Author Topic: Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays गढ़वा  (Read 18099 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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    Laughter Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Plays/ Traditional Dramas/ Community Theaters Part-2

                               गढ़वाली लोक नाटकों में हास /हौंस  भाव
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -14

                                        Bhishma Kukreti
  When a ‘Devar ‘(husband’s younger brother in relation) pretended ‘Jeth’ (elder brother of Husband)
              There are dramas played by individuals in every village. I remember one spontaneous drama played by a young man named Jaya Nand (here, imaginative name).
  It is normal custom that when a newly married girl striates settling in law village. A sister in law or family member or a villager introduces the newly married girl to villagers.
   In Garhwal, It was a custom (still persists in some villages) that if a Jeth (elder brother of husband in relation) touches a Bwari (wife of younger brother in relation) both had to take bath. The touching of elder brother of husband with Bwari is called ‘Chaun lagan’. Therefore, Jeth (elder brother of husband) and Bwari (wife of younger brother) are always cautious not to touch each other.
          One day, a newly girl (bahu) was going to fetch water with her sister in law (nanad or husband’s younger sister). Bwari had to bow /salute before Jeth just from far. From another direction, Jaya Nand was coming. Before, nanad introduces the man to her Bhabhi (brother’s wife that is newly married girl) Bhabhi (newly married girl) bent to touch foot of Jaya Nand. Now Jaya Nand wanted to bless her and he was coming closure to the newly married bahu. Bahu thought that Jaya Nand was Jeth in village relation and she went back. However, Jaya Nand was eager to touch her na dat the same time he was saying, bwari ! How is your father”. As Bahu was trying to distance from Jeth , Jeth was coming closure to touch Bahu . Newly married bahu was in aghast as he kept Jaya Nand kept his hand on her head and asked,” Bwari (wife of younger brother) How is your father ?”
 Suddenly Nanad started laughing loudly. Now, Bahu understood the trick of Jaya Nand that in reality he was ‘Devar’ for newly married ‘Bahu’. The pretending drama performance of Jaya Nand as Jeth was marvelous. For many weeks, the story was roaming in the village and people used to laugh on this dramatic event.
  Such dramatic pretentions are many in each village and these events become folk story after some time.


Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com 8/10/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara

Bhishma Kukreti

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Grief Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays

                                      गढवाली लोक नाटकों में शोक भाव

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -15

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

                  According to Natya Shastra, grief in drama or play is expressed by silent weeping, crying, deep breathing, stagnancy, insanity, delusion, death and like that. 
           Though, Garhwali folk creators especially women and Badi the professional class of Garhwal creating drams never read Bharat Natya Shastra but both (women and Badi class) were aware creating grief sentiment in folk plays or community rituals as Hantya.
                            Grief and Sadness
                     Garhwali women were well aware about grief and sad sentiments. There is sharp difference between weeping for a dead relative and weeping for a person is separated due to physical geography. In Garhwali weeping for a dead person is called ‘ह्यळि ‘‘Hyali’. In weeping for geographical separation or weeping in pain is just रुण or to weep.

                           A Prose Folk Drama ‘Sati’ showing Grief
               This author saw a folk drama played in the month of Song-Dance (Chait month) in his village Jaspur (Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal, and Uttarakhand) played by women.
                The drama was based on true story of one of our ten -twelve generation back Great grandmothers who choose to become Sati (woman willingly burning herself on her husband’s funeral pyre).  Women took care that children did not watch this drama but I watched this drama hiding into a Bushad (grass heap).
   In the drama, when the woman sat on pyre and started burning, the drama performing women started weeping differently.
    When through dialogues, the women were showing that Sati is burning other women were making performance to show grief.
A woman (throwing her hands and legs on air)- he didi (elder sister ! why are you going to heaven at this young age?
Another drama performing woman weeping in ह्यळि Hyali tone-O ‘bwari’ (daughter in law) with whom I shall go to Jungal for grass?
Third drama performing female (crying in   lying on ground position) - Oh my beloved friend is leaving us.
Fourth woman (in insanity position) –oh oh I am also dying!
          Each woman participating in drama was performing actions suitable for grief and pathos.
               In my life, I never saw such pathos in any drama as I experienced grief in this folk drama played by my village women long back around 1962.



              Hantya Jagar: A Garhwali Folk Ritual/Folk Drama for calling the unsatisfied soul of ancestors


‘Hantya’ means the unfulfilled desire of deceased one. Many times, the future teller speaks that there is ‘Hantya’ problem for the bad days of a family or families the family perform the ‘Hantya’ Ghadela ritual. The jagri (Ghadela performer) first sings the following songs before the stories of Hantya Jagar. In the initiating chants the Jagri calls the souls of deceased died by accidents or with unusual death. Jagri and his assistant play the Daunru and bronze plate.
हंत्या जागर का प्रथम भाग

मृत पितर अथवा पुरखों की लालसा को गढवाली-कुमाउनी में हंत्या कहते हैं

ओ ध्यान जागि जा
ओ ध्यान जागि जा
गाड का बग्यां को ध्यान जागि जा
ओ ध्यान जागि जा
भेळ का लमड्याञ को ध्यान जागि जा
ओ ध्यान जागि जा
डाळ का लमड्याञ को ध्यान जागि जा
फांस खैकि मरयाँ को ध्यान जगी जा
ओ ध्यान जागि जा
जंगळ मा बागक खयां को ध्यान जागि जा
ओ ध्यान जागि जा
घात प्रतिघात का मोर्याँ को ध्यान जागि जा
आतुर्दी मा मरयाँ को ध्यान जागि जा
भूत देवता परमेश्वर महाराज
हरि का हरिद्वार जाग -- धौळी देवप्रयाग जाग
जै रण का मोर्याँ तै रण का ध्यान जाग ..

After the above initiating chant the Jagri tells the Jgari /stories of Dashrath-Shravan Kumar, Mordhwaj or Abhimanyu.
In all the stories, the last stage of Jagar is of pathos rapture and creates a tragedy among the listeners and dancers
The following Jagar is played after the above song or when the Pauranik or epic story is finished .
रवाईं में हंत्या  जागर -भाग -2

भैया कलकी रौ तेरी हौंसिया उमर।
कैसू रयो भैया तू सौबकू प्यारो।
दुखी रौ दी मेरा भया बैठ्या छन तेरा सारा।
देख तेरी  इजा रौया निपूती इजा।
तेरी जोड़ी रौयो कनी सौजोड़ी।
तेरो कनू रौयो मयऴदू स्वभाव।
मरदी बगत त्वेन पाणि भी न पाये।
कनि गई होली बंठ्या तू बांकी स्वैण छोड़ी।
अकेली इजा को यकूलो लडीक।
बांकुरासे पराण तेरो डाऴयूं-डाऴयूं रै गे।
टोली छोड़ी गयी भैया सारा बाल बच्चा।
कनू गई प्यारो भैया इजा कू तू जायो।   
O Brother! You were young.
O Brother! All appreciated you and all loved you.
O Brother! All your relatives are sitting here.
O Brother, Watch! Your mother is sitting without son.
O Brother! You and your wife were marvelous pair.
O Brother! You were peace loving man.
O Brother! You did not get water while die.
O Brother! How did you leave you wife?
 O Brother! You were only one son of your mother.
O Brother! Your soul would be flying on trees.
O Brother! You left your family.
O Brother! You were lovely son of your mother.
 O Brother! You went at young age.
  The above example are sufficient to prove that folk dramatists were unaware about rules of classic drama but they were fully aware about creating targeted sentiment in the drama played by them. 

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com 9/10/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali lok swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
Xx
Notes on Grief Sentiments, Feeling/emotions, attitude in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Community Rituals and Traditional Plays; Grief Sentiments ,Feeling/sorrow emotions, attitude in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal; Grief Sentiments ,Feeling/sorrow emotions, attitude in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Dhangu Patti Garhwal; Grief Sentiments ,Feeling/sorrow emotions, attitude in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal; Grief Sentiments ,Feeling/sorrow emotions, attitude in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal; Grief Sentiments ,Feeling/sorrow emotions, attitude in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal; Grief Sentiments ,Feeling/sorrow emotions, attitude in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal; Grief Sentiments ,Feeling/sorrow emotions, attitude in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal; Grief Sentiments ,Feeling/sorrow emotions, attitude in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal; Grief Sentiments ,Feeling/sorrow emotions, attitude in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, Himalaya; Grief Sentiments ,Feeling/sorrow emotions, attitude in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, North India ; Grief Sentiments ,Feeling/sorrow emotions, attitude in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, Asia..

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Anger Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays

                                      गढवाली लोक नाटकों में क्रोध  भाव

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -16

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

              Bharat’s Natya Shastra states that in drama, anger is shown by raised nostrils, fierce look, bitten lips and the like.
                 The Garhwali folk dramatists use many ways to show anger. Apart from body and facial gestures, the performers use bad language for showing anger in folk plays.   
   The anger comes due to loss or failure. The folk drama performers were aware to show the situation of failure and then showing anger on the generator of failure.
गढवाली लोक नाटकों में क्रोध  भाव
           
हम जब पढ़ते थे तो हमने एक बार गोर चारागाह  में   एक नाटक खेला था।  इसमें हमने फेल होने पर किस प्रकार हमारे संरक्षक हमारे साथ क्रोध कार वर्ताव करेंगे का नाटक खेला था। 
  एक संरक्षक (ताली पीट पीटकर )- ये हराम  का बच्चा ! ये साल बी फेल ह्वे ग्ये हैं ? कन बत्वार आयि तेरी  …
दूसरा संरक्षक (अपने लडके के बाल झिंझोड़ते हुए ) -हूँ ! हूँ ! बाळु  पर त रोज तेल इन लगांदु छौ जन बुल्यां कै सौकारौ नौनु ह्वेलु।  अर पास हूंद दैं  … पास हूंद दैं ब्वे मरी गे छे तेरी ? हैं ! आज जिंदु हि खड्यारण मीन तू !
तीसरा संरक्षक (अलग अलग ढंग से अपने फेल हुए पुत्र को लात मारते हुए )- हूँ ! जब मि बुल्दु छौ बल बुबा किताब पौढ़ी लेदि त तू चट कबि गुच्छी खिलणो भाजि जांदि छे , त कबि नाचणों भाग जांदि छौ अर कबि राम लीला दिखणो तेरी टुटकी लग जांदि छे।  अर पास हूंद दैं  … तेरी डंडलि सजे गे हैं ?

            When this author was below teen age, he along with school going children played a drama in grazing place.
              We decided to show the anger of our guardians after if  we failed in the final exam.
          One guardian (clapping hands in anger and rebuking) - You bastred! Again you failed this year too. What is this?
            Another guardian (catching and shaking the hair of his failed son)-you son of..! You used to comb and oil your hair as if you were son of a millionaire.   While getting passed your mother died… I shall not leave you alive.
       Third guardian (beating the son and trebling under feet) - Whenever I suggested you to read you always ran away for dance, playing something else or used to run to watch Ramleela.
 The drama was excellent for us.
 There are many folk songs those are having anger sentiment.
            The Garhwali folk dramatists including were aware that to copy Ravan’s acting is not always good to show anger in drama. Therefore, folk dramatists including Badi used to use body movement and bad words. To perform anger by any artist is very difficult because many times over dramatization of anger become a comedy show. The performer has to perform with balance.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com  10 /10/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali lok swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
Xx
Notes on Anger Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays; Anger Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal; Anger Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal; Anger Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal; Anger Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal; Anger Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal; Anger Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal; Anger Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal; Anger Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, Himalaya ; Anger Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, North India; Anger Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, South Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Zeal Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays


                                      गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  उत्साह  भाव

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -17

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

                     Bharat’s Natyshashtra states that Zeal sentiment in drama is projected in performance by firmness on the face, spirited movements, leadership and the like. 
            As everybody know that folk artists of older time Garhwal were not educated. However, the folk drama players were very much aware about human emotions and psychology.

   Examples of Zeal Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama
 There are tens of examples of showing zeal sentiment in Garhwali folk plays played by folk artist and common men and women.
 When Badis the professional cast folk dramatists used to perform entertaining drama and audience used to show happiness the Badis used to feel zeal and pride. The pride and zeal used to come on their faces.
         When Sacchida Nand dada ji made fool of   people

                           This author is witness an incident. Sacchida Nand dada ji of our village used to do many solo drama as per hi mood. One day, the time was just after evening and farming people were coming back to village through usual path. There was moon light. People returning to village saw a man lying still on the road. People recognized Sacchida Nand dada Ji. A couple of village fellow touched Sacchida Nand dada Ji. Sacchida Nand Dada ji was acting as if he was dead. People felt sorry and were afraid. When most of people were convinced that Sacchida Nand Dada Ji was dead Sacchida Nand Dada Ji   got up and started laughing. Later on there was feeling of zeal on his face for his completing drama and making fool to villagers. His walk was also showing pride and zeal. Zeal on his face and body was due to his total performance. Sacchida dada Ji was walking as if he had won the world. 

                           Zeal in Deepawali festival Celebration
 In Garhwal Deepawali festival celebration is not limited to burning earthen lamps in night but in day time people provide cooked rice and millets (called Badee) to cattle. The people make round shape of cooked rice or millet and in each ‘dhindhi ‘a flower is put.  The zeal of children for putting flower on Dhindhi of Badde is spectacular.
 The children show their zeal in folk dance when they start dance and song in community courtyard.
               गढवाली लोक नाटकों में उत्साह   भाव

मुझे बादियों द्वारा खेले गए एक लोक नाटक (स्वांग ) नाटक याद आता है।  जिसमे दो भाई  प्रसन्न मुद्रा में और गर्व के साथ कहीं जा रहे हैं  और रास्ते  में एक पहचान वाला मिलता है।  वह पूछता  है
वह मनुष्य - हे जी ! आज द्वी भैयुं दौड़।  क्या बात कतिकु जी! आज तुमार मुख चलकणु च अर खुत इन चलणा छन जन बुल्यां उड़णा ह्वेल्या !
कतिकु - हाँ ज़रा नौनौ चिट्ठी रूप्या रळणा जाणा छंवाँ।   
 I remember a folk play played by Badis in my village around 1963-64
Two brothers were walking with pride and in happy mood. The walking was marvelous of both the characters. On their way, a person met them and he asked.
Man- O Katiku Ji ! Where are your aims? Your face is showing zeal and happiness; you are not walking but as if you are flying.
Katiku Ji- We are going for engagement of my son.
(In Garhwal it is not asked “Where are you going/” directly)
  There are many instances of zeal emotion in Jagar (folk ritual dance-song) too.
 The zeal is important emotion and Garhwali folk artists know to show Zeal sentiment in their folk dramas.



Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com  17 /10/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali lok swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
Xx
Notes on Zeal Sentiment/ enthusiasm feeling / passion emotion / eagerness attitude /in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays Of Pauri Garhwal ; Zeal Sentiment/ enthusiasm feeling / passion emotion / eagerness attitude /in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays of North Garhwal; Zeal Sentiment/ enthusiasm feeling / passion emotion / eagerness attitude /in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays of Tehri Garhwal; Zeal Sentiment/ enthusiasm feeling / passion emotion / eagerness attitude /in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays of Uttarkashi Garhwal; Zeal Sentiment/ enthusiasm feeling / passion emotion / eagerness attitude /in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays of Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Zeal Sentiment/ enthusiasm feeling / passion emotion / eagerness attitude /in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays of Garhwal, Himalaya; Zeal Sentiment/ enthusiasm feeling / passion emotion / eagerness attitude /in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays of Garhwal, North India ; Zeal Sentiment/ enthusiasm feeling / passion emotion / eagerness attitude /in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays of Garhwal, Indian Subcontinent; Zeal Sentiment/ enthusiasm feeling / passion emotion / eagerness attitude /in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays of Garhwal, South Asia;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Awe Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays


                                      गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  भय  भाव


Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -18

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

                           Defining Awe Sentiment
            Bharat’s Natya Shastra defines awe sentiment that in any drama  the awe sentiment is projected by tremor of limbs, state of panic, terror, dried up mouth and lips, wide eyes and like that.
                  Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal provides the following example of fear emotion in Garhwali folk drama.
गढवाली लोक नाटकों में भय    भाव
वायु मसाण को भयो वर्ण मसाण
वर्ण मसाण को भयो बहतरी मसाण
बहतरी मसाण को भयो चौडिया मसाण
*** ****** ***** ******* **** **** *****
वीर मसाण , अधो मसाण मन्त्र दानौ मसाण
तन्त्र दानौ मसाण
बलुआ मसाण , कलुआ मसाण , तालू मसाण
************* ********** *************************
डैणी जोगणी को लेषवार , नाटक चेटको फेरवार
मण भर खेँतड़ी , मण भर गुदड़ी , लुव्वाकी टोपी बज्र की खंता
(रौख्वाळी गीत
इकबटोळ करण वाळ : डा शिवानन्द नौटियाल

 When a person is affected by an evil soul the folk doctor does a ritual Rakhwali and narrates the above Rakhwali prose-poetry. The person affected by evil/devil soul shows the signs of awe sentiment by terror on his face, panic wide eyes and dried mouth and lips. Surprisingly, the audience also feels the sentiment of awe when there is ritual of Bhut Bagao or dispatching bad soul/evil soul away from the affected person.
            Unforgettable Awe sentiment on face of Fearful Gopal Kala
 There are many informal folk drama played by individuals daily and all the time. This author remembers a drama happened due to Keshva Nand Barthwal of Khand village, Bichhla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal.
Period- 1963-64
Place- Silogi , Malla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal School Boarding House. A small lane coming from Kitchen to Boarding house (distance between Hostel and kitchen would be 50-100 meters). Silogi school hostel was surrounded by pine and oak tree jungle   
Timing – 8PM-9Pm, Moon Light
         We  five school boys of aged 12-14 years were coming back from kitchen after dinner towards our lodging rooms. Gopal Kala (now BJP leader in Kotdwara) was also with us. Suddenly, Keshva Nand with loud cry jumped from above contour before us. We were stunned. However, Gopal Kala became fainted due to fear. His mouth was dried, his mouth was open due to fear and his hands were shaking.  We took Gopal Kala to hostel where our warden late Purushottam Kukreti (village Kathud Bada, Malla Dhangu) performed Rakhwali ritual to dispatch the fear of Gopal Kala. 
 The drama was created by Keshva Nand Barthwal and he was successful in creating awe sentiment.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com  18 /10/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali lok swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
Xx
Notes on Awe Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal; Awe Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Silogi, Malla Dhangu Garhwal; Awe Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal; Awe Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal; Awe Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal; Awe Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal; Awe Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal; Awe Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal; Awe Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, Uttarakhand; Awe Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, Himalaya; Awe Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, North India; Awe Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, South Asia..

Bhishma Kukreti

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 Disgust Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays

                                      गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  जुगप्सा   भाव

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -18

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

                       Defining Disgust Sentiment

                     Bharat’s Natyshashtra defines disgust that disgust shows by a performer by covering the nose, contracting the physical limbs, uneasiness, and holding the heart and the like that.
  J.M. Cisler et all state that disgust is a type of aversive response that involves withdrawing from a being or object with strong expression of revulsion. 
            B. David and B Olatunji state that disgust is basic emotion that functions to help protect an organism ingesting potentiality harmful substances thereby promoting disease avoidances,.
M. Oaten, R.J. Stevenson, and T. I. Case, Curtis, Biran etc remark that disgust is triggered off due to possession of following –
1- Body products as feces, urine, mucus, vomit etc
2-spoiled foods
3-Animals as cockroaches, flees, lice, rat etc
4-Hygine as dirt
5-Body envelop violations as blood, gore, mutilation
6-Deat as dead body
7-Visible sign of infection

    Examples of Disgust Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Dramas
  This author watched many dramas showing disgust in folk dramas either by professional caste class as Badi or Jagari and drams created by people in various drams.
गढवाली लोक नाटकों में जुगप्सा   भाव

यह नाटक लांग महीने में बादियों ने जसपुर (मल्ला ढांगू , पौड़ी गढ़वाल ) 1964-65में खेला था।
एक  बादी - अजकाल अपण तबियत भारी चलणि च , आज मीन बळिण्ड इ बळिण्ड हौग।
दूसरा बादी - मेरि बि हालात ठीक नी च।  आज बकर्वळ ही बकर्वळ हौग।
तीसरा बादी - मेरी नब्बे सालक ब्वेक हालात त भौत खराब च दस्त ही दस्त हगदि अर भुलमार मा वा दस्तुं तै तेल समजिक मुख पर लपोड़ दींदी।
            Badi the professional class actors played this dialogue oriented folk drama in my village around 1964-65 in Chait moth that was Lang year (comes after 12 years) too
One Badi- My stomach is in very bad shape. There were wooden logs in my latrine
Another Badi- My latrine l was as of goat
Third Badi- My ninety years old mom is having dysentery and many times forgetful  she uses excretion as ointment and puts on her face
------------------------
एक और बादी स्वांग में बादियों का वार्तालाप का आनन्द लीजिये
एक जनानी - हे भुलि आज क्या रसोई बणाइ ?
दुसर जनानी - बासमूती चौंळ  (यहाँ पर बासमती को बासी पेशाब कहा गया है ) अर तीन ?
पैली -मीन आज हगण दाळ बणाइ ! (यहाँ पर हरड़ की जगह हगण कहा गया है )
The above folk drama dialogues by Badi class are best use of changing words for one object. Here badi uses Basimuti for Basmati rice. Basi Muti means old urine. Hagan is used for Harad pulse and Hagan mean to do latrine and Harad means pigeon pea.
 The folk dramatist class Badis was capable of using words to create disgust sentiment in Garhwali folk dramas.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com  21/10/2013
Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali lok swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
Xx
Notes on disgust/ aversion/revulsion Sentiment/emotion in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays; disgust/ aversion/revulsion Sentiment/emotion in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal; disgust/ aversion/revulsion Sentiment/emotion in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal; disgust/ aversion/revulsion Sentiment/emotion in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal; disgust/ aversion/revulsion Sentiment/emotion in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal; disgust/ aversion/revulsion Sentiment/emotion in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal; disgust/ aversion/revulsion Sentiment/emotion in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal; disgust/ aversion/revulsion Sentiment/emotion in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal; disgust/ aversion/revulsion Sentiment/emotion in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, Uttarakhand; disgust/ aversion/revulsion Sentiment/emotion in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, Himalaya; disgust/ aversion/revulsion Sentiment/emotion in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, North India; disgust/ aversion/revulsion Sentiment/emotion in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, South Asia;

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 Surprise Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays

                                      गढवाली लोक नाटकों में   विष्मय  भाव

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -20

                                        Bhishma Kukreti
                      According to Bharat’s Natyshashtra, Surprise sentiment is performed by the wide opening of eyes, looking steadily without winking, movement of eyebrows, horrification, and tremor of head, commenting appreciation and like.
              The surprise sentiment in Garhwali folk drama is very common. The surprise is found in prose folk dramas played by common men, by Badis (drama performing caste class of Garhwali) or in community ritual dramas.
      There are many folk ritual songs (Jagar or Mantra etc) those tell the tale those surprise the audience.
   I saw a drama by Badis in Mitragram (Malla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal, UK) that was based on a folk story.

                     गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  विष्मय   भाव

एक - ब्याळि मि धार मा गैणा देखिक रतखुनि से पैल भद्वाड़ बाणों द्वी बल्दुं लेक ग्यों।  मीन अन्ध्यर मा इ बल्द हौळ पर जुतिन अर पुंगड़ बाण लग ग्यों।  सुबेर ह्वे त मि क्या दिखुद कि मीन अन्ध्यर मा एक बाग़ अर एक रिक हौळ पर जोति देन अर दस खारिक पुंगड़ बै देन।
 In this story or drama three men tell their exaggerated story and one story is as under
One man – I watched the star on the hill and went to plough field by taking both oxen. There was dark when I tied up the oxen on plough and started plowing field. In morning I was shocked to see that instead of bulls I was plowing with the aid of a tiger and a bear. 
                    गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  विष्मय   भाव
 When Badis play ‘lang game’ in Lang year in any village the ‘lang game’ by Badis offer the biggest surprise to the audience and people stop breathing till the Lang game is over. In ‘lang game ‘ a Badi has to slip from one hill to other hill foot by help of a grass rope.
  The Ranbhut Jagars also surprise the audience.

Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com  22/10/2013
              Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali lok swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
Xx
Notes on Surprise Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays; Surprise Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, South Asia; Surprise Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, South Asia; Surprise Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, South Asia; Surprise Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, South Asia; Surprise Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, South Asia; Surprise Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, South Asia; Surprise Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, South Asia; Surprise Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from Himalaya ; Surprise Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays from North India;

Bhishma Kukreti

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Detachment Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater, Community Rituals and Traditional Plays

                                      गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  निर्वेद   भाव

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -21

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

                 According to Bharat’s Natyshashtra, detachment should be represented by means of remorse, regretful sorrow, deep breathing, deliberation, consideration etc.
                   Detachment comes due to regret, repent or insult or having a serious problem etc.
 In Garhwali villages, Dalya community used to sing the stories of Gopichand and Bhartrihari where detachment sentimental events are there.
 This author watched a couple of Swang (folk drama) played by women regarding relationship between mother –in-law and daughter-in-law. Those dramas demonstrated detachment of daughter in law when she was insulted by her mother in law or vice versa.
                         When Badis used to sing describing feminine there used to be emotion of detachment on those songs.
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com  23/10/2013
              Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali lok swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri

Bhishma Kukreti

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Internal Weakness Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays
                                      गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  ग्लानि    भाव

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -22

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

         According to Bharat’s Natyashastra, internal weakness sentiment is performed by a weal voice, eyesight and cheeks, depressed stomach, slow walk ,trembling, disappointment, slackness of limb, change of color, change of voice and like that.

                            गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  ग्लानि    भाव
  There are many instances, when common people play drama at their ease in forest, while attending any events or while taking rest for long journey on the basis of prose folk stories.
   Around 1964, this author and his village fellows played a drama based on a folk story ‘नि सौक सकुद , नि सौक सकुद !’ (ni sauk sakud or I can’t complete) in Ganikya forest while taking cattle for grazing.
 There is abrid in our region that quakes in morning and evening as ‘ni sauk sakud , ni sauk sakud”. The story is that a man was carrying load of a ton of Udad from his farm on his head. The man was not so strong. Due to over load and fatigue the man died saying that ‘ni Sauk Sakud’. In his next birth, the man became that bird that speaks ,ni sauk sakud , ni sauk sakud  ( I can’t complete).
Eleven years old Sohan Lal Kukreti played the role of tired man. I remember that Sohan Lal Kukreti showed weakness by trembling legs, slow walk while having heavy load of Udad. Sohan lal was also breathing as if he can’t carry heavy load. Sohan Lal Kukreti cried on very low voice ‘ni sauk Sakud, ni sauk sakud’.
 When Sohan Lal as man died Shatrughna Jakhmola copied the tone of that bird that quakes,”ni Sauk Sakud, Ni sauk Sakud” नि सौक सकुद , नि सौक सकुद !’ marvelously.
  I remember another folk drama played by girls in forest of Chaudi (Village Jaspur), Malla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal.  The mother in law of a pregnant woman sent her to jungle to bring wood. The six seven months pregnant woman carried wood on her head and she was so tired that she fell down. The woman acting of a girl for  pregnant woman was memorable.
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com  24/10/2013
              Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali lok swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
Xx
Notes on Internal Weakness Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays; Internal Weakness Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, South Asia; ; Internal Weakness Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun, Garhwal, South Asia; ; Internal Weakness Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, South Asia; ; Internal Weakness Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal , South Asia; Internal Weakness Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudraprayag Garhwal, South Asia ; Internal Weakness Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, South Asia ; Internal Weakness Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, South Asia; Internal Weakness Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Garhwal Central Himalaya , South Asia ; Internal Weakness Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, North India , South Asia; Internal Weakness Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, South Asia ;
गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  ग्लानि  भाव; टिहरी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  ग्लानि  भाव;उत्तरकाशी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  ग्लानि  भाव;हरिद्वार गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  ग्लानि  भाव;देहरादून गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  ग्लानि  भाव;पौड़ी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  ग्लानि  भाव;चमोली गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  ग्लानि  भाव; रुद्रप्रयाग गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  ग्लानि  भाव;

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Apprehension Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays

                   गढवाली लोक नाटकों में   शंका   भाव

Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Theater/Rituals and Traditional Plays part -22

                                        Bhishma Kukreti

             According to Bharat’s Natyashastra, the apprehension sentiment is shown by repeated looks, hesitating eyes, dryness of mouth, lips, throat , licking the lips, changes in facial expression, loss of voice, trembling and like that.
  Apprehension sentiment is originated in his/her mind because of an anxiety for others knowing his/her sinful works as theft and lake that. 

                   गढवाली लोक नाटकों में   शंका   भाव
            This author I watched a folk drama by Badis (professional class dedicated to dance, song and dramas) in his village Jaspur, Malla Dhangu, Pauri Garhwal around 1964-65. In a scene of that drama, an old woman was desperately trying from outside to listen the talks between her son and daughter in law inside the room.  She was trying to listen but at the same time draughts were on her face and body that somebody might be able to catch her listen the talk inside hose between her son and daughter in law.
                 The performer was a female Badan and she showed her fear of somebody could see her , anxiety, doubt very well. A couple of women were whispering that Badan is copying her mother in law.
  There are many examples in folk Jagar when the scene of apprehension sentiment comes as in Pandavas folklores or Ranbhut Jagar.



Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, bckukreti@gmail.com  25/10/2013
              Review of Characteristics of Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals and Traditional Plays part to be continued…

                    References
1-Bharat Natyam
2-Steve Tillis, 1999, Rethinking Folk Drama
3-Roger Abrahams, 1972, Folk Dramas in Folklore and Folklife 
4-Tekla Domotor , Folk drama as defined in Folklore and Theatrical Research
5-Kathyrn Hansen, 1991, Grounds for Play: The Nautanki Theater of North India
6-Devi Lal Samar, Lokdharmi Pradarshankari Kalayen 
7-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas part 1-12
8-Dr Shiva Nand Nautiyal, Garhwal ke Loknritya geet
9-Jeremy Montagu, 2007, Origins and Development of Musical Instruments
10-Gayle Kassing, 2007, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach
11- Bhishma Kukreti, 2013, Garhwali Lok Natkon ke Mukhya Tatva va Charitra, Shailvani, Kotdwara
12- Bhishma Kukreti, 2007, Garhwali lok swangun ma rasa ar Bhav , Chithipatri
Xx



Notes on Apprehension Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, South Asia; Apprehension Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Tehri Garhwal, South Asia; Apprehension Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Uttarkashi Garhwal, South Asia; Apprehension Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Chamoli Garhwal, South Asia; Apprehension Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Rudra Prayag Garhwal, South Asia; Apprehension Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Pauri Garhwal, South Asia; Apprehension Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Dehradun Garhwal, South Asia; Apprehension Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Haridwar Garhwal, South Asia; Apprehension Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, Himalaya, South Asia; Apprehension Sentiment in Garhwali Folk Drama, Folk Rituals, Community Theaters and Traditional Plays from Garhwal, North India, South Asia; 

गढवाली लोक नाटकों में   शंका   भाव; टिहरी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  शंका भाव;उत्तरकाशी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  शंका  भाव;हरिद्वार गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में   शंका भाव;देहरादून गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में  शंका  भाव;पौड़ी गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में    शंका भाव;चमोली गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में शंका   भाव; रुद्रप्रयाग गढ़वाल के गढवाली लोक नाटकों में    शंका भाव;

 

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