Author Topic: Re: Information about Garhwali plays-विभिन्न गढ़वाली नाटकों का विवरण  (Read 44873 times)

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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Dosto,


 हमारे वरिष्ट सदस्य श्री भीष्म कुकरेती जी ने विभिन्न गढ़वाली नाटको के बारे में एक कुछ विशेष जानकारी इक्कठा किया है जिसे कुकरेती जी मेरापहाड़ फोरम में प्रस्तुत कर रहे है! हमें उम्मीद है आपको भीष्म जी का यह प्रयास पसंद आएगा!
 
 एम् एस मेहता
--------


 

एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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इकीसवीं सदी क गढ़वाळी स्वांग/नाटक -२
 
 
 
गिरीश सुंदरियालौ नाटक 'असगार' मा चरित्र चित्रण - फाड़ी -१
 
                   Bhishm Kukreti
 
'असगार' गिरीश सुन्दरियालौ स्वांग खौळ 'असगार' मादे एक स्वांग च .
हाँ असगार मा चरित्र चित्रण से पैलि 'स्वांगु मा चरित्र चित्रण ' पर छ्वीं लगाण जरूरी ह्व़े जांद.
१- पुरातन चीनी सिद्धांत
२- पाश्चात्य सिद्धांत
३-- भारतीय सिद्धांत
४- मनोविज्ञानऔ ज्ञान
चीन मा स्वांग
चीन मां स्वांग भैर बिटेन आई . मंगोल स्वांग तैं चीन मा लैन पण चीन मा स्वांग बढण मा कन्फ्युसिस अर बुद्धौ सिधांत दगड़ी चलीन. इलै
चीन मा उद्येसात्म्क स्वांग जलदा मिल्दा छ्या
चीन मा क्वी भरत या अरस्तु जन क्वी नाट्य शास्त्री नि ह्व़े जैन क्वी किताब लेखी ह्वाओ . पण चीन का पुराणा स्टाइल च .
चीन मा आठवीं सदी पैथर इ नाटक जादा विकसित ह्व़े . अर इन बुले जान्द बल हरेक गाँ मा स्वांग खिले जांद छा.
पैल स्वान्गुं मा नाच अर गाणा जरुरी छ्या. स्वान्गुं मा प्रतीक को जादा इस्तेमाल हूंद छयो. 'टछौउएन खि' प्रकारौ (७०० -९०७ ई.) वीर रसौ स्वांग छ्या.
संग राज मा (९६०-१११९) स्वान्गु मा हौर विकास ह्व़े .अर ये जुगौ स्वांगु खुण 'हाई-खिओ' बुल्दन. ये जुग मा अब स्वान्गुं मा एक बड़ो महत्वपूर्ण चरित्र आई
जु गांदो बि छयो .
११२५ बिटेन १३६७ ई. क टैम चीनी स्वान्गुं खुण सौब से बढिया टैम बुले जान्द . ये बग तौ स्वान्गुं कुण -यूएन-पेन अर टसाकी बुले जांद यूएन-पेन
क छ्वटु रूप .कुण यें किया बुले जान्द.
ये बगत सैकड़ों स्वांग रचे गेन
काओ टोंग किया क स्वांग 'पी-पा-की' (१४ वीं सदी ) अबि तलक भौति रौन्स्दार स्वांगु मादे एक स्वांग माने जांद.ये स्वांग को मुख्य उदेश्य च चरित्रवानऔ गुण अर शिक्षा.
असल मा यू ड्रामा दुस्चरित्र वळा स्वांगु विरुद्ध लिखे गे छौ अर भाती पोपुलर ह्व़े. याने कि चीनी ड्रामा मा शिक्षा अर चरित्रवान गुण पैलो शर्त माने गे .
शास्त्रीय चीनी स्वान्गुं मा चरित्र वान, सीख अर उदेश्य होण जरुरी छौ.
चीन मा बि भारतौं तरां नाटकों तैं पाश्चात्य जन खाली ट्रेजिडी अर कौमेडी मा नि बंटे गे. चीन मा विसयुं क हिसाब से बारा तरां शास्त्रीय स्वांग होन्दन
चीन स्वांगु मा धार्मिक प्रवृति -धर्म पर विश्वास, भगवत कृपा, दैवीय शक्ति , त्याग भावना, (बुद्धौ नियम आदि) ,
ऐतिहासिक नाटक बि शास्त्रीय स्वांगु मा मिल्दन ट ऐतिहासिक चरित्र बि चीनी स्वांगु मा चीन मा मिल्दन.
अपराधी चीनी स्वांग बि भौत छन अर यूँ स्वांगु खासियत च - पापी/पाप कि खोज अर निर्दोष तैं न्याय-निसाब.
चीन मा प्रेम युक्त -हंसदर्या ड्रामा बि मिल्दन
जन कि चीन मा भारत जन जाति हिसाब नि होंद त नाटकों मा बि जात क हिसाब से स्वांग चरित्र नि रचे जान्दन.
शास्त्रीय चीनी स्वान्गु मा चरित्र पद का हिसाब से रचे जान्दन. स्वान्गुं कथों मा पद पर जोर होंद
भौत सा सीन अर चरित्र केवल प्रतीकुं से चित्रित होन्दन.
चीनी नाटकूं मा जनान्यूँ चरित्र प्रकार भौत छन- उच्च पदासीन से जुड़ी , त्यागी जनानी से नौकर्याण तक
सौत्या डाह आदि बि खूब मिल्द.
चीनी नाटकूं मा अंक अर सीन होन्दन अर पैल त विषय भौति लम्बा होंदा छ्या त चरित्र चित्रण बि वनी होंदा छ्या.
तौ ळ का कुछ विषय चरित्र चित्रण औ अन्थाज लगाणो बान काफी छन
-दर्शकुं समणि भुक डुबण, विष से, फांसी से, त्रास आदि से मिरत्यु
-अचरज/आश्चर्य
-जादू/जादूगरी
-भूत/पिचासुं से बदला लीण या भूतुं से न्याय दिलाण
-भौं भौं किस्मौ ब्यौ
-पैत्रिक सत्ता क वर्चव्स
-राजा तैं महान बथाण
चीन का पुराणा स्वान्गु एक बडी खासियत छे - लेखक इ मुख्य कैरेक्टर अर मुख्य वक्ता बि होंद छौ.
-नाटक मा गितांग होण जरूरी छौ, माना कि गितांग को चरित्र नाटक मा मोरी जान्दो त फिर दुसर चरित्र गाणा गालो
-प्रतीक अर अलंकृत भाषाऔ भरमार होंदी छे
चीनी ड्रामा दर्शकुं रूचि हिसाब से इ रचे जांद छ्या याने कि ड्रामों मा पॉप-कल्चर छौ , याने कि मौज -मस्ती क बान ड्रामा रचे जान्द छ्या ( संस्कृत मा इन नि छौ, ड्रामा शास्त्रीय हिसाब से लिखे जांद छ्या जन कि कालिदास का स्वांग)
चीन मा पाठ खिलण वाळ तैं ट्रेनिंग मा भौत मेनत करण पड़दो छौ. नाट्य गुरु दर्शकुं समणि इ वैकी (च्याला) परीक्षा लीन्दा छ्या
चीनी नाटकूं मा चरित्र /पाठ खिलण वाळ तैं यूँ चीजुं पर ध्यान दीण पड़दो छौ
१- वाच/स्पीचअर गीत गाणो ढंग /गीतुं मा माहरथ
२- चलणो ढंग
३- सरैल से पाठ खिलण याने बौडी लैंगवेज को स्वांग मा महत्व
४-कपड़ा, मेक अप, स्टेज कि जानकारी
चीनी नाटकों मा मास्क /मुखौटों महत्व अर मुखौटों प्रतीक chhan
१- सुफेद मुखौटा - पापी, दोषी, राक्षस , कुमति , धोकेबाज, घुन्ना, अण-अंथंजण्या याने कि विलियन या प्रतिनायक
२-हौरू मुखौटा - भिरंगी, दौन्कार/ गुस्सैल् , टणक्या, जु अफु पर काबू नि कौर सकदो
३- लाल मुखौटा - भड़ , वीर, भक्त . समर्पित
४-काळो मुखौटा - जडबडो, बबर, खरो
५-पिंगुळ मुखौटा - महत्वाकांक्षी , बबर, ठंडो-दिमागौ
६-नीलू मुखौटा - इरादा पक्को , अडिग निष्ठावान
सन्दर्भ -१- भारत नाट्य शाश्त्र अर भौं भौं आलोचकुं मीमांशा
२- भौं भौं उपनिषद
३- शंकर की आत्मा की कवितानुमा प्रार्थना ४-और्बास , एरिक , १९४६ , मिमेसिस
५- अरस्तु क पोएटिक्स
६- प्लेटो क रिपब्लिक
७-काव्यप्रकाश, ध्वन्यालोक ,
८- इम्मैनुअल कांट को साहित्य
९- हेनरिक इब्सन क नाटकूं पर विचार १०- डा हरद्वारी लाल शर्मा
११ - ड्रामा लिटरेचर
१२ - डा सूरज कांत शर्मा
१३- इरविंग वार्डले, थियेटर क्रिटीसिज्म
१४- भीष्म कुकरेती क लेख
१५- डा दाताराम पुरोहित क लेख १६- अबोध बंधु बहुगुणा अर डा हरि दत्त भट्ट शैलेश का लेख
१७- शंकर भाष्य
१८- मारजोरी बौल्टन, १९६०. ऐनोटोमी ऑफ़ ड्रामा
१९- अल्लार्ड़ैस निकोल
२० -डा डी. एन श्रीवास्तव, व्यवहारिक मनोविज्ञान
२१- डा. कृष्ण चन्द्र शर्मा , एकांकी संकलन मा भूमिका
२२- ए सी.स्कौट, १९५७, द क्लासिकल थियेटर ऑफ़ चाइना
बकै अग्वाड़ी क सोळियूँ मा......
फाड़ी -१
१- नरेंद्र कठैत का नाटक डा ' आशाराम ' मा भाव
२- गिरीश सुंदरियाल क नाटक 'असगार' मा चरित्र चित्रण
३- भीष्म कुकरेती क नाटक ' बखरौं ग्वेर स्याळ ' मा वार्तालाप/डाइलोग
५- कुलानंद घनसाला औ नाटक संसार
६- दिनेश भारद्वाज अर रमण कुकरेती औ स्वांग बुड्या लापता क खासियत
फाड़ी -२
१-ललित मोहन थपलियालौ खाडू लापता
२-स्वरूप ढौंडियालौ मंगतू बौळया
३- स्वरूप ढौंडियालौ अदालत
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एम.एस. मेहता /M S Mehta 9910532720

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इकीसवीं सदी क गढ़वाळी स्वांग/नाटक -3
गिरीश सुंदरियालौ नाटक 'असगार' मा चरित्र चित्रण - फाड़ी -2
                            भीष्म कुकरेती
 
स्वांगूं पच्छमी सिद्धांत
 
                  १- अरस्तु सिद्धांत
 
पच्छमी देसूं मा काव्य अर स्वान्गू पर सबसे पैल कलम अरस्तु (३८४-३२२ ई.) की चौल.
अरस्तु से उन्नीसवीं सदी आखिरैं तलक पच्छमी देसूं मा नाटकों द्वी ही प्रकार माने गेन- ट्रेजिडी/त्रासदी अर कोमेडी (हौंस आदि )
अरस्तू न स्वान्गुं बारा मा इन बोली छौ -
अ- धारणा -
 
अरस्तु बिटेन इ ए विवादोऊ पर्वाण लग बल नाटकुं मा व्यक्ति की महत्ता होण चयेंद या वस्तु की.
१- अरस्तु हिसाब से कथा अर कार्य नाटकुं चरित्र या चरित्र्य से जादा कामौ ( महत्वपूर्ण ) च
२- कार्य, कथा या कथावस्तु ही तरास/ट्रेजिडी क लक्ष हों चयेंद याने कि कार्य आदि क उदेश्य ट्रेजिडी प्राप्ति च
३- असल मा चरित्र कार्य व्यौहार कु भुर्त्या च
४- चरित्रौ नि होंण से बि तरस / ट्रेजिडी ऐ सकद च पन कथा/कार्य व्यौपार बगैर कबि बि ट्रेजिडी नि ऐ सकदी
५- कथानक ट्रेजिडी कि आत्मा च. कथानक/कार्य व्यौपार को स्थान पैलो च अर चरित्रौ जगा दुसर च
६- घटना सन्गठन कु अळगौ स्थान च
 
ब- कार्य व्यौपार अर चरित्र -
 
काम द्वी तरां होन्दन
 
१- जाणि बूजिक क्र्याँ करतब
२- अजाणि मा हुयाँ काम या परिस्थिति दबाब मा कर्याँ काज
अरस्तु क मनण छौ बल अजाणि मा हुयाँ या परिस्थिति क दबाब मा कर्या काम ट्रेजिडी लांदन
स- त्रासिदी क नाट्य पात्र
१- त्रासदी नायक तैं पूरो सदाचारी नि होण चयेंद
२- त्रासदी क पात्र पूरो दुराचारी बि नि होण चयेंद
३- इख तलक कि खल नायक तैं बि पूरो दुराचारी नि होण चयेंद
द- त्रासदी क नायक
१- नायक तैं पूरो सत्चरित्र नि होण चयेंद
२- खलपात्र त्रासदी नायक नि ह्व़े सकद
३-नायक तैं ह्म्जन /सहज इ होण चयेंद
४- नायक तैं ऊँचो कुलौ / उच्च कुलीन (पद) अर नामी होण चयेंद
५-नायकु पतन स्वाभावौ कमजोरी होण चयेंद ना कि घड़यूँ धुर्यापन /विचारयुक्त दुष्टता
इ- चरित्र चित्रण अर चरित्र्य क सिद्धांत
१- चरित्र तैं भद्र होण चयेंद
२- औचित्य जरुरी च (तर्क /कुतर्क अर वितर्क मा भेद)
३-चरित्र जिन्दगी नजीक होण चयेंद
४-चरित्र मा इक्सारिपन होण चयेंद . बिंडीरुपुं तैं इकरुपी बणावो
५- चरित्र दिखाण मा समभावना होण चयेंद
६- श्रेष्ठता को बखान होण चयेंद
होरेस (६५-८ ई.) कु औचित्य सिधांत
काव्य समीक्षक होरेस क बुलण च बल
१- हरेक चरित्र औ चर्रित्र चित्रण वैकी अवस्था क हिसाबन होण चयेंद
२-डाइरेक्टर आदि तैं कला, या नाटक तैं तागत दीणो बान छूट मिलण चयेंद
३- पात्रुं बचळयात (सम्वाद) पात्रुं सामाजिक पद, जगा, मनस्थिति , ज़ात, रंग, रौणै जगा,
अर लिँग औ हिसाबन होण चएंद
४- नाटक तैं सम्पूर्ण अर सौष्ठव पूर्ण होण चएंद
नामी गिरामी नौर्वे बासिन्दा , स्वांगकार हेनरिक जौन इब्सन (१८२८-१९०६) का ख़याल
१- स्वांग लिख्वार तैं पात्र अर पात्रुं क चारित्रिक खूबी क तलक जाण जरूरी च
२-नाटककार तैं चरित्रुं बारा मा पैल सुचण चएंद अर शब्दुं बारा मा पैथर सुचण चएंद
३-नाटककार तैं आपन पात्र अर ऊं पात्रुं मनोविज्ञान - समाजिक स्तिथियौ पूरी जानकारी होण चएंद
 
                 विलियम आर्चर (स्कौटलैंड १८५६-१९२४ )
 
१- नाटक मा चरित इ जादा महत्वपूर्ण छन
२-चमत्कारिक परिवर्तन (अचाणचको बदलौ ) सिद्धांत माने होंद चरित्र विकास पर ध्यान.
                            लाजम एग्री
 
अ- चरित्रों महत्व
चरित्रुं गुण अथाअ छन , बगैर चरित्रौ क्वी स्वांग ना त खिल्याई च ना इ कबि लिख्याल
ब- नायक अर खलनायक
नायक नाटकौ केंद्र हूंद अर खलनायक नायकु बरोबर को इ होण चयेंद
स- पात्रुं त्रिआयामी गुण
१- सरैल-लिंग, आयु, ऊँचै , वजन, रंग, आंखि, बाळ, हौ भौ, गातौ हिसाब किताब(मुंड, मुख, अंगुळ जन बात)
दोष (जन्मजाति रोग, कुरूपता, ) वंश/खार ,
२- सामाजिक -जात, भुर्त्या, नेगिचारी(सेवक) , रज़ा, अर बीचौ
३- चाकरी ( काम, कामौ समौ, सक्यात), पढाई लिखै ,गिरस्थी, धर्म, पंथ, देस, भाषा, राजनैतिक पौंच ,
टैम बिताणो /मनोविनोद का साधन आदि
द- मन सम्बन्धी सिद्धांत
१-यौन सम्बन्ध, नैतिकता
३-आकांक्षा , गाणि -स्याणि , महत्वाकांक्षा
४-निरासा
५-सुभौ
६-जिन्दगी दिखणो ढर्रा
७- - जटिलताएं, परेशानी, संघर्ष
८- विश्वास अर अंधविश्वास
९- अंतर्मुखी या बहिर्मुखी या घुन्ना
१०- शक्यात /योग्यता
११- गुण, सुचणो तागत, कल्पना शक्ति, निर्णै लीणै कुवत, रूचि-अरुचि, क्याँ से प्रेम-क्याँ से घीण
मारेन एलवुड
१- चरित्र तैं जीवंत बणाण जरूरी च
२- क्वी कठण अळजाट/ महत्व पूर्ण समस्या हूणि चयेंद
३- तर्क
४-चरित्रुं मा विश्सनीयता अर प्रभावित करणै तागत हूण चयेंद
५- चरित्र निर्माण मा चरित्रुं क्वी ना क्वी छवि दिखणेरूं मगज मा हूण चयेंद
६- हरेक पात्रौ काम मा वजह अर अवस्था क वजूद/उपस्थिति/एक्जिसटेंस हूण जरूरी च
 
                ई.एम् फ्रोस्टर
द्वी किस्मौ चरित्र होन्दन - सरल अर जटिल
                  नाटक शिक्षक सुसान पैटीसनऔ पाठ
 
नाटककार तैं चरित्र निर्माण मा तौळौ हिदैत ध्यान मा धरण चयेन्दन
१- चरित्रौ पूरी कल्पना
२- चरित्रुं बारा मा जनता मा ख़याल, जणगरूं ख़याल अर दुयूं खयालूं मा क्या भेद च
३- चरित्रौ इतियास क्या च
४- चरित्रौ नाटक मा पिछलो कथा क्या च
५- चरित्रौ हौरुं दगड क्या क्या रिश्ता च
६-चरित्रौ नाटक मा जरुरत इ किलै च ?
७-चरित्रुं आपस मा संघर्ष /तनातनी
८- चरित्र निर्माण मा चरित्रौ भूतकाल को योगदान
९- चरित्रौ समणि आण अर नाटक मा पूरो कामकी कल्पना

सन्दर्भ -१- भारत नाट्य शाश्त्र अर भौं भौं आलोचकुं मीमांशा
२- भौं भौं उपनिषद
३- शंकर की आत्मा की कवितानुमा प्रार्थना
४-और्बास , एरिक , १९४६ , मिमेसिस
५- अरस्तु क पोएटिक्स
६- प्लेटो क रिपब्लिक
७-काव्यप्रकाश, ध्वन्यालोक ,
८- इम्मैनुअल कांट को साहित्य
९- हेनरिक इब्सन क नाटकूं पर विचार १०- डा हरद्वारी लाल शर्मा
११ - ड्रामा लिटरेचर
१२ - डा सूरज कांत शर्मा
१३- इरविंग वार्डले, थियेटर क्रिटीसिज्म
१४- भीष्म कुकरेती क लेख
१५- डा दाताराम पुरोहित क लेख
१६- अबोध बंधु बहुगुणा अर डा हरि दत्त भट्ट शैलेश का लेख
१७- शंकर भाष्य
१८- मारजोरी बौल्टन, १९६०. ऐनोटोमी ऑफ़ ड्रामा
१९- अल्लार्ड़ैस निकोल
२० -डा डी. एन श्रीवास्तव, व्यवहारिक मनोविज्ञान
२१- डा. कृष्ण चन्द्र शर्मा , एकांकी संकलन मा भूमिका
२२- ए सी.स्कौट, १९५७, द क्लासिकल थियेटर ऑफ़ चाइना
२३-मारेन एलवुड ,१९४९, कैरेकटर्स मेक युअर स्टोरी
बकै अग्वाड़ी क सोळियूँ मा......
फाड़ी -१
१- नरेंद्र कठैत का नाटक डा ' आशाराम ' मा भाव
२- गिरीश सुंदरियाल क नाटक 'असगार' मा चरित्र चित्रण
३- भीष्म कुकरेती क नाटक ' बखरौं ग्वेर स्याळ ' मा वार्तालाप/डाइलोग
५- कुलानंद घनसाला औ नाटक संसार
६- दिनेश भारद्वाज अर रमण कुकरेती औ स्वांग बुड्या लापता क खासियत
फाड़ी -२
१-ललित मोहन थपलियालौ खाडू लापता
२-स्वरूप ढौंडियालौ मंगतू बौळया
३- स्वरूप ढौंडियालौ अदालत
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Hundred Years of Modern Garhwali Drama

                    Samaj: A Garhwali drama about Social problems
(Information about ‘Samaj’ a Garhwali drama by Ghana Nand Bahuguna)
(Notes on Garhwali Dramas, Kumauni Dramas, Uttarakhandi Dramas, Himalayan Dramas)

                                              Bhishm Kukreti

                 There is less information available about a Garhwali drama ‘Samaj’.
            Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna (1976) stated that after Bhavani Datt Thapliyal (1900-1940), most of the contributors of Garhwali literature contributed for Garhwali poetry.   Mostly, Garhwalis preferred contributing to Hindi prose than Garhwali language prose. Bahuguna further said that a couple of Garhwali creative came in the field of Garhwali prose as Ghana Nand Bahuguna. Ghana Nand Bahuguna published ‘Samaj’ drama from Ganga Pustakmala Karyalay, Luchnow in the month February of 1930. The drama ’Samaj’ has a significant place in the field of Garhwali prose. ‘Samaj’ has been the instruments in stopping de-growth /de-generation of Garhwali prose. Bahuguna further narrated ‘Raula ki Khaulyau dekhik I gad ko pata chald . The said statement of Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna appreciated Ghana Nand Bahuguna for his contribution in Garhwali prose and the subject of ‘Samaj’ drama too.
          It is clear that the subject of ‘Samaj’ is about social problems and social reforms.
         Dr Hari Datt Bhatt Shailesh (1986) informed in his research article ‘Garhwali Natak evam Rangmanch: Ek Vihngam Avlokan ‘that Ghanannand Bahguna published a Garhwali drama ‘ Samaj’ in 1930. Dr Bhatt further states that this way there was initiation of Garhwali drama  (Bhakt Prahlad) and it gets continuous development (about ‘Samaj’).
            Dr Bhakt Darshan (1986) provided the following briefing about ‘Samaj’ a Garhwali drama that Ghana nand Bahuguna was born in village Pokhari, Chalansyun (great Sanskrit scholar Meghakar Bahuguna’s great grandchild) of district Pauri Garhwal.  Ghana Nand Bahuguna had been famous advocate f in Pauri. Ghana Nand Bahuguna was prolific writer of Garhwali, English and Hindi languages. Ghana Nand Bahuguna expired on 13th February 1964 in Pauri.  Bahuguna was also an active social worker of Pauri who published a Garhwali drama ‘Samaj’.     
 (Recently, this author came in contact with the grand son (who is an advocate too) of Shri Ghana Nand Bahuguna through facebook . He wanted the copy of book where his life sketch is published and this author wanted the copy of ‘Samaj’ drama. However, the contact is broken due to mail pouring in my inbox. )



References:
1-Dr Anil Dabral, Garhwali Gady Parampara
2-Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Gad Myateki Ganga
3-Dr Sudharani, Garhwal ka  Rangmanch
4-Drama special issue of Chitthi Patri magazine
5- Dr Hari Datt Bhatt Shailesh, Garhwali Natak evam Rangmanch: Ek Vihngam Avlokan
6-Dr Bhakt Darshan: Barrister Mukandi Lal Srmriti Granth

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                                   Bhakt Prahlad: The First Modern Garhwali Drama

           (Review on a Garhwali Drama ‘Bhakt Prahlad’ by Bhavani Datt Thapliyal)
(Notes on Garhwali Stage Plays, Kumauni Stage Plays, Uttarakhandi Stage Plays, Himalayan Stage Plays)

                                  Bhishm Kukreti

                 Bhakt Prahlad is the first published modern Garhwali drama by Bhavani Datt Thapliyal (Khaid, Mavalsyun, Pauri Garhwal, 1867-1932) in 1914 from Calcutta. However, Bhavani Datt Thapliyal wrote Jay-Vijay a Garhwali drama before Bhakt Prahlad but due to technical problem he could publish Jay-Vijay drama after Bhakt Prahlad.  Jay-Vijay is based on well known folk Garhwali story and poem-Daint-Sanghar.  Jay-Vijay drama is the foundation for Bhakt Prahlad drama.  In Hindi drama scene, it was the transit period between Bhartendu Harish Chandra and Jay Shankar Prasad. The creation period of ‘Dhrub Swamini’ by Jay Shankar Prasad is same as of Bhakt Prahlad’.
  Parsi theatre style (initiated in 1853) was dominating dramas of Indian vernacular languages. The form of Parsi theatre was highly electric and stories were taken from epics as Mahabharata.  In the same period,  Sankardas Swamigal had been initiating Tamil dramas for modernization and bringing professionalism from at the end  of  nineteenth century; D.L .Roy was accelerating the work of  Golak Nath Das in the beginning of twentieth century ; C.V Raman Pillai wrote modern Malayalam drama ‘Kuruppillakkalari(1908) and Pandate Panchan introduced it in 1908’; in Telugu drama world, Chandala keshav Das’s ‘Kanak Tara’,  Pundit K.Subramanya Sastri’s ‘Shir Krishna lilau (1914), Shrimula Sachidanand sastri’s ‘Savitri’(1915) dramas were staged and various regional groups staged mythological and social based dramas in Kannada too. 
               Jag Mohan Lala is the father of modern Oriya theatre (1875) who also wrote first Oriya play ‘Baba ji’.
        In Marathi theatre, the era from 1882-1920 is called one of the productive eras. Around 1894-1928, Shripad Krishna Kolhatkar dominated Marathi drama world as his 12 plays were staged. There is similarity between the themes of ‘Bhakt Prahlad’ a Garhwali drama by Bhavani Datt Thapliyal and ‘ Kanchangadchi Mohana’  (1897) a Marathi drama by  Krishnaji Prabhakar Khadilkar that both dramas were based on the well known mythological stories but both the dramas were full of contemporary relevancies. While Khadilkar the Marathi playwright created a Prataprao for propagating notion of independence in Kanchangadchi Mohana’ and Bhavani Datt Thapliyal created many new  characters as Kaljugyanand a Guru who is a corrupt Guru, Gunda, Bhakunda, Durmati  for attacking on political and social wrong -happenings . No doubt, Bhavani Datt Thapliyal dedicated the drama to George pancham but the drama criticized and make ridicules of British raj in the drama 9a dialogue- Amto Mister ho gaya ab yurpo jana mangta..”. Shenoi Goembab (1877-1946) played major role in developing Konkani dramas in this period. However, Shenoi Goembab adapted western dramas for Konkani.
             In the same period, Jivan Jha wrote first modern Maithili plays –‘Sundarsanyoga’ (1904) and ‘Narmada Sagar’ (1906), both were social dramas and were staged in Varansi . Munsi raghunandan das wrote ‘Maithili’ and staged ‘Maithili’ play in Maithili area in 1910.
            Shiv Charan Bhartiya was first Rajashthani dramatist published ‘Kesharvilas’ in 1900. The drama is a social drama and influenced by Parsi theatre.
 The first Mizo drama written in Mizo script is ‘Krista pallai’(19340 directed by Chauwngzika.
   Sorokhaibam lalit is called father figure of modern Manipuri drama. First modern Assamese drama is ‘Ramnavami’ by Gunabhiram  Barua (1857). The drama is about widow remarriage. The mythological subjects with social messages dominated Assamese dramas from 1857-1920. Dhanbir Mukhiya staged a complete Nepali language drama in 1909 in Darjiling. Pahalaman Singh swar  is credited for publishing first ever modern drama in Nepali  language ‘Atalbahadur’ . the said drama was published from varansi in 1906,
          Santan dharma Natak Samaj initiated staging mythological and moralistic Dogri plays from 1914 in Jammu. 
         Dip Cand bahman is called as ‘Kalidas of modern Haryanvi dramas who polished old folk theater style in Haryana around First World War.
           By studying the various plays of various Indian languages, it is obvious that in the period 1880-1925, the Indian playwrights tried to infuse social messages into mythological subject. Mythology was serving two purposes that audience was easily involved with the drama and there was less censorship problem with British authority.
               The theme of ‘Bhakt Prahlad’ is based on the story of Bhakt Prahlad of Hari Vishnu Puran. There are 28 acts in ‘Bhakt Prahlad’. Hirankashyapu is depicted as British Raj indirectly. Many characters in the drama represent the people of society and government administration.
            The dialogues are the major elements of this drama for being very enjoyable. As –
Kaljugyanand – maraj mi par gusa ni howan sarkaar – mi t sab tadna kari chuki ye par bar bar –aur guru ji n bi ye tain dekhaye khoob dhudhkaar fatkar –parantu yel jara bhar ni chhodi bolano narayan hari katari –ya te mahaprabhu ! kuchh aap hi karan ye ko vichar –ham to hoi gayan ye tain bilkul lachaar
  Though, there is less difference in languages spoken by various characters but the dialogues create the desired image of each character.
Jimidar – bin pani huye baanji saar, beej bi khaayiyan kistmar
Gothun goru gay gothyar , mai jimidar ji main jimidar ji
          The dialogues create characterization and attack on wrong happenings either in the society or in state administration.
   There are relevant lyrics in the drama. According to eminent Garhwali prose research scholar Dr Anil Dabral, the lyrics are very sharp and accelerate the speed of the drama.
  The play is still relevant and the play has potentiality for making a feature film too. Bhavani Datt Thapliyal created a drama culture for modern Garhwali language. Bhavani Datt proved that drama is the best medium for showing the good and bad happening in the society.

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Notes on Garhwali Stage Plays, Kumauni Stage Plays, Uttarakhandi Stage Plays, Himalayan Stage Plays to be continued …..

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Baba ji Ki Kapal Kriya: A Satirical Garhwali Drama Depicting Cruelty of a Son   

              (Review of ‘Baba Ji ki Kapal Kriya’ drama by Bhavani Datt Thapliyal)
(Notes on Garhwali Stage Plays, Kumauni Stage Plays, Uttarakhandi Stage Plays, Himalayan Stage Plays)

                                       Bhishm Kukreti
            ‘Baba ji Ki Kapal Kriya’ drama is part of ‘ Bhakt Prahlad ‘  (1912/13) by Bhavani Datt Thapliyal and is an exclusive one act drama too. The drama theme is taken from Markandey Puran wherein sons snatch the wealth of their father and they leave him in the jungle. However, the father still is their well wisher.
      In the story of ‘Baba ji Ki Kapal Kriya’ drama, the son declares his living father as dead that he could own the father’s property. The dialogue of son is the example of cruelty and selfishness of the son ‘ Jitna  ham jap tap karenge utna gap sapp karenge., jise lampat –labar banenge..’
        The son applies in the court for a bamboo stick for doing ‘Kapal Kriya ‘of his living father. The story is in exaggerated form but looks very realistic at the same time.  The imagination of Bhavani Datt Thapliyal is fantastic in showing the selfishness of a son and kindness of learned father.
           Bhavani Datt is the master in providing dialogues for the characters as per the time and as per the purpose of drama. The dialogues are agile and are in semi poetic form.   
                  Eminent Garhwali prose critic Dr Anil Dabral claims that Bhavani Datt Thapliyal has been successful in characterization and developing the characters.  The audience would definitely hate the son when they would watch the drama.
Reference:
Dr Anil Dabral, 2007, Garhwali Gady parampara.

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Hundred Years of Modern Garhwali Drama


                                   Faundar Ji ki Kachhdi: A Garhwali Drama Attacking on Social Evils

(Review on ‘Faundar ji Ki Kachhdi’ a Garhwali Stage Play by Bhavani Datt Thapliyal)
(Notes on Garhwali Dramas, Kumauni Dramas, Uttarakhandi Dramas, Himalayan Dramas)

                                              Bhishm Kukreti

                       The father of Modern Garhwali Drama Bhavani Datt Thapliyal wrote ‘Faundar ji Ki Kachhdi’ drama. (1912). The ‘Faundar ji Ki Kachhdi’ drama exposes the immorality in society; delay in judgment and corruption in state courts; sales of unmarried girls and the mafias of such activities;  selling bulls to slaughter houses with the help of mafias. The drama also speaks positively about need of cultural development through following the ritual norms. Bhavani Datt Thapliyal was definitely a visionary man. Thapliyal showed the evils which exist today too as delay and corruption in judiciary; prostitution prostration through sales of girls from rural areas, no care for caw-bull as they deserve.
              The story ‘Faundar ji Ki Kachhdi’ drama is about Kumutu selling his daughter at thousand rupes to a rich man of Mumbai through Purohit Durachari. Purohit Durachari did not give him thousand rupees but only hundred bucks. Kumtu goes to Mumbai to take balance money and found that his daughter is in real is sold to abutcher and now his daughter is also involved in selling animal skin. Kumtu did not get money. After returning to village, when Kumtu informs the reality to his wife, she does suicide and his son runs away from village.
              Now, at the same time, Purohit Durachari and village councilor put a case of nonpayment of state tax (Thakuransh) from the sale of daughter. The judge fines to Kumtu and all his property is transferred to village councilors and Purohit.  There is openly corrupt methodology in the judiciary in the drama.   
           Though the drama is fast but the dramatist has been successful in characterization of each character.           
                The Garhwali drama ‘Faundar ji Ki Kachhdi ‘written around 1912 is effective in showing corrupt judiciary and where only money talks as the Russian drama ‘One Hour Eighteen Minutes’ authored by Yelena Gremina (2010); attacks on judiciary system  sharply as Arthur Miller ‘s play ‘The Crucible’ (1952)attacks. The dialogues of ‘Faundar ji Ki Kachhdi’ drama   make the drama humorous even showing cruel part of corrupt judiciary as also found in ‘Rape Upon Rape’  play  by Henry Fielding (1730). 
          The drama has speed due to crispy screenplay and dialogues are marvelous as the judge speakers for describing himself ‘
Helo! Ham t chhanvaan pariyun ka payandaj! Paulisibaj! Najuk mijaj ! rat din dikhdaa randun ka naj-andaj! Ya ten fursat ka chhanvaan in mohtaj ki n t kauri sakdan sandhya, pooja-namaj n kachhedi ka kuchh kam –kaj.
 The drama shows the benefits being taken by opportunists in the society due to injured judiciary system.
  The drama ‘Faundar ji Ki Kachhdi’ is one act play and has all possibility in attracting the audience.               
References:
1-Dr Anil Dabral, Garhwali Gady Parampara
2-Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Gad Myateki Ganga
3-Dr Sudharani, Garhwali Rangmanch
4-Drama special issue of Chitthi Patri magazine
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Notes on Garhwali Dramas, Kumauni Dramas, Uttarakhandi Dramas, Himalayan Dramas to be continued …..

Bhishma Kukreti

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   Hundred years of Garhwali drama   

                           Pankhu: A Garhwali Drama about Dilemma of Mismatched Marriage

                 (Review of ‘Pankhu’ a Garhwali stage Play)
(Notes on Garhwali dramas, Kumauni Dramas, Uttarakhandi Dramas, Himalayan Dramas)

                                  Bhishm Kukreti
              The resident of Tihri Riyasat Shemiar established a ‘Shemiar Dramatic Club’ in Tihri on 17th October 1917. He built a drama hall in 1921. Most the officers of Tihri court were the members of this club. This club used to exhibit Parsi styled dramas in Urdu/Hindustani. Dr Sudhrani claims that ‘Pankhu’  a second drama in Garhwali was staged in Shemiar dramatic club hall in 1917. However, Dr. Anil Dabral claims that ‘Pankhu’ was staged first time in 1932 written by ‘char mitr sukhak’ (four friends –Pundit Satya Prasad Raturi, Devi Datt Nautiyal, Vidya Lal Nautiyal and Medhkar Nautiyal). Vijay Ram Raturi wrote songs for the drama.
                    Dr Anil seems to be more appropriate about date of staging. .  Raturi performed as ‘Parma and Medhakar Nautiyal performed ‘Pankhu’ in the drama. Satya Prasad Raturi published the book in 1938 from Dehradun in 1938. Himalaya Press Muni ki Reti published second edition in 1955 and great historian Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral published its third edition in 1995 from veer gatha Press, Dugadda, Pauri Garhwal with an introductory note.                 The story of ‘Pankhu’ is the mirror of Garhwal of that period. However, the emotional presentation of the drama is forever.
                     The story is about a young girl ‘Pakhu’ was married to an old aged widower. She had a one minute   romance before marriage with Parma in a jungle. When Pankhu is married, the drama opens many secrets of human psychology due to mismatch marriage. There is need of emotional love, need of physical satisfaction for a young woman, there is need of sharing with equal terms between husband and wife and there is frustration and fear of a old person due to his beautiful young wife in ‘Pankhu’ drama’.  The dramatists have been successful in showing the deep love between active age’s persons with the help of songs on background.
                         The dialogues are from the society and are common today too.  Father of ‘Pankhu’ wants to take more money for his daughter from old man who wishes to marry her and there is conversation as if ‘Pankhu’ was not a human but a she goat-
Barmi (later who becomes Pankhu’s husband)-  pandra sau t tum kami mangadan? Aji pandra sau ma t hondu kano aur kano . sau aathek ma t kwee bi lee java.
Balkhu(Pankhu’s father)- t jan dya tum ni deen t …
            The above conversation style still exist in Garhwal at the time of selling-purchasing of a domestic animals or field etc. The language in the conversation is perfect as per the situation and as per the character.
   The duologues are helpful in creating characters of the role players in the drama.
  The dramatists have been successful in showing the emotions by dialogues and the background activities of the role players as making patbedi (a Garhwali cigar), blowing Hukka, going to fair etc.
   ‘Pankhu’ had been a stepping stone in developing modern Garhwali drama tradition.

References:
References:
1-Dr Anil Dabral, Garhwali Gady Parampara
2-Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Gad Myateki Ganga
3-Dr Sudharani, Garhwali Rangmanch
4-Drama special issue of Chitthi Patri magazine
5-Dr Shiv Prasad Dabral, introductory notes of Pankhu’
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Notes on Garhwali Dramas, Kumauni Dramas, Uttarakhandi Dramas, Himalayan Dramas to be continued …..

Bhishma Kukreti

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Hundred Years of Garhwali Drama
                         

                 Psychological Aspects in ‘Lalsa’ a Social Drama by Lalit Keshwan

(Review of Garhwali Drama, Review of Kumauni Drama, Review of Uttarakhandi drama, Review of Himalayan language Drama)

                                                                  Bhishm Kukreti
             Lalit Keshwan is famous Garhwali poet who along with Kanhaiya Lal Dandriyal and Jaya Nand Khuksal  Baulya    brought realism in Garhwali poetry.
 Lalit Keshwan wrote dramas too. He published recently a collection of five Garhwali plays – Jai Badri Narain (2011). Lalsa is one of the plays from Jai Badri Narain.     
      Lalsa means desire.  ‘Lalsa’ drama is nearest to extreme realism in Garhwali drama or could be classified as naturalistic drama.
  The drama is very simple and there is hardly a big twist in the play ‘Lalsa’ except in the last stage.  The story of Lalsa drama is about a migrated Garhwali family living in Delhi in poor condition. Daulat Singh is an old man and ailing for long. His son Beeru a government servant is sole runner of the family needs but his income is not sufficient to cope with the increasing financial requirement. Beeru’s young children are studying in colleges.  Beeru had to take loans from friends for running the house. Daulat Singh has a strong desire to see his village in Garhwal before he dies but due to poor condition of his son, Daulat Singh is unable to fulfill his desire to visit his ancestral place. Shila the wife of Beeru tries to accommodate the circumstances. Sheru comes to Delhi from village to watch 26th January.  Daulat gets money. Now the drama is about – whether Daulat Singh would visit his ancestral place or not?
   Lalit Keshwan being a poet has full knowledge of human behaviors and there are psychological aspects in his realistic play ’Lalsa’
Asmus- Daulat Singh is a patient of asthma and all the time, he behaves as happens in ‘asmus’ conditions.
दौलत सिंह - (दवै की गोळि गिच्चा मा धारद अर पाणी पेंद )- यूँ दवैयुं तैं खांदु -खांदु मैनो बेटी गेन पर यू रोग बीसौ उन्नीस नि ह्व़े या दमै बिमारी दमि लेकी राली. I have been taking medicines for asthma but there is no relive for a cent.
Aboulia- Aboulia means chronic indecision, with eventual loss of initiative. There are signs of aboulia in Daulat Singh, Beeru and Shila; due to lack of money they are showing indecisiveness too.
 There are dialogues between Beeru and his wife Shila for buying a television. The question was whether buying on loan TV was right move or not. They bought TV on loan but till date the decision is not resolved.
शीला - मिं क्या गलत बोली? नौना पड़वस्यों की देळयूँ मा खड़ा रौंदा छा. ...
बीरू - यानं पढे को कथगा नुकसान होणु च, यू णि देखी.
शीला- मेरा समझणन अर न समझणन क्य होंद , जब बच्चा समझुन.
Potentiality verses Accomplishment:   The playwright Lalit Keshwan showed the problem of actual accomplishment and potentiality of accomplishment y way of direct dialogues and indirect methodology for viewers to understand.
दौलत - ब्यटा मेरी या आखिरी इच्छा च म्वन से पैलि गां देखी ल्यूं . बोली बोली मी थकी ग्युं
बीरू- बाबा जी आप समझदा किलै नीन ? गौं जाणो तैं पैसा बी त भौत चयेणु च . जब पैसा ह्व़े जाला त आप तैं गाँ क दर्शन करै द्योलू
 There are dialogues following the above scene showing potentiality and the actual accomplishment.
Algedonic phase of life: Algedonic is pertaining to pleasantness and unpleasantness dimension of feeling or emotion.
  Daulat Singh sold the ‘Sagwad’ (a small land before the house and courtyard for growing vegetables) to Sheru at a reasonable price. The money would solve temporary economical problem, by all means Daulat Singh could go to his native place in Garhwal from Delhi. However, there two pains attached to selling ‘Sagwad’. Daulat Singh had to sell his ancestral land and there is another reality waiting about Daulat Singh (last part of one scene act ‘Lalsa’) which, is definitely painful for audience. 
Bond and bonding: there are many examples of bond and bonding in the drama’ Lalsa’. The bond between Beeru and his ailing father, bond between Daulat Singh and the ancestral place.
The behavior of Daulat Singh about visiting his native place is nothing but an example of bovarism too and Lalit shows the same very successfully.
Body Language: No doubt, wisely, Lalit Keshwan left space for director and performers for showing body language while playing the roles in drama.   However, most the time, Lalit Keshwan showed the body languages of characters by describing the situation and most of the time dialogues create images of body languages of the drama’s characters.
There is a scene that guests from village left the house of Beeru for watching 26th January procession and there is scene ---
(सब लोग रोटी खैकि सेइ जान्दन .)
(रात को समय )
दौलत (खंसणु रैंद )
सुबर उठिक सब लोग तैयार ह्वेकि छबीस जनवरी द्यखणु चली जान्दन)
(सब बच्चा टेलीविजन द्यखणा छन )
(दौलत अर शेरू भैर चाय पेणा छन )
   The above scene proves the capability of Lalit Keshwan for his complete awareness about human behaviors. For example, when elders are worried or active for other jobs the children are busy in watching television. This scene is enough to show that Lalit has knowledge of psychology.
  In most of the scenes, Lalit has been successful for showing contact, contact comfort and semantic content.
  Lalit Keshwan knows the importance of values and compatibility in the social circle of Daulat Singh and the circle of his age. 
  The ‘Sagwad’ before the house of Sheru belongs to Daulat Singh and when the deal of selling ‘Sagwad’ by Daulat Singh is over. There is a talk between Sheru and Daulat.
दौलत - खैर भुला अब यो च कि हम सग्वड़ कै हैंका देंदा , त वो बि ठीक नि छौ. मोर ऐथर हैका जमीन हो त वो बि बार बार चुभणि रौंद
शेरू- हाँ , ये बात त  सच च .
  The writer is successful in showing wish and wish fulfillment aspects of life in the drama. Many times, Daulat Singh behaves non-rational too and it is the proof of Lalit Keshwan knowing human behaviors very well.
 The above examples show that Lalit Keshwan not only created a realistic drama but he has been successful in using perfect psychological aspects of characters of drama ‘Lalsa’.
‘Lalsa’ a Garhwali drama from ‘Jai Badri Narain’
(A Five Stage Plays collection)
By Lalit Keshwan
Published by Next Era Print and Publication
Delhi, India
Contact number of Garhwali dramatist Lalit Keshwan - 092116730207
Review of Garhwali Drama, Review of Kumauni Drama, Review of Uttarakhandi drama, Review of Himalayan language Drama to be continued….
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Bhishma Kukreti

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Hundred  Years of Garhwali Drama – 12

                              Khadu Lapata: A Garhwali Satirical Drama That Accelerated Garhwali Drama Movement   

         (Review of All Time favorite Garhwali Drama ‘Khadu Lapata ‘by playwright Lalit Mohan Thapliyal ‘ )
(Garhwali Drama, Garhwali Plays, Modern Garhwali Dramas, Modern Uttarakhandi Dramas, Modern Time Stage Plays of Uttarakhand)

                                Bhishm Kukreti
  The place of Lalit Mohan Thapliyal  as reverend in developing modern Garhwali dramas (specially satirical and comedy dramas) as Henry Fielding, Floyd Dell,  Honoree de Balzac, Sir James Mathew Barrie ,James Branch Cabell, A. Chekhov (Sea Gull) , George Colman , George Kaufman, N.V Gogol, William Dean Howell, Jerome K Jerome, Ben Jonson, Moliere, Seumas Brien, Eugene O Neil, George Bernard Shaw, Upton Sinclair, August Strindberg , J.M Synge, William M Thackeray,  Soyinka,  Leo Tolstoy, Royall Tyler, Oscar Wild, Gao Xingjian, in the satirical and Comedy Drama literature.
          Lalit Mohan Thapliyal had a heritage of modern Garhwali dramas initiated by Pundit Bhavani Datt Thapliyal in 1912 and developed by dramatists  Char  Mitra Sukhanko (Pakhu), Vishwmbhar Datt Uniyal(Vasanti, 1932),  Ghana Nand Bahuguna (Samaj), Bhagwati Prasad Panthari (Adh Patan, Bhuton ka Khoh) and Jeet Singh Negi (lyrical drama Bhari Bhool)
   Lalit Mohan Thapliyal wrote ‘Khadu lapata’, Ancheryun Tal’, Ghar jvain and ‘Ekikaran’ etc. however, ‘Khadu lapata is all time favorite Garhwali comedy and satirical social drama. The comedy-satirical play ‘Khadu lapata’ is staged in most of the cities where Garhwalis are in numbers as Delhi, Mumbai, Chandigarh and towns of Garhwal.  As Norwegians are proud of Henrik Ibsen for developing Norwegian dramas, Garhwalis are proud of Lalit Mohan Thapliyal for developing and accelerating modern Garhwali dramas.
 Khadu lapata is one act stage play and is very crispy drama. By watching ‘Khadu lapata’, the audience definitely thinks that drama means that the life walks.
 The story is very simple that suddenly a character Hari Singh’s he goat disappears and Hari Singh comes to Pundit Ji (a Puchher (who tells future) and a doctor too) to know about where the goat gone. Later on two more patients also come to Pundit Ji for medical treatment as they ate goat mutton and got stomach upset. Hari singh suspects those ate goat meat and whose stomach was upset. At the end, Hari Singh comes to know the real culprit and he killed the culprit. A very fine story woven around the subject of misbelieves, the social evils entering into Garhwali village.
  The characterization is superb in the comedy and satirical drama Khadu Lapata. The dialogues of four characters in the one act play are as per the characteristics of character. The playwright used perfect phrases for attacking the social evils and creating humor in the play.
  There is full scope for director to adjust the emotions in the play as his /her need because; the performers can deliver the drama as serious and as hilarious depending upon director’s choice.  This author got chance to watch ‘Khadu Lapata’ staged by a Delhi team and by Mumbai team too.   Surprisingly, the Delhi team (Parashar Gaud etc) projected drama satirical but creating serious atmosphere and Mumbai team making ‘Khadu lapata’ more laud and hilarious performed by  by Dinesh Bhardwaj, Sushil Kukreti and Raman Kukreti .
 There is social message in the drama. However, no preaching is there in the satirical drama. There are opportunities of humor in the satirical drama ‘Khadu lapata, but Lalit Mohan took every care that the humorous dialogues sharpen the attack on social evils.
  The subject and dialogues are from the real life and both the intellectuals and common men enjoy the drama with ease.
  Sushil Kukreti a famous Garhwali drama comedian of Mumbai mentions,” For me, ‘Khadu lapata is a heaven as I performed three characters – Hari singh, Tulsi and Parma  barring Pundit Ji at different time and as for as performing is concerned,  I enjoyed every character of satirical -humorous drama  ‘Khadu lapata’. The best part of this satirical drama ‘Khadu Lapata’  is that the characters are from real life and their dialogues are of daily uses of a common village of Garhwal “
  The great Garhwali dramatist of Mumbai late Dinesh Bhardwaj wrote commentary on the drama,” Khadu lapata was first staged in October 1958 in Delhi. Garhwal Bhartri Mandal and Garhwal Chhatra Sangh staged this satirical, ever green ‘ Khadu lapata’ drama more than eight times in Mumbai and every time, the audience found it  fresh and enjoyable. The satirical drama ‘Khadu Lapata’ is one of the great dramas created in this earth.”
Raman Kukreti a social worker and a Garhwali dramatist of Mumbai states that the satirical drama ‘Khadu lapata’ accelerated Garhwali drama movement in modern time.
Copyright @Bhishm Kukreti Garhwali Drama, Garhwali Plays, Modern Garhwali Dramas, Modern Uttarakhandi Dramas, Modern Time Stage Plays of Uttarakhand to be continued …….

 

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