Author Topic: उत्तराखण्ड की भाषाये: Languages Spoken in Uttrakhand  (Read 22988 times)

Risky Pathak

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The native people of Uttarakhand are generally called either Garhwali or Kumaoni depending on their place of origin in either the Garhwal or Kumaon region.
Colloquially they are also referred to as Pahari meaning "hill person".

Language spoken by native people is termed as "Pahadi" in broader way.

Kumaoni and Garhwali dialects of Central Pahari are spoken in Kumaon and Garhwal region respectively.
Jaunsari and Bhotiya dialects are also spoken by tribal communities in the west and north respectively.
The urban population however converses mostly in Hindi.

 

Risky Pathak

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All Four Languages i.e Kumauni, Garhwali, Bhotia and Jaunsari are under 325 recognised languages of India.

 

Risky Pathak

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Linguistic Lineage for Kumauni:

Indo-European-->Indo-Iranian-->Indo-Aryan-->Pahari-->Kumauni


Linguistic Lineage for Garhwali
Indo-European-->Indo-Iranian-->Indo-Aryan-->Northern zone-->Garhwali



Risky Pathak

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Kumauni


Population 
   2,360,000 in India (1998).


Region     Uttaranchal, Almora, Nainital, Pithoragarh, Bageshwar, Champawat, Udhamsingh Nagar districts; Assam; Bihar; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Nagaland. Central Kumauni is in Almora and northern Nainital, Northeastern Kumauni is in Pithoragarh, Southeastern Kumauni is in Southeastern Nainital, Western Kumauni is west of Almora and Nainital. Also spoken in Nepal.

Alternate names      Kamaoni, Kumaoni, Kumau, Kumawani, Kumgoni, Kumman, Kunayaoni

Dialects    Central Kumauni, Northeastern Kumauni, Southeastern Kumauni, Western Kumauni. People report the eastern dialects to be different. Names sometimes listed for dialects or subgroups are: Askoti, Bhabari of Rampur, Chaugarkhiya, Danpuriya, Gangola, Johari, Khasparjiya, Kumaiya Pachhai, Pashchimi, Phaldakotiya, Kumaoni, Rau-Chaubhaisi, Sirali, Soriyali. Most closely related to Garwhali and Nepali.

Classification    Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Central Pahari

Language use    Used in the home and villages. All ages. The Southeast dialect is reported to be 'sweet'. The Central one is the most accepted. Hindi valued as the language of education and progress. English valued as the gateway to success. Hindi used in towns and markets. Spoken by most men, the few women who have been to school, and school-aged children. Men can converse about common topics, some women only about trade.

Language development    Literacy rate in second language: 58% (73% men, 41% women). Motivation not high. Kumauni script. Poetry. Magazines. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1825–1876.





Risky Pathak

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Garhwali

Population     2,920,000 (2000).

Region    Uttaranchal; Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Dehra Dun, Rudraprayag districts; Himachal Pradesh. Jaunpuri and Ravai in Tehri and Uttarkashi.

Alternate names      Gadhavali, Gadhawala, Gadwahi, Gashwali, Godauli, Gorwali, Gurvali, Pahari Garhwali, Girwali

Dialects    Srinagaria, Tehri (Gangapariya), Badhani, Dessaulya, Lohbya, Majh-Kumaiya, Bhattiani, Nagpuriya, Rathi, Salani (Pauri), Ravai, Bangani, Parvati, Jaunpuri, Gangadi (Uttarkashi), Chandpuri. Kumauni is closest language; Jaunsari is sometimes referred to as a dialect of Garhwali, but most say they can't understand it. Parvati also reportedly not intelligible. Bangani more similar to Pahari dialects of Himachal. Srinagari is the literary standard. Pauri generally regarded as the 'sweetest'. Srinagari and Pauri are very similar. Lexical similarity is 53 to 84% among dialects; 54 to 69% with Hindi, 55 to 66% with Kumauni.

Classification    Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Garhwali
Language use    Vigorous. Home and village domains. All ages. Positive language attitude. Almost everyone speaks some Hindi. Men, educated, and the youth are more fluent. Hindi used in market.

Language development    Literacy rate in first language: 30% to 60%. Literacy rate in second language: 61.4%; female 45%, male 78% (1991 census). Village censuses from 2000 survey show the literacy rate has risen 12 to 18%. Literacy needed for older women. Uttaranchal becoming a state may have a positive influence on first-language literacy and use in the school system. Devanagari script. Poetry. Magazines. Radio programs. NT: 1827–1994.




Risky Pathak

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Kumaoni language has had many note worthy writers, prominent among them are

    * Shailesh Matiyani (1931-2001)
    * Mohan Upreti (1925-1997)
    * Himanshu Joshi

Risky Pathak

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http://www.merapahad.com/forum/index.php?topic=10.0

Here we have collected a list of Kumauni and Garhwali words.

Risky Pathak

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Dialects of Uttarakhand

    Flow of language changes every few miles. The dialect even has lesser range. In Uttarakhand, although a great fusion of dialects has taken place and mainly two dialects – Kumaoni and Gadwali are left yet in olden days, there were a number of local dialects apart from those evolved with fusion of local with outsiders. Such dialects are those of Tharu’s, Boksha’s with Ruhelkhadi language (mainly spoken in Bareli area) Gorkhali (Mix of nepali and kumaoni and Gadwali) etc. Here are some dialects which were spoken in Uttarakhand state.

   1. Hindi
   2. Almodiya kumaoni
   3. Kali Kumaon’s dialect
   4. Kumaoni spoken in Shor area
   5. Pali Pachhau’s Kumaoni
   6. Kumaoni spoken in Danpur
   7. Gargwali spoken in Srinagar area
   8. Garhwali spoken in Tehri area
   9. Lohba Garhwal’s Dialect
  10. Johar (Bhotiya) dialect
  11. Gorkhali
  12. Dotyali
  13. Tharu
  14. Boksha
  15. Dialect of Bhabar


Source: http://www.uttaranchal.org.uk/dialects.php
 

Devbhoomi,Uttarakhand

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DOSTON EK BHASHA OR BHI HAI OR WO HAI JAUNSAARI,UTTARANCHAL KE KUCHH BHAG AAJ AISE HAIN JAHAN JAUNSAARI BHASHA BOLI JAATI HAI,

Bhishma Kukreti

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I think much new research is required for knowing tens of dialect in Garhwali and Kumauni