attacking on Dehradun; History of Iltutmish attacking on Sirmaur part of Garhwal; History of Iltutmish attacking on Haridwar region; History of Iltutmish attacking on Dada Mandal, Haridwar; History of Junaidi minister of Iltutmish taking shelter in Dehradun; Medieval History of Shivalik Hills .. History of Hindus taking Shelters in Garhwal Hills (including Haridwar) .

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 History of Attacks on Chandi Hills of Haridwar, Bhabhar Garhwal at the period of Delhi Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -37
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -282

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

           History of Muslim Attacks on Chandi Hills of Haridwar (Garhwal)


      Delhi ruler Razia Begum was killed in conspiracy. After two generations heirs of Razia , Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud got the crown in 1246. In this phase of turmroil in Delhi Sutanat the rulers of Ganga-Yamuna Doab declared them free from Delhi Sultanet.  Therefore, Balban the chief commander of Nasiruddin Muhammad marched to Doab (Yamuna-Ganges plains).
         In 1254, Delhi Shahi army attacked on the territories of Chandi Hills of Haridwar, Bhabhar (Garhwal) and Bijnor. The army looted the area and took people for making them slaves. After looting Chandi hills, Shivalik hills, the Delhi Shahi army crossed Yamuna.

                  History of Destructions of Bhabhar Region (Garhwal)

    The Rajput Chieftains of Katehar near of Badayun, Sambhal and Aval regions started attacking on the Shahi territory of of Badayun, Sambhal and Aval. Ulugh Khan Balban the Chief Commander of Delhi Shahi ruler sent huge army to suppress Katehar Rajput that they would not stand before Shahi army.
  On that time, a Rana ruler was ruling Dehradun, Saharanpur, Bhabhar, Haridwar, Roorkee (Haridwar district). Perhaps, the capital of Rana ruler was in Dehradun.
  On the period of Mohrram in 1254, Shahi army crossed Ganges at Chandighat (Haridwar) and marched towards bank of Ramganga through the foothills of Himalaya and Shivalik. The Shahi army destroyed Bhabhar region, looted, killed people brutally (massacre), people were captured and enslaved. The local brave rulers of Bhabhar, Garhwal took the step to defend their independence. There was fierce battle at Tanklabali between local chieftain army and Shahi army. A commander Ijjajuddin Darmashi was killed in the battle. Delhi Sultan was in rage to hear the death of   his commander Ijjajuddin Darmashi. He ordered to take sever revenge with Katehar ruler. The Sultan was confused Katehar with Bhabhar.
             Mithavali or Kalalghati is recognized as Takalabanli. Most probably, Shahi army marched from Chandighat to Mithavali, Laldhang, Kalalghati, Kotdwar and reached to Kalagarh. From Kalagarh, Shahi army took south turn from Ramganga River.



**Read more about Balban attack on South Garhwal including Haridwar  in next chapter …
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 8/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -283   
Notes on Early Medieval History of Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  Early Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
Xx
Notes on History of Muslim Attacks on Chandi Hills of Haridwar, Bhabhar Garhwal at the period of Delhi Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud; History of Muslim Attacks on Chandi Hills of Haridwar, Mithavali, Bhabhar Garhwal at the period of Delhi Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud; History of Muslim Attacks on Chandi Hills of Haridwar, Kalaghati, Bhabhar Garhwal at the period of Delhi Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud; History of Muslim Attacks on Chandi Hills of Haridwar, Laldhang, Bhabhar Garhwal at the period of Delhi Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud; History of Muslim Attacks on Chandi Hills of Haridwar, Kotdwara, Bhabhar Garhwal at the period of Delhi Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud; History of Muslim Attacks on Chandi Hills of Haridwar, Kalagharh Bhabhar Garhwal at the period of Delhi Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud; History of Muslim Attacks on Chandi Hills of Haridwar, Ramganga valley Bhabhar Garhwal at the period of Delhi Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud; History of Muslim Attacks on Chandi Hills of Haridwar, Dehradun, Bhabhar Garhwal at the period of Delhi Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud;

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History of Qutlugh Khan the Step Father of Nasir-ud-Din taking Asylum under Dehradun King Rana Devpal

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -38
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -284

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

              Tabqat –i-Nasiri (edited Elliot and Dowson) describes that Malika i-Jahan the widow mother of Delhi Sultan Nasir-ud-Din married a Turkish officer Qutlugh Khan. Delhi Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud appointed Kutlug Khan as governor of Awadh. In 1255, Balban (who was real ruler on behalf of Nasir ud-i-Din or Nasiruddin) transferred Qutlugh Khan to Baraich. Qutlugh Khan refused to take order of Balban. Balban sent Sultan army to crush the revolt by Qutlugh Khan. Royal army defeated Qutlugh Khan.
   Dehradun (Saturgarh) King Ranapal or Devpal was famous for providing asylum to needy ones. Qutlugh Khan reached to Sirmur the capital of Santurgarh (Dehradun) and took asylum there.  Balban send message Santurgarh King for Qutlugh Khan surrendering. Santurgarh or Dehradun King refused to send Qutlugh Khan to Delhi. A few other Sultan regional chieftains who were not having cordial relations also came to Santurgarh (Dehradun) for taking asylum.

                  Attack by Sultan Army on Santurgarh (Dehradun)

                 Balban attacked on Santurgarh (Dehradun) with huge army. Sultan army had go through various adverse in reaching Santurgarh. However, Sultan army defeated Ranapal or Devpal and Balban reached to Sirmur or Salmur the capital of Devpal. Balban army captured the territory and killed Hindus, burnt their properties and looted. Hill people never experienced such killings. Sultan army returned Delhi in 1257 with loots.

              Rana Devpal recapturing his Land

            When Sultan army returned, Rana Devpal or Ranapal recaptured his territory. Balban could not catch Qutlugh Khan. Qutlugh Khan had a treaty with Kishlu Khan the governor of Multan and Ooch. They attacked on Delhi but were failure in doing so.  Qutlugh Khan and Kishlu Khan had to flee in Shivalik hills. Kishlu Khan returned to Ooch. However, Qutlugh Khan remained in Shivalik hills.
  There is not detail available about Devpal or Ranapal after the attack of Balban on Santurgarh and Sirmur. .

(Main References for the chapter -Dr Dabral and Jaswant Lal Mehta)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 10/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -285   
Notes on Early Medieval History of Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  Early Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
Xx

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  History of Unknown Successors of King Devpal the King of South and West Garhwal and Haridwar 

           History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -39
   
 History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -285

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

              No doubt, historians don’t have full account of Devpal as being King of West-South Garhwal including Haridwar. However, the Muslim historians writings provide some clues that Rana Devpal or Ranapal had rule over Santurgarh (Garhwal , Shivalik Hills including Haridwar, Saharanpur).

                          Mogul Attacks on Garhwal 

  The successors of Ranapal or Devpal had to suffer a lot with their subjects. In 1296, Ala ud-Din Khilzi ascended the Delhi crown by killing his uncle cum father in law. Ala ud-Din Khilzi had been one of the strongest rulers among Khilzi dynasty. He extended his rule up to south. He was busy in south. In the same time, from 1296Mogul attacked on north India with huge force and looted the territory, killed innumerable people cruelly. Ala ud-Din Khilzi and his army could save his capital with difficulty.

          Mogul army central Asia) attacked (twice) on Dehradun, Shivalik and destroyed the region. One attack was from Alibeg and Tartak the successors of Changez Khan in 1305. The whole of Uttar Pradesh including Dehradun, Haridwar was in disastrous position. There was fire and, blood, cry everywhere. Ala ud-Din Khilzi sent his army and defended the territory from cruel Mogul attackers.

                              Mogul Attacks on Shivalik Hills
         Badshah Ala-ud-Din Khilzi died in 1316 and Gaya Suddin Tuglaq captured the Delhi crown in 1320.
             Mogul from central Asia attacked on Shivalik hills and was marching towards east. The Delhi sultan army came forward to rescue Garhwal territories including Saharanpur. Delhi Sultan army defeated Mogul army in Samannagar of Shivalik Hills. Another battle happened between Mogul and Delhi Sultan army at the bank of Vyas River and here too Delhi Sultan army defeated Mogul army.

                         Subordinating Delhi Sultan by Garhwal Chieftains
 
           The smaller chieftains of Gadhs of Bhabhar, Dehradun and Haridwar including Saharanpur Garhwal were unable to defend themselves from Mogul and Delhi Sultan as well. Therefore, it might be that chieftains of south Garhwal (Bhabhar, Dehradun and Haridwar including Saharanpur) took shelter under Delhi Sultan became the subordinate Chieftains of Delhi Sultan. Perhaps the chieftains of Garhwal might have offered gifts or tribute in form of tax.

       Canal Construction by Firoz Shah Tughlaq

   The chieftains of Garhwal had cordial relations with Firoze Tughlaq.  Firoze Shah Tughlaq constructed five canals for irrigation. He constructed a cnal from Yamuna to Hisar. One canal was dug from Sirmaur hills and was taken to Hansi , Araman. There he constructed another canal from rivers as Sarusuti, Salima Rivers. In Araman, Firoze built a fort as Hisar Firoja fort.

                          Firoze Shah Tughlaq Visiting Dehradun
     In 1397, Sultan Firoze Tughlaq visited Dehradun (hills of Saharanpur in book) via Ambala, Shahabad, Samannagar (Santurgarh as per another book). The chieftains of west Garhwal as Sirmaur, etc offered gifts to Firoze Tughlaq. After a sort stay, Firoze returned to Delhi.

                           



Read in next chapter about Asylum to Prince of Delhi Sultanate by a Garhwal chieftain …
(Main reference – Firojshai, Tarikh i-Mubarakshahi (Elliot and Dowson)
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com 11/3//2014
                                      References

1-Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, 1971, Uttarakhand ka Itihas Bhag-4, Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, Pauri Garhwal, India 
2-Harikrishna Raturi, Garhwal ka Itihas
3-Dr. Patiram, Garhwal Ancient and Modern
4-Rahul Sankrityayan, Garhwal
5- Oakley and Gairola, Himalayan Folklore
6- Bhakt Darshan, Garhwal ki Divangit Vibhutiyan
7-Foster, Early Travels in India William Finch
8-Upadhyaya, Shri Shankaracharya
9-Shering, Western Tibet and British
10-H.G. Walton, Gazetteer of British Garhwal
11-B.P.Kamboj, Early Wall Paintings of Garhwal
12-H.g Walton, Gazetteer of Dehradun
13- Vimal Chandra, Prachin Bharat ka Itihas
14-Meera Seth, Wall Paintings of Western Himalayas 
15-Furar, Monumental Antiquities
16-Haudiwala, Studies in Indo-Muslim History
17- Rahul Khari 2007, Jats and Gujjar Origin, History and Culture
18- Upendra Singh, 2006, Delhi: Ancient History, Barghahan Books
19- B.S. Dahiya, 1980, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A Clan Study) , Sterling Publications
20- Maithani, Bharat –Gotrapravardeepika
21 Prem Hari Har Lal, 1993, The Doon Valley Down the Ages
22-Dashrath Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties
23- Shailndra Nath Sen, Ancient History and Civilization
24-H.M Elliot, 1867, The History of India as told by its Own Historians
25- Jaswant Lal Mehta, 1979, Advance Study in Medieval India

(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)
History of Garhwal from 1223-1804 to be continued in next chapter    
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -286   
Notes on Early Medieval History of Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Pauri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Chamoli Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Rudraprayag Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Tehri Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Dehradun, Garhwal; Early Medieval History of Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Manglaur, Haridwar;  Early Medieval History of Rurkee Haridwar ; Early Medieval History of Bahadarpur Haridwar ; History of Haridwar district to be continued… 
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