Author Topic: Satire on various Social Issues - सामाजिक एवं विकास के मुद्दे और हास्य व्यंग्य  (Read 94852 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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                 Garhwali Poetry tour through   Dhanga se Sakshatkar 
     (A review of poetry collection of Netra Singh Aswal By Rajendra Dhashmana)
                                                       Translation : Bhishma Kukreti
( Dhanga se saxatkar a Garhwali language poetry collection of Netra Singh Aswal is one of the mile stones in Garhwali poetry world . The author wanted to write review on this poetry collection and when he read the commentary of Rajendra Dhashmana , the translator felt that it is the best for Garhwali language that the author (translator ) translates the review of Rajendra Dhashmana. This author never saw such intelligent and precise commentary in Garhwali language as Rajendra Dhashmana did. When this author met Rajendra Dhashmana in Mumbai , he told Rajendra Dhashmana that social works of Dhashmana snatched a remarkable creative and critic from Garhwali language. You will also vouch the author that had Rajendra been in Garhwali literature than social works he would have given marvelous literature to Garhwali language)
               Garhwalis started creating modern poetry from around 1850. Later on, inspired by Hindi movement , Garhwali creative created poetries on the line of Hindi poetries. The Garhwali poets used all the poetic styles and figure of speech of Sanskrit and Hindi . Usually, Garhwali verse creator who worked more  on the form of poetry, was called great poet of his time.
           The above situation remains for many decades. It is also found   that barring a couple of Garhwali words, the words were of Hindi. This situation of copying style, form, wordings, figure of speeches from Hindi and Sanskrit was never found in Garhwali folk songs or lore or rarely established. Garhwali folk songs and lore were original in form, style and subject. Copying form, style, poetic styles from outside, the Garhwali poems could not get originality nor could attract the readers due to lacking of Garhwalism or  Garhwali taste.
As said before, Garhwali poets started trying creating Garhwali poetry in vese form from 1850, we may enjoy the verses of Chandramohan Raturi in his collections of poetry “Devva’ and ‘Virah vasant Vilap” published in the beginning of twentieth century. Taradutt Gairola says that Raturi is Keats of  Garhwali poetry .
(However, here, Bhishma Kukreti blames Chandra Mohan Raturi for diluting Garhwali language by Hindi words and making Garhwali literature the slave of Hindi and Sanskrit. The titles of His poetry collection Devvan and Virah Vasant Vilap are no where of Garhwali words.) . Pundit Satysharan Raturi and Atmaran Gairola were also top most Garhwali poets of that time. These poets criticized unwanted social customs , selfishness, and poverty. Poems as ‘Suryodya’, ‘Betuli’, and Panchhi -Panchak’ of  Atmaram Gairola were very popular poems of his time. Since, these versifiers were well  acquainted  with Sanskrit , English and Hindi, their way of versification was same as the poets of these languages.
  However, the subject of struggle in life of common man  is missing in the poems of this era. Read the examples of a couple of poems of that initial time of modern Garhwali poetry:
Savinay ‘gadhwali’ ya chh vinti hamari
Nij nij tum apno swarth yaro sambhalo
Vipul dhan kamala pas dig run ka leva
Unnati tab chha sara desh ki hun wali
                        ---Atmaram Gairola
Swadesh ka hetu videsh java
Vidya nayi jo sabi seekhi ava
      --------------Devendra Dutt Raturi
Let us pay attention on the verses of Gairola
Naunyal pyara chhan jo tumara
Sada vichara ar murkh bhair
Bhuka pyasa maila kuchaila
Kulli! Pahadi !firdan desu
 The poet was more bothered about knowledge gaining for   English and earning money. For that matter, if people go foreign country , the poet does not have any opposition.
No poets of that era did not think about the medium of education and earning should be in rural Garhwal.
  However, today’s poets are more vociferous and effective for the same matter:
Mi vides jan de tu
Chain gaffa kahn de tu
Kuchh kamai lhan de tu     
                  Fir Jhumailo jaj
Logun ka bhand mathaili
Par lagal jel jaili
Thokryon man din bitaili
                          Tu vides ni ja
Raunla raunla dagdi raunla
Rukho sukho jan bhi kahunla
Jhumka todla geet gaula
-----------Kankal from Phur Ghindudi
Iyun dandyun bati/gaul gauli
Baug/baugi saub undu janu chha
Tai roka
Na ho tab/kai din
Ham sab gaul jan /ham bi baug jan
   -------------Lalit Keshwan
Up to, certain extent, most of the poets of older generation (before independence) performed their role as “Master Ji ‘(preacher or teacher). These poets took the responsibilities for teaching/preaching -“what to do, when to do, what not to do, how to become gentleman , what are better things, , how to create poetry ….”. These teacher a could not recognize the reality of their time. Atmaram Gairola commented adversely on  freedom movement  thinking that the rule of Tihri Maharaj is as Swaraj :
Swaraj vasta chhan jan mal
Nyochhawar karna roana chillana
Kapali fodna pai ni sakana
Syo raj hamku chha milun milayun
Let be there attention on Gairola ji’s these lines, wherein he praises English Raj:
Garhwal ka tu hitkarni chai
Teri kripa se such chain sabku
         Leeladutt Kotnala wrote a poem  praising Lord  Ripen :
Bharat ka tol sab bharat ka tol
He lat ripan tero raige bol
Bharat badhai sab bharat badhai
Jab bati ai sab gharu gharu gyai
  The poets of Tihri Raj-Bhakt or devoted to British rule wrote the chivalry poems praising soldiers not for the benefits of Garhwal, Garhwali or Garhwalism but with an intention that Garhwalis would choose British armed forces.
  From this point, the poems of next generation were more sophisticated and with fantasy. The poems ‘Sadei’ of Tardutt Gairola, ‘Paun Tu’ of Yogendra Puri, ‘Dundo’ of Chakradhar Bahuguna and Beera of Jeetsingh Negi are the heritage of Garhwali poetry.
The poems ‘kakh holi meri dnadi va kanthi’of Shridhar dobhal and ‘Rami Baurani’ of Baldev Prasad bamsu’Deen’ became very popular.
  Bhajan Singh ‘Singh’ is important signature in Garhwali poetry world but he never could digest the change in structural forms happening Garhwali poetry. No doubt, Bhajan Singh ‘Singh’ played a great role in cultural awrness in Garhwali society. Though, his couplets (Doha) are of old style and form but they prooved to be very sharp in criticizing ‘poverty’, ‘bad customs’, and bias. Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna also has same capacity and style as of Bhajan Singh ‘Singh’ (This is written about earlier work of Bahuguna) .
  From late eighties and early nineties , many poetry collections were published but there have not been any significant evolution in Garhwali poetry. Definitely, a couple of poets tries to connect their verses with the  time. There is satire and strength from language angle in the poems of Kanhaya Lal Dandariyal but he lacks strong identity because of his using dual language (Hindi and Garhwali)
     Vinod Uniyal and Netra Singh Aswal are trying to pay attention on temperament and disposition in the poems than the structure and form or decorative poetry creation.  In past, there have been many trials for changing the for and style.
 Let us talk on the poetry collection of Netra Singh Aswal:
Though, each person feels perplexed  after many thoughts emerging in mind. However, there are few who can reach to the root cause of disorder or hassles. There are people could be counted on fingers who feel restlessness for the thought of worry . The poet is a gene  who feels restlessness for  mishappening  and his emotions comes out from mind in the form of poetry. In fact, creation of poetry is fight against those  powers who are busy in weakening the humanity. Those powers are trying to convert humanity into commodity for market or bazaar. Netra Singh tells about what is poem:
Hwa at in hwa -
Jyanl bagat pun par
Tudai saka-mankhya-bagha dant
Netra Singh becomes frustrated on coy cats who don’t find new ways or don’t fight for their rights:
Namesake un khuni
Ju vote denai chhan-deendai jana chhan
Phir kapali par hath lagai phatt phatt
Hyali gadi gadik
Loktantra khuni runa chhan
Aswal tries to change the path of Garhwali poetry in second  part of this collection. In these poems his virility and splendor is clearly visible:
Hamari chari taraf
 lagni rai aag 
Ar ham tahin sunana rain-swala bhwada ka geet
                                          Dhungla pakanau khikchat
Ham mundane raun
Ar hamar kandud putak kuchyana rain
                                  Shudh hunai mantar
 We may find sharp satire in his poems written on conventional style    in first part of this collection. The style, subject and  tone are capable to awaken the readers. ‘Nirgut chhaun’    chhwwara, ma, poems have dreadfully prickly lampoon. In my opinion the poem should be aimed on a conference than non-alignment principle of India because non-alignment is our foreign policy.   No body criticized our foreign policy of non alignment . Jikudi ma jamghat is also very powerful poem of awakening the readers and disturbing them.
Gazals.  from   the point of views of vajan, kafia, radif   are satisfactory but still, a few  gazals are nearer to   geet and najam     . In Garhwali, we should call Gazal as Ganjeli ( pestle ) because  Gazal also hit by last stanza as last part of pestle.   
‘namesake‘, myara desai tasveer, govind hun chhaun, kranti ar ek dhanga se saxatkar  poems are very sharp, capable of hitting the mischievousness.   
These poems are attractive and enjoyable   
Ek Dhanga Se Saxatkar
 By
Netra Singh Aswal
Publisher:
Gadhbharti
New delhi
Year of publication-1988       



Bhishma Kukreti

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Satiric  Garhwali , Poetry Collection
                  Khilda Phool Hansda Pat: A Signature in Garhwali Poetry History
                                             Bhishma Kukreti
     
When Carl Sandburg  said , “Poetry is a shuffling of boxes of illusions buckled with a strap of facts.” , as if he  read Lalit Keshvan who takes on the path of fantasy but shows us the reality on the surroundings too. Keshvan .
 Lalit Keshwan is among  Trimurty (Three greats) poets -Kanhayalal Dandriyal , Lalit Keshwan and Jayanand Khuksal who transformed the Garhwali poetry into a real modern poetry. Keshwan and two others initiated for changing the form, emotional expressions, manifestations, of Garhwali poetries and tried to make Garhwali poetry competent enough to stand with other languages poems of  world . In other words, Khuksal, Dandriyal and Keshwan initiated to  bring contemporariness in Garhwali poetries in terms of form, realism, expressional aspects, experiencing, providing scope to readers or creating close relationship with the readers rather preaching the readers as their predecessors used to do , new and existing experimentations, uses of existing symbols and images into new patterns.
The Garhwali language critics as Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Rajendra Dhashmana, Parashar Gaud, Prem Lal Bhatt, Shivanand Nautiyal, Bhajan Singh Singh, Shambhu Prasad Augean , Bhagwati Prasad Bahuguna and other praised Lalit Keshwan for narrating the reality of rural Garhwal and Garhwalis with transparency , effectively. The readers can  experience easily the pain, pleasure, detachment of rural Himalayas in the poems of Keshwan.
    The poetry collection ‘ Hansda Pat Khilda Phool’ is the true representation of what Keshwan created in Garhwali language and will also show the reasons behind big demand for Lalit Keshwan to read his poetries in Kavi Sammelans (conferences for reading poetries) . There are thirty three poems in this collection and each verse is capable to be an International standard poem.
Phass class ho: The poem Phass class ho of Keshwan reminds the lines of famous satiric poem created by satirist Ezra Pound. Ezra writes :
O GOD, O Venus, O Mercury, patron of thieves,
Give me in due time, I beseech you, a little tobacco-shop,
With the little bright boxes
piled up neatly upon the shelves
 The modern civilization in India bringing new desire for having wife a smart, wise, beautiful and  the same time the link and characteristics of orthodox culture  too . Lalit Keshwan attack on those paradoxical desires to have two magnet poles together in Phas Class ho
 Color kwee bhi ho
Par swee swee na ho
Size medium ho
Par chal freedom na ho
Keshwan experimented mixing English with Garhwali and became successful in creating  Dhabadi kavita ( poem of dual languages)
Andi si ta : This poem is all about dream of an average migrated Garhwali for accomplishments of life. However,  Keshwan did not narrate the subject directly but he used metaphoric way in this poem and shocked the readers when he disclosed the reality of wishes for winning the Delhi state lottery. Lalt is successful in  showing  the similarity between beloved lover with winning a lottery.
Tyara nam par
Kholu dyaulu
Agarbatti factory
Aandi see t
D chuchi
Dilli ki lottery
Limba : The philosophical lines are those , which are interpreted differently by different analyzers. That is why the subject of philosophy is still a mystery. Take the example of Shrimad Bhagwat Geeta. Shankar was first scholar who interpreted Geeta  and till date, hundred of scholars interpreted Geeta with their own views. Even one western scholar could interpreted the homo*ual relation between  Krishna and Arjun from the narration of Geeta  As Gosvami (2005) analyzed homo*uality differently  from Mahabharata ‘s stories .
   Different readers will interpret the poem Limba (Lamon) differently. Philosophically, the readers may understand the poem as preaching that the day dreaming will not fetch you ascending results :
Poru
Veen
Supnyun ma
Kaiki
narangee twaidine
Ainsu
Jaika limbu tode
The literal meaning is as :
Last year, She stole   Oranges , in Dream
This  year, She stole Lemons, in Dream
However, other meaning is that  since, last year she saw positive dreams (sweetness-oranges and blessing of  Pundits in the form of  oranges in dream)  , she   is  pregnant . The  symbolic word Limba (lemon ) in this poem is also related to pregnant woman eating lemon pieces.
       A reader may also read between the lines that it is very simple that  dreams are just dreams. A few readers may infer that the wishes even in dream do not die but take newer and newer shapes. The poet is successful using subconscious mental activity by Garhwalis. Garhwalis have many symbols and their interpretation of dream out of those symbols and Keshwan created perfect poem related to reading the dream by Garhwalis .
  That is the beauty of Keshwan for creating such poems, which compel readers or audience for thinking or making many judgments out of a poem.
He meri bwe kan mori ge chhe mi: The poem is about an accident took place and how the victim suffers traumas, pains , frustrations etc physically and mentally .In low number of words, Lalit Keshwan also showed the anxiety of sufferer about the worst conditions of his family members  in case the wounded would have died at the spot. Lalit Keshwan could portrayed  the physical- mental pain, ache, hurt, fear, trepidation , horror,  twinge, throbbing  with tendered, touchy and emotional words as Jessica Zombiee (Ref-2) narrated accident and its effects on the wounded in the Crash poem and Teller (ref-3) .  The readers will definitely feel the chills of accident recited By Keshwan is this  He meri bwe kan mori ge chhe mi poem as successfully as Teller (ref:3) could revealed the chills, horror of reaching nearest to death in her poem The Final Act.
Ratyun main jab nind nee Aund: In Mahabharata, Vidur says to Dhritrashtra that one of the biggest pains in life is to be in debts and inability to return the debt in time. The ‘Ratyun main jab neend ni aund ‘ poem of Keshwan is about passing the sleepless night in the emotions of  worries, regret , pain of inability , sorrow , frustration for not completing the difficult most task, embarrassment, labor in trying to get sound sleep etc. Keshwan has been successful in creating emotions of sleeplessness nights and readers may feel those agonizes, throbbing, repentant , disturbances, irritations, discomfitures arise because of debts , which could not be returned. 
Ratyun ma jab nind ni aund
Haudu-haudu farki farki uthwapodi see honi round
…….
Jaun man lhe chhau , yunku diye nee
Ya bharman bi pwadi siye nee
Jithaa jee :  jitha ji   poem  is a poem which expresses many meanings to this author and same way readers will conclude different meanings according to their imagination.
The poem is as----
He didi
Jitha jau
Kyanko  path ch ibari

Bhai didi
Vut ladies ma ji
Lagda chha achha
The meaning of poem is as :

Hey elder sister!
Elder brother in law (your husband and my husband‘s elder brother) ---
What is his part  (in Drama)?
Listen younger sister  !
He told , this year, he will  perform the role of Dashrath (in Ramleela)
And children will play the roles of females
O ! elder sister---
He is better in  female roles
The poem looks very simple that a person used to play part of females in Ramayan drama. This year, he is supposed to play the role of Dashrath that is role of male. However, his younger brother’s wife appreciates him playing the roles of females than playing the role of male. But the poem is not so simple as it looks from the surface. Jtha ji is somehow also indicating illicit relation between  the person and his younger brother’s wife and the younger brother’s wife is not satisfied with the manhood of her husband’s elder brother. That is why she says that Jitha Ji  (husband’s elder brother) fits in the role of females and not on role of males.
    Indirectly, Keshwan is also indicating traits of lesbianism among females for their liking female characters played by males in the stage drama.

Pani ! :  Keshwan has created poems for children too. Therefore, Lalit  knows the psychology of children and is well versed with the curiosity of children, the unanswerable questions to elders by children. And the irritation of elders from the questions raised by innocent children. Ann Skea  (2000) , while reviewing a world famous poet  Ted Hughes, who created poetry for children wrote, “Ted Hughes  learned that children’s  world "is not just a miniature world of naive novelties and limited reality" but a world where there is still much to be explored. And Ted Hughes  gained knowledge  that children discover the world with curiosity, perception, a keenness to modify and "a no-holds-barred approach to problems" which mature people, mostly, have lost.”.  Same way, the poem Pani witnesses  that Lalit Keshwan has knowledge about children discovering the world and the children want to change this world from their angles. Keshwan does not treat children as miniature adults but innocent discoverer of this galaxy.
  Lalit Keshwan , successfully could show the innocent but logical curiosity of children about the ratio of water that is there is two third water and one third land in this earth. However a question by a child is always unanswerable for a  common man that what is the destiny of water which came in this earth.
Chala , aunu bhi holu
T janu kakh holu
Pandit ji you ithga panee?
Badi Jhangora khai-khai ki : There has been regular talk that Garhwali language is in danger or may extinct by end of this century (Bhishma Kukreti, 2008-9). UNESKO, SIL Organization, Michel E Kraus, S.Tapani, Mark Abley, Lyle Campbell, Nicholas Evan, K.David Harrison,  Patric McConvell, T Nicholas, Marianne Mithun, T Sebeok, Kangas, Skutnabb, William Shetter,  Tasaku Tsunoda, and many more researchers, social activists showed their grieve concern over endangering of languages from the globe. A report of UNESC says that 192 Indian languages and 2500 our of 6500 language of the world will diminish very soon.
  The true poetry is the reflection of the contemporary society. Lalit Keshwan  showed his concern over the worsening position of Garhwali language in 1982, when there was less talk about endangering of hundred of languages. Badi Jhangora khaiki-khaiki ki is the example of senility of Keshwan for social issues. He cautioned all Garhwalis that the language is walking to extinction because its speakers are leaving speaking in Garhwali.
Apni pani boli mna
Apni apni bhasha man
Sabi rvaine, sabbi hansnai
Ham mand pe peki, badi jahngora khaiki ki
Na hansi sakna chha na roi sakna chhan
  In  his introductory note of this collection, Prem lal Bhatt interprets this poem that the poem Badi jhangora …shows the hassles of Garhwal .
Dam: There have been corruption, misuses of public money and authorities, carelessness among government staff for public utility works, no serious concern for durable building or water reservoirs among politicians and government work force, It is common fact everywhere in India that the dams are built this year and these dams can not sustain water pressure next year. Keshwan explained such painful status of developmental works or public works in India in only twelve words .This poem shows the vocabulary power of Keshwan and he used figure of speech to express his views in lowest possible words. If profound Urdu story writer Manto is the craftsman of story telling in least words, in Garhwali poetry world, Keshwan is an expert of using minimum possible words to tell the volumes of story as :
Poru parar
Sune
Bal banige dam
Aiswa basgyal
Sune
Bal pwadige ‘dam’
The meaning of the poem is
Year before,
Built the Dam
This year,
The Rain
Collapses the Dam
A grave penalty for us !
Dam poem shows the high sensitivity, awareness, concern , care, worries of Keshwan for bad happening in the society. Dam is one of the best created satiric poems of Garhwali language. In Garhwali language “Dam’ means to brand or burn by read hot ion rod and another meaning of ‘Dam’ word is used as punishment. Keshwan used  the word ’Dam’ for water reservoir and grave penalty as well. This poem proves  that words are slaves of Keshwan .
Ghunda Hilai:   From the early time of civilization, human beings are  busy in discussing and trying to conclude about which is important the luck or the action and till date , there is conclusion. The poets and philosopher also created literature about luck and the importance of industriousness in becoming achievers. An American poet, Dickson (1955) created a poetry as :
Luck is not chance-
Its Toil -
Fortune’s expensive smile
Is earned
The Father of Mines
Lalit Keshwan supports that apart from depending on the luck or superstitious acts  the human beings should rely on industriousness  in his famous poetry Ghunda Hilai.
 At the end of poem, he says :
Par han
Kakhi tu
Yankai bharwasu na rai
Jara
Apna bi ghund hilai
The meaning of above verse is :
But, (For getting child)
Wholly,
Don’t depend on hocus-pocus
Shake your knees too
   Ghund Hilai , poem is one of the most heard and talked poems of Keshwan.
Apart from humorously preaching, the poet is successful for providing space to the readers for imagining the *ual intercourse . Keshwan, Kanhayalal  Dandriyal have been successful  , in providing the space and scope to the readers that they expand the poem themselves. This is one of the reasons that Dandriyal and Keshwan are called the heroes of neo-modern Garhwali poetry.
Gwair Chhwara: Gwair chhwara is a satiric and humorous poem  and shows the escapism among Garhwalis for education and   struggle for more civilized condtions. The world’s one of the best story tellers Prem Chand also narrates a condition in the story Kafan that when society witnesses that when struggle and industriousness do not fetch the results the society adopts the path of escapism. In this poem , In poem -Gwair Chhawar, Keshwan describes the cause of escapism in the society with wit and humour 
……….
Chwara bachyun ralo
T gor charalo
………..
If son is alive
At least
He can survive as shepherd
Naren cha :  If birth is a truth, the death is also a truth, as Benjamin Franklin says in his one poem, “ But death is sure all he (death god) can get”.  It is just not possible that the poems on the death phenomenon, orally or in written form, is not created in any language, Every poet has different experiences and unlike objectives for creating poetry on the subject of death. Poets as G K Chesterton, Ella Wilcox,  Herbert Trench, Arthur Conan Doyle, Anne Finch,  William Blake, Aleister Crowley, Walter de la Mare, John Dryden, R.L Stevenson,  Sir Walter Scott, P.B . Shelly, and many more  created poetries on death and each poet wrote differently with varied purposes. The top most  notable  French renaissance poet Pierre de Ronsard ,  also wrote poetry  about death .We may find many poems related to death written by European poets in Sonnets of Love and Death (European Poetry Classics) (Paperback), (Author: Jean De Sponde and translated by David R. Slavitt) .
               Garhwali language literature is also rich about the poems about death. However, most of the poets as Sushil Chandra or Jaggu Nautiyal .There is extreme pathos in the death related poems of Naudiyal or Sushil Chandra  . The poem  Naren Cha in this volume of Keshwan is about death. However, Keshwan described death as philosophical happening. In the Narain cha poem, Keshwan depicts a cheerful, mockery expert, helpful, agile, amicable, playful character who died suddenly and without any pain. This poem again clears scope and space for finding the questions of causes of death and becoming sad themselves too. Lalit Keshwan does not create any sad scene in the poem but leaves everything on the audience for becoming dejected or sad . This is a specialty of Keshwan to describing serious subject in light version without let loosing the seriousness of centre axis of the poem.
Rotya ban :  Hunger, poverty, sleep without taking food had been the reality all over world. The poets of all languages depicted hungry people, hungry children in their poems.
 For example, famous Irish poets as  John O’ Hagan, James Tighe, Jane Francesca Wilde (Mother of Oscar Wilde). Amelia Branford  (Ref-7)created fine and memorable poetries related to hunger, famine and they all became successful to attract the attention of the audience.
    Rotya ban poem by Keshwan is of international standar and is also very memorable poem about the hunger of child and sleep without food by whole family. The specialty of ‘Rotya ban ’  poem is that Keshwan humanized  the whole room, wall, earthen oven, vessels to  weep on the weeping of a child’s hunger because parents do not have anything to feed the child.
Vai dekhik
Sairo bhitar rwai
Bihtaro pali rwain
Chauka rwai, chula rwai
Patgaband:  Patkaband means to stop or to close.  This poem is all about population control. However, Keshwan did not provide any preaching but in light mood, humorous way, he , successfully, could impress about the importance of small family . This is the difference between Keshwan and old Garhwali poets as Chandra Mohan Raturi, Mahant Giri, Rudola etc is that old genres preach/teach  directly but Keshwan say the same subject in humour and light version.
Mangan: ‘Mangan’  means engagement. Keshwan describes the Garhwali engagement ceremony as it is happening before you . However, the best part of this poem is the ending stanzas, which portray the uniqueness of Garhwali community. Garhwalis have an uniqueness about relationship between Jeeja-Sali and Samdhee Samdhan (father of son/daughter and mother in law of son/daughter.) .
Poet describes:
Yan se badi bat kya hon
Jab samdani n ithga boli de
Ki tum nauna ka pita ji chha
Bada chha
Janni meri sundri ka pita ji chhan
Tanni tum bi chha
This author positions the poem ‘Mangan’ with the status of famous Garhwali poem ‘Satyanarayan brath katha’ by Kanhayalal Dandriyal.
Bhair Gadaa: According to famous Garhwali poet and critic Prem Lal Bhatt , the poem ‘Bhair gadda’ is a humorous and satire verse. There is no disagreement on the note of Bhatt. However, the poem is fine example of poetry with humour, satire and realism too. A person may be world famous person but he requires honor, respect at his own family too. The poem is about perusing wife for recognizing her husband’s greatness at outside world.
Umrausingh Bada : Aging is an universal truth and world famous  poets as William Shakespeare,
Donald Hall, William Butler Yeats, Jenny Joseph, Lu Yu, David Wright, William Carlos Williams,  Lord Alfred Tennyson, Dylan Thomas, Reznikoff, Czeslaw Milosz, Thomas Stanley,   R. Ammons, Robert Creely, R W Emerson, Julia Kaddorf, Henry W Longfellow, S. Kunitz, Thomas hardy and many more wrote about aging . Each great poet portrays aging from her/his own angle and created superb poetry. Laly Keshwan is not behind for creating the marvelous poetry on aging and his poetry is an emotional poetry with difference that the person became old not by age but by migrating or displacing his own motherland.
Sabbi goal:  The dowry has been an evilest custom in Indian subcontinent and in other regions of the world. Tamil poetess , Vaaransi Banumuty  Rao (2002) writes, “Dowry is the social evil in INDIA. Thousands of young brides, women are dying and committing suicides everyday.” . Poets of all Indian languages wrote against Dowry as Tamil poet Vaaransi Banumuty Rao (2002) and  Saliha Rashid (Ref-10) etc wrote fine poetry against dowry, Lalit Keshwan also attacked  dowry but with his own style in humorous and with sharp satiric words. The poem Sabbi Goal of Keshwan  makes you laughing but wounds you by the net result of dowry custom.
Chhain ch Kuchh: When the nation or society faces the political or government author’s corruption at each level, the sensitive poet can not resist creating criticizing corruption through their poetries. As Japanese poet Ishikava  Takboku   , Korean poet Pak Tujin, John Gey,   or Indian poet Naunihal Singh of English language created poetries against political/authorities corruptions, Keshvan also wrote many poems against the corruption . Chhain ch kuchh is a poetry about corruption in police department. As usual, Keshwan dealt police corruption with wit, absurdity, hilarity, and criticizes the system which brings corruption at the lowest level in Chhain cha Kuchh  poem.
Bhukha petan, nanga gatan:  It is a fact of matter that in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America , many poets created poetries about hungry children, children without clothing in hard winter. The author have already provided the example of best poems related to hunger or famine from Irish poets. All the referred poems and the poem ‘I had been hungry all the years ‘ by  Emily Dickinson  (Ref-11) . All the referred poems are touchy and have pathos rapture or emotion. The poem of Keshwan ‘Bhukha…’  is also touchy but with difference. Keshwan  brought here a specific culture of Garhwal that is hantya. In this poem, the dead parents or their souls watching the hungry and naked children. The souls are experiencing the pain of children. This innovative  type of narration in the poem makes Keshwan exclusive or different from all poets of the world who wrote poetries on hunger and pain of hunger.
Lalangi Gaudi: From the surface ‘ Lalngi Gaudi seems to be a humorous poem wherein a myopic visionary person perceives a woman as a cow and describes the cow , which also fits with the description of the woman too. However, if the readers study the poem carefully and understand the wordings the poet attacks on the way we make wrong perception about anybody. English poet Jones Faye (Ref-12) also says the same thing that :

There is many a time
You seem to read my mind.
But in the end
You can't know what I intend.
Your view of my actions
Are clouded by your past attachments.
But Keshwan says this matter of perception with hilarious way and with lot of Garhwali symbols too. That is why Keshwan becomes a one of the world class poets in the world poetry world.
Matai Goli:  Child abuse, child beating by adults is a social crime but this crime is happening every second in every society. The child abuse leaves a psychological wound  in the mind of child and this scare  is dangerous for the natural growth of a child. The sensitive poets as Misty Nicole Ramsey (2009), Kyara Lee (2006) , Pamela (ref-15) created very fine pieces of poetries and these poetries are enough to disturb the readers about the consequences of child abuse. ‘Matai goli’ poem by Keshvan is also fine piece of poem about child abuse and proves that Keshvan is also authority on writing on the subject of subconscious mind .
 The other poems in this volumes are also likable by Garhwali readers but those are meant to entertain and there is very little for compelling  the readers for thinking or there is less scope and space for the readers to expand the poetry further , which is specialty of Keshvan.
 Keshvan broke the conventional path of Garhwali poem running from 1850 or so in many terms. Structurally, he totally transformed the structure of conventional poetic form that is Doha, Chaupaya etc.  he is one of he Garhwali poets who brought realism and experiencing aspects. Keshwan proved by this volume of poems that he is the master of fine blending satire, humour and realism together that attract the readers and at the same time, readers are compelled to think about the subject too. His one specialty is that the readers start expanding poem further by their own too . Keshwan also used the scope and utility of describing subconscious mind in Garhwali poems.
  He used the symbols and imagery in the poems which make his poems simple and understandable easily or by symbols and imagery, the readers feel the poems are created for them from their own life.
  Whenever, necessary, Keshwan used Hindi , Urdu and English words to enhance the readability of poems. Keshwan never backs from doing beneficial experiments and does not do experiments for the sake of experiments only.
 Keshwan also narrates his experiences easily that readers are hooked to the poems.
  Lalit Keshwan has the same place in Garhwali poetry world as W.H. Auden, T.S. Elliot, Robert Frost, James Joyce, Robert Lowell, Marianne Moore, Ezra Pound, Wallace Stevens, William Carlos Williams, William Butler Yeats in English;   Baudelaire, Hugo,  Lamartine, Mallarme, Rimbaud,  Verlaine ,  John Perse, Paul Claudel of French language; Xu Xhimo, Guo Moruo  and  Wen Yiduo who broke  Chinese poetry from past conventions; Masaoka Shiko who brought modernism in Japanese language poetry; Vicente Aleixandre,  Antonio Machado, Federico Garcia Lorca, Jorge Guillen in Spanish poetic field; and  Umberto Saba,  Eugenio Montale and Giuseppe Ungaretti of Italy  have places in their respective languages.

 Khilda Phool Hansda Pat’ is one of the mile stones of Garhwali poetry world.





References:
1-  Gosvami, Hridayananda Das ,  February 2005, Vaisnava Moral Theology and Homo*uality,
http://namahatta.org/en/node/1234
2- Jessica Zombiee , Crash,
http://allpoetry.com/poem/5386653 (Accessed d on 20th September, 2009)
3-Teller, Lisa , The final Act,
http://www.netpoets.com/poems/sad/0028006.htm (Accessed  on 21st September, 2009)
4- Skea, Ann, 2000, TITLE: Ted Hughes: Collected Poems for Children
http://ann.skea.com/THCPC.htm (Accessed on25th September, 2009)
5-Kukreti, Bhishma , 2008-9, Ava Garhwali bhasha tain Moran s e bachava, Shailvani, Kotdwara, India,
6-Dickson, Emily ,1955,  Luck is not chance , The 1350th poem of  Complete Poems of Emily Dickson.
7- http://www.nde.state.ne.us/SS/irish/unit_7.html (Accessed on 26th Sept, 2009)
8-Poems about Aging
http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/5877 (Accessed on 27th September, 2009
9- Rao, Vaaransi Banumuty, Dowry, July, 7, 2002
http://www.authorsden.com/visit/viewPoetry.asp?id=19683 (Accessed on 21st September, 2009)
10- Saliha Rashid, The Curse of Dowry,
http://sachet.org.pk/home/fad/poems_dowry_01.asp
11- Dickson, Emily, All the referred poems andhttp://www.familyfriendpoems.com/sad/poetry.asp?poem=18656 the poem ‘I had been hungry all the years’ http://www.poetry-online.org/dickinson_i_had_been_hungry.htm
12-Jones, Faye , Perception,
http://www.netpoets.com/poems/life/0068016.htm
13-Ley, Kyara, Speechless, 2006,
14-     Misty, Ramsey, Misty,
http://ashmash.glogster.com/misty/?offset=6
15- Prentiss , Palmela,  ‘There is no peace”
http://www.dayofthechild.org/dc98/poems.htm
Copyright @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India 2009





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Satire, wit and humour in Himalayan literature

Mero Bwada : Sharp and Witty Satirical poems by Puran Pant Pathik’
                          Bhishma Kukreti
          The poetry  lovers , literature historians, critics  remember French poets Voltaire , Rute Beuf; German poet Wilhelm Busch; Italian poet Pietro Aritino, Salvator Rosa, Giambattista Marino ;  English satirists Pope, Johnson, Donne, Dryden, Rochester;  Sassoon, Owen Blunden Graves, Frost, Cummings, Robinson, Jeffers.Japanes poet Yokoi Kinkoku ; or Thomas Shadewell, John Dryden, , Caribbean poets as Johan Wilmot, Ralph Thomson , Grace Nicholas, Louise Bennett ,  John Agard for their creation of witty, satirical poems ; Garhwalis appreciate  the satirical poems of Puran Pant ‘ Pathik’.
  The poet , Garhwali film activist, editor and critic Madan Duklan said to this author that , Mero Bwada’ ( published in 1989) has a significant role in Garhwali poetry movement as the poetries in this volume were of satiric nature . Madan says that prior to Mero Bwada , Tidka by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna and Hansada Pat Khilda phool by Lalit Keshwan were such type of collections.
    In one interview with Bhishma Kukreti, Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna said that  Garhwalis are hard workers because of the geographical  nature and  to balance the hurdles and strugl in day to day life, Garhwalis lean to bear those hardships by creating humorous and satirical proverbs, folk poems, folk songs, folk stories  and sayings. However, in modern poetries Lalit Keshwan, Kanhya lal Dandriyal , Baulya, Netra Singh Aswal , Vinod Uniyal and Puran Pant are credited to initiate required  importance to satirical poems in modern Garhwali literature.
   Mero Bwada (my father’s elder brother) is one of the acclaimed collection of satirical poems in Garhwali before ninety.
  By nature, Purn Pant is straight forward in saying the matter as he feels. This nature of sharp comments are clearly visible in his poems in Mero Bwada .
  There are thirty six poems in this volume Mero Bwada and all poems are gem of satire. The poems shows the visible commentary on social, political, cultural, administrative , religious circles of contemporary Garhwal. Shiva kumar Badola says that these poems are of mixing realism, humour and satire and that blending expertise makes Puran Pant ‘Pathik’ different than other poets before nineties. Puran Pant provoke the readers and then activate the readers to think or do something about wrong happenings everywhere.
  The form of poems is mostly prose like poems and there three satirical Ghazals too in this volume of poetries. The language is pure Garhwali and Pant tried to avoid unnecessarily mixing Hindi wordings in Garhwali poetry as Purn pant said that the poets should avoid Hindi in creating  Garhwali literature .
  Puran Pant Pathik will be remembered in Garhwali poetic field for creating realistic  satire and portraying the wrong happenings with sharp wit, humour and irony. Bhishma Kukreti says that his poems of Mero Bwada are Bhibhdatya Kavita
Mero Bwada
Year of Publication -1989
Publisher Garhwal Sahity Parishad, Kanpur
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti , Mumbai, India, 2010



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Satire in Garhwali poetry
                  Apnyas ka Jalda:  Sharp Satirical Poems 
                  Bhishma Kukreti
          Reading the sharp satirical poems of Puarn Pant Pathik, the readers do not smile but feel sorry for the wrong happenings and become angry on the wrong doers. Due to sharp words, many times, his poems leave the covering of satire , wit , sarcasm and humour become the sharp criticism.  Characteristics of Puran Pant is that the readers find less of humour in his poetry.
     Apnyas ka Jalda is the fourth satirical poetry collection of Puran Pant and shows that Puran is totally dedicated to satire and satire . Pant attacks on the foolishness happening in the society and administration, after reading sixty poems of Apnyas ka Jalda , it seems Puran Pant believes the saying of Lord Byron who once said,” I will publish right or wrong. Fools are my theme, let satire be my song”
  You read any poem of Apnyas ka Jalda and you will agree “ A satire should expose nothing but what is corrigible, and should make a due discrimination between those that are and those that are not the proper objects of it.” said by Joseph Addison.
  The subject of poems in this collection of Puran Pant Pathik are of varied nature. The poems attack on each components of our society , changing mannerism, government agencies and governing bodies.
  The poems of  Puran Pant differ from other satirical poets of past and present that he uses sharper words of Garhwali than other poets. Many times, reader feel that he is abusing as :
Apni bwai ka mais
Hola vo/
Jo
Hamari jikudi ma
Ghaitna rain/
Ghaitna chhan
Keela/vada/danda
Jo hamari nau par….
Ham tain ullu ka pattha samjhikai
Mauj masti -maturate kairikkai
Apnee mavasi banan par misyan chhan
  For creating satire and little bit humour, Puran uses many known or new symbols and images for his poetries and Pant is successful in his this work. Realism is is his way of creating poetry and readers feel that they have experiences of what Pant said in his poems.
   Puran Pant never criticizes the advocates of standardized Garhwali . However, Putran Pant uses regional dialects of Kingodakhal, Pkhadablock,  Salan Garhwal . His uses of proverbs, saying, special Garhwali words for wrong doers perfectly and that make his poems enjoyable.
    On the whole, the poetry collection ‘Apnyas ka jalda’ is one of the important poetry collection book for Garhwali language poetry world and without referring Puran Pant Pathik, historian  can not complete  history of Garhwali poetry.
Apnyas ka Jalda
Poet: Puran Pant Pathik
Year of Publication: 2005
Yugvani Prakashan
14-B Cross Road, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
Copyright @ Bhishma  Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010

 




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Satire in Garhwali Poetry
Anjwal: One of the Great Satirical Poetry Collections of World Literature
(Review of  Anjwal -Garhwali Poetry collection by Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal ‘The Great Poet’)
                                 Bhishma Kukreti
   No doubt, Sada Nand Kukreti (1923)  initiated satire as serious business in Garhwali by publishing first Garhwali story Garhwali That’ in Vishal Kirti but in true sense in modern Garhwali poetic field, Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal used satirical poems as to make serious and even frightening remarks on the dangers of the sweeping social, economical, spiritual  changes taking place throughout Garhwal and among migrated Garhwalis . Many critics as nathi Prasad Suyal state that we may find similarities in the work of Kanhya Lal Dandriyal and Horace, Persius, and Juvenal for  Dandriyal’s  satires about the life, vice, and moral decay Kanhaya Lal  saw around him as ‘Garhwali Sanstha’ of this volume.
  When Hindi critic Dr Manjula Dhoundiyal read poems of Anjwal, she said to this author “ I shall put Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal near to a French satirist of seventeenth century  Roger Rabutin de Bussy for his wit and calmness in describing the changes”
  Manmohan Jakhmola a post graduate in English literature, a literature lover and great admirer of Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal says that Dandriyal had to work hard for creating satirical Garhwali poems when most of the Garhwali  poets were either following Hindi literature  or busy in old style in terms of subject and versification, Kanhaya Lal came with new subject and the original satire of Garhwal into Garhwali literature.  Jakhmola further says that Dandriyal might have worked  hard in creating satire in Garhwali as eighteenth century American satirists as  Lemuel Hopkins,  Joel Barlow, Philip Freneau , John Trumbull, Hugh Henry Brackenridge did hard work in creating satire .
         The second edition  of Anjwal has fifty poems of Dandriyal. First issue was published in 1969 and Anjwal became a mile stone in the Garhwali poetic field that from here the Garhwali  poems transformed style , body, subjects ,  and creativity of Garhwali poems as well the thinking of Garhwali  poets . The Garhwali poems took new shape from conventional wisdom in many ways.
  The poems show that Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal was very sensitive, had the eyes ofa critic and had the power of  narrating serious and critical the subject through humorous and satirical methodology. Kanhya Lal show the putrefied social  system through effective wit that readers laugh but feel acute pain inside their mind, intellect and ego. Madan Duklan a garhwali critic and editor states that the  poems of Anjwal are provocative but do not create enmity among the society.
    Famous Garhwali folk literature expert, Hindi dramatist, Hindi poet, story teller, critic Govind Chatak says that the satirical poems as Satya Narayan Brat Katha, Mi Garhwali chhaun, Dhyabron ki Rally, Garhwali sanstha, Hamaru Garhwal are the world class poems and these poems are one of best poems among two hundred best satirical poems of world literature. Lokesh Navani a Garhwali critic and Puran Pant a poet and editor state about these poems and other poems that these poems are the classic poems for international literature.
 Girish Sundriyal a Garhwali poet says that his other poems Sarsu  Sanhar, Thyakra are best examples of bringing realism with the capsule of satire and humor into Garhwali literature in seventies.
 Harish Juyal a marvelous satirical Garhwali poet supports the statement of Dr Govind Chatak that  style of Jagar. Rakhwali and Tantra Mantra in many Garhwali poems of Kanhya Lal Dandriyal are very effective and readers enjoy those poems by heart.
   The garhwali critic and Garhwali literature publisher Nathi Prasad Suyal states , “ In the poems of Dandriyal , we find the mixer of realism, experiencing , pain for wrong changes happenings, and at the same time the poet provide suggestions to as teacher but differently than his predecessor Garhwali poets.”
  Bhishma Kukreti wrote in the special issue of Hamri Chitthi about Kanhya Lal Dandriyal that the poems of Anjwal of Kanhya Lal Dandriyal are the inner experiences of a Garhwali women, which no Garhwali poet could touch so marvelously as Dandriyal did . Kukreti called Dandriyal as Ardh NariIswar at the time of creating poetries.
    About the poems of Anjwal, Nathi Prasad Suyal and Dr Govind Chatak rightly said that Dandriyal did not leave any important aspect of life in Garhwal and life of migrated common Garhwalis.
  Jaipal Singh Rawat a famous Garhwali symbolic poet state that no Garhwali poets of past as Dandriyal used Garhwali symbols so perfectly that even a common person can fully understand the meaning and insight of poems of Dandriyal.
  Parashar Gaud the great admirer of Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal  finds that Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal was expert of creating real images of rural Garhwal and life sketches of common migrated Garhwalis so effectively that makes him one of the greatest poets of  all world languages.
 Each poems of Anjwal take the readers to one important aspect of garhwali life of sixties and before.
 Kanhya lal Dandriyal was the master of garhwali vocabulary and this poetry collection is the proof. The poems are so simple and under stable that a migrated Garhwali who never read Garhwali literature will also read all poems and will enjoy.
Anjwal is a heritage of world languages  literature and we should arrange proper distribution of this poetry collection all corners of world among Garhwalis.
Anjwal
Poet : Kanhya Lal Dandriyal
Publisher:
Maulyar Prakashan
7 D, L.P. Maurya Enclave
Peetampura, Delhi, 110088
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010
 



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Satire in Garhwali Poetry
Khigtat : The Best Example of Fine Blending od Humour and Satire in Poetry
(Review of Khigtat a Poetry Collection of Harish Juyal ‘Kutz’)
                              Bhishma Kukreti

 Madan Duklan ( a Garhwali language critic and editor) is of opinion that the poems of volume Khigtat of Harish Juyal are more of humorous than satirical and could be positioned with the poems of famous humorists as Arthur Guiterman, Bert Leston Taylor, Christopher Darlington Morley, Donald Robert Perry Marguis, Dorothy Parker, James   ,Franklin Pierce Adams, Margaret Fishback, , Oliver Herford,Ogden Nash,   Richard Willard Armour, , Samuel Goodman Hoffenstein, , Phyllis McGinley,  Whitcomb Riley. However, famous Garhwali language poet and lyricist Girish Sundriyal calls him as the King of Satire of Garhwali poetry.  This is because, Harish Juyal ‘Kutz’ is the specialist or expert of finest way off blending humour with sharp satire of Garhwali language. When he uses customary, daily uses Garhwali words in creating satire, the readers cant judge whether the poetry is more humorous or is having more dozes of sharp satire.
 No doubt, the first poetry collection ‘ Uktat’ of Harish Juyal  is more satirical  but the second poetry collection ‘Khigtat ‘ is more humorous than satire.
  There are thirty eight poems in the volume ‘Khigtat’ and all are gems of Garhwali literature.
   Harish Juyal has a very sensitive eye to find the odd happenings in the society and then has a his own style, has best vocabulary to describe the happenings in hilarious way. His attack by hilarious methodology on the wrong happenings is more on society than political system because (it seems) his concept is that political construction is nothing but the way society behaves as a whole.  That is why, in this poetry volume,  we find the satirical and humorous attack on society itself than political system (as most of other poets do attack on political structure) and if he attacks on political system the society is involved there.  There are thirty eight subjects and each poetry’s subject is different than others which means in this volume of poetry, Harish dealt each main subject of the society. When he narrates the Garhwali Vyanjan (Ethnic food of Garhwal) , you cant be without with ought laughing. If in Uktat, provocation (sharp satire) was on top seat, the humour is on top slot in the poetry collection Khigtat’
  Harish is praised for his narrating the subject different style than his contemporary poets      in poetic form but that style is hundred percent Garhwali style including Doha, Chhand, Chaupaya, and his own style is narrating poetry in Jagar form or Ukhel form. He follows famous world class poet Kanhya Lal Dandriyal Dhabdi poetry (mixed languages poetry) form and juyal is successful in making evolution there too.
 Harish does not use borrowed symbols from Hindi but he takes pure Garhwali symbols which make his poetry real Garhwali poetry and without any complexity. Juyal uses figures of speeches ( Alankar) which are there in street of village and of daily uses and using those figures of speech in his won style is the specialty of Harish Juyal which, make him exclusive among crowd.
  This poetry collection requires distribution among migrated Garhwali and this guarentee evn the Garhwalis who never rread Garhwali literature will read all his poems of Khigtat and those migrated Garhwalis will definitely say “Where is another poetry collection of Harish Juyal”
 Overall, Khigtat is the mile stone in the history of Garhwali poetic field for its narration, using figures of speeches, symbols and images; and different style of narrating the subject by Harish Juyal.
 Khigtat (Garhwali Poetry collection)
Poet: Harish Juyal ‘Kutz’
Year of Publication: 2004
Publisher: Samay Sakhsy , 15 Faltu Line, Dehradun, 248001
Copyight @ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010



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Satire in Garhwali Poetry
                               Uktat : Complete  Satirist Poems of  Harish Juyal
                                                                     Bhishma Kukreti
   According to the  author , there are three types of  Garhwali Satirist poetries:
Satire with   Realism  or Dandariyalism
Intellectual oriented  or Bahugunaism
Clown some satirist poetries, Thattaism or Kavi Sammelini poetry
          The satire poems , which are weaved on intellectual thinking and words are searched by intellect and not by heart come under Bahugunaism (Abodh bandhu Bahuguna) . Here the poet becomes intellectual means and lacks conventional Garhwali-soul.. The satirist Garhwali poetries of  Lalit Keswan, Vinod Uniyal, Puran Pant ‘Pathik’, Prem lal Bhatt ,  Girish Sundariyal, Netra Singh Aswal, Jaipal Singh  come under Bahugunaism , Intellectualism is more powerful than conventional realism in such poems.
                From early seventies, when the custom of kavi Sammelan started  in Delhi and now Kavi Samellan have become popular in Garhwal, there have emerged mushroom of satirist poets in Garhwali who the author put them in Clownsome poets or Thattabaj or Kavi Sammelani poets. They create poetries for amusing the audience  and could be said their poetries is alcoholic drinks for the audience. These poets pay more attention on the laughter than satire, irony and real wit. However, they are much required to create attraction among common men for Garhwali poetries. Such poetries may not be ‘Kaljayi’ or can not sustain for more than a couple of years but are essential evil for Garhwali language . Chhilvat comes under this category. Some poems of Jaipal Singh alias ‘chhipadu dada’ also come under this category.
        Satire with realism and wherein Garhwali images, symbols. reality and words are woven naturally come under the category of “Satire with Realism” and Kanhaya Lal Dandariyal is the initiator of such types of poetries in Garhwali language. Harish Juyal ‘Kutz’has extended this line of Kanhaya Lal Dandariyal and he broadened the line of Kanhaya lal that though Harish says that his poems are influenced by Dandariyal , we may see that Juyal gained exclusivity and individuality by his poetic craftsmanship and his poetic world becomes entirely different than Dandariyal but axis remains of Dandariyalism  style. Ram Prakash Arya ‘Bagchhat’ also come under this category and unfortunately his death at young age is really a curse for Garhwali satire poetry .The unpublished poetries of Ram Prakash are the best example of Dalit literature and have  humor, irony, wit, sarcasm and his attack on the castes orientation  persisted in Garhwal or in India.
       Uktat (anxiety) is the collection of sixty three poems of Harish Juyal ‘Kutz’ for which he received a prestigious most award of Garhwali literature ‘Aditya Ram Navani’ award in 2002. He has a peculiar advantage in weaving the poem that his grand father was ‘Jagari (who sings the historical songs or folk lore in a worship ceremony)’ and Harish has all effects of being a member of ‘Jagari’ family, though his father is ex-army man. Due to link with Jagari family, Harish knows the importance of vocabulary of poems from his childhood , knows how to create verses immediately , which attract the attention of people for enjoyment and dancing too. The effects of his link with Jagari family is clearly seen in many poems and  attracting capacity of his poems to the public .
Sense of lyric is visible in his each poem
As:    Uses of symbols, images  for activating the reader’s memory is a weapon for satirist as Francis Bacon rightly says,“ He that hath a satirical vein , as he maketh others afraid of his wit, so he had need be afraid of others’ memory”. As is a poem  of narrating optimism but Harish chooses the words, symbols in such a way that this poem does not become dry preaching poetry but you will smile.
Sarail ralu tipatt huyn
Jwanni jalan ku bagat hwalu
Sachhai: Sachai poem is again preaching poem but with lot of humor.
Parya patali ka pakyan  machha ni dyakha
Khundo badi patt ghulo goli bhaiji
Bal: Charles Churchill says,
“ When satires flies abroad on falshood ‘s wing,
Short is her life and impotant her sting;
But when to truth allied, the wound she gives
Sinks deep, and to remotest ages lives
There is paradox in our life and the poet shows us the reality or dirt in our society, which stings for ages :
Hamar beech man ju sher banyun cha
Oo byalai ku rangun syal ch bal
Achkalun: caius Cornelius Tacticus says, “ A bitter jest, when the satire comes too near the truth, leaves a sharp sting behind.“ and this poem achkalam is exclusivity of Juyal where he does not attack directly with his axe like words but he shows the reality through philosophical but words with full of wit
Vote denau khun angutha chhap
Adhikar  huyun chau achkalyun
Fundyanath: When satire changes into high anger, it becomes sharp attack as:
Bhasan butik halya banyan chhan rajneeti ka
Syara lwai ka sana chhan fondant
Kilai: Harish directly asks question about the wrong attitude of people
Khubsat, khibdat, bhibhdat, kilai
Parai khushi ma tibdat klai
Bhair biten gentleman
Bhitar biten sags at kilai
Myara gaun ka log:  Juyal exposes the failure of our new society in villages:
Hail-dhyadee, bhadwad khaunik dhupan laundan
Pujana raundan saukar tain myar gaon ka log
Thag : Thag is to show the ridicules happening in our whole society as new attitude:
Peeth pichhnai ag lagaik muchhalya munjhana ku ayan chhan
Paraya kandham banduk dhaurik triger dabana ku ayan chhan
Uth Jara: Maridith in his famous book -Idea of Comedy, explains about satire that the satirist is a contractor of ethos who cleans the dirt of the community and we may experience the duty of Harish Juyal in this poem as :
Kandali ka jhumpa dhol dyawa
Buransa ka phool limhao jara
Khani kyap: Though Swift says that satire is a mirror on which we can see everybody except her/his own shadow but Harish is different and he does not hesitate exposing  himself with other fellows too as said by Issac Watts, “ Satirists expose their own ill nature” as in this poem
Aj dagdyaon methai khani kyap wai ge
Mujhyun sarail fir fir tejab hwai ge
Ye jaman : Oxford dictionary defines the satire that satire means a discourse or conversation, usually through poetic form, contemptuous or condemning the follies of human beings and the abuses of society. We may feel the abuses of the society:
Barakh pujdara vai baman ka jog dyakho
Bhagai bhatag khand khand bihal hwaigyai
Guladangi: Irony is one of ingredients of  satire and Harish creates  irony in simplistic way :
Yojanau ko parsad bajat ki tailind khaindi khundik
Kamisan ki dabali ghumaiki pardhan guladangi kari ge
Kana garud : Telling the follies through indirect way is one of the pet style of Juyal from many his styles of narrating the subject as :
Paray kudi agyan chaind, arvi ag bujhan chaind
Bhitar bhitar  damar lagaik bhair jol lagan chaind
Pad ku Uyar: The clergymen attacks on evil and not personalities. Same way, most of the time,  without self interest,  the satirist attacks on evil without considering whose evil is this as:
Kail karan pahad ku uyar rai
Baid hankatt jair/bukhar ma lachar rai
Sakla Log: There is  contradictions in the society and is found in  individuals too. The satirist exposes various types of contradictions through his poems as :
Byali tak jain tumara jalad khanin
Aj vaikihan ma han misana chai hain?
Apnu gujar chya k kala pani ma kaiki
Gura thai bal pivar doodh pivana chau hain?
Kichad-Pichad: The job of satirist is to create anger in the mind of reader or audience for correcting the wrong happenings in the society and Harish Juyal performs well his duty as satirist and humorist for awakening the readers:
Bajar beech sabji-mandi kichad pichad
Such ka chawk, dukh ki dhandi kichad pichad
Jagri tund, dhupanu fund, bhut disco
Hadfail bichari chandi kichad pichad
Jai Ram Ji ki: The objective of a student is to have knowledge and endeavors for gaining knowledge, or a soldier should have brevity as main characteristics but if the individual or individuals as society forget their mottos and actions, the poet becomes vociferous and speaks like by using powerful metaphoric words , common images and symbols:
Woo Bandar hauri chhai jaun bwal akad se, lamka ma jaiki Rawan ka samni Jai Ram ji ki
Tadtada hweki college chali gen hero bauniki
Syani sagat par knowledge dekho jia ram ji ki
Ghanghtol: Usually, the poet is always a philosopher and a teacher too,  becomes sad by seeing the negations or contradictions in the life and  expresses her/his objervations in different style and forms. Harish Kutz is an expert showing us negations, disagreements, paradoxes of life in humrous ways by using conventional and modern images and symbols:
Farak nauna naunyun ma karan walun suno tumara nauna suk, nauni lal chachkar rai
Sadgunon ka painchha ki tu bat tain ‘kutz ‘ ni kaur, chauchhwadi man-hater ka chain teeta human dwara rai
Ved-Bidhan- When a decaying situation in the society becomes beyond recovery and recovery becomes compulsion, the satirist leave humor, irony, funny ways, mimicry and speaks the truth without mincing the words as harish says:
Geeta, puran, kuran ku chhwara, sabyun ka eksani gyan ch chhwara
Kaffu lagani kaga tain dhai, bhali buri yakh jawan ch chhwara
Gaidi Dhair: Robert Harris (1990)  explains the job of satirist in “ The Purpose and Method of Satire” , “… the specific targets in satire are often used to instruct and correct the general populace..”. Harish Juyal is not behind the saying of Robert Harris:
Ini tham chor gundon ka note sahi adim tain de le bhote
Pas huno ku mantar seekh, mixie man ni pees silvat ma ghot
Seekh: A teacher does not leave his properrties even after his death and same is applicable to Juyal. By profession, he is teacher and does not leave the habit of teaching and preaching , though, with wits and humor in his poem Seekh, where he also  uses the folk story of Garhwal with ease:
Bhair tala lagyan yakh bhitar human chhan khandwar
Talu twakan valu dida dil ku khwalan seekh
Kiali dhareen takk teri paraya banthun hatyana ki
Sat gwairun apas man tillu danI bantan seekh
Vandana : Willium Hass says In “Some Characteristics of Satire” that  the application of the satiric method is more of attitude or stance than a gener or type of literature (“ It is not bounded by form and structure but exists as an approach to the situation which can be present in any of the many literary forms” ). If Harish Juyal prays or worships a god or goddess, his prayer or worship definitely will have irony, humor, wit .
Jayati jay jay man siSwati jai kumau Garhwal ji
Kukur bi naadi bukhai gen haman jaunthe pali ji
Sel: The best satire is which irritates the audience for knowing the evil in the atmosphere and though the audience knows it but feels the pinch after poet shows the evil indirect method. Harish is expert of pinching the public by his poems:
Halwa khaiki dant pisena chhan, ghisena chhan
Adai samjhaik nauna bayena chhan t bayen dya
Gairal: There have been many satiric  scenes in various Hindi movies against big family or more children by a couple . Same way in Garhwali literature, a couple of poets tried to criticizing the more numbers of children however, but Harish ’Kutz’  goes ahead of all in creating humorous satire  against big family and supporting small family by using  inflation, exaggeration and best uses of symbols and images  .
Panchaun funkara maran lagyun , chhayun chhati fulanu
Sataun  afat kaurige syu abi lpyan myal ma
Khani peeni kya ch apdi twaima sach bwanu chhaun
Min tibasi bhat khayi ek daduli dal ma
Bikhili Dunya: When a poet becomes straight as truth teller, his poem becomes very sharp .Samuel Sullivan tells that undeserved merit is satire and we may experience what Samuel means by reading harish 
Pap k bhitar raibasu kaurik
Sachai ki delim thukani chh dunya
Aadim aadim tai ghulan lagun chha
‘Juyal’ dunya thain ghulani cha dunya
Sach ki Ankhi Motiyabind: Harish is also the master of mock encomium and since, the reader feels that the poet is sincere his narration is well understood by readers without any difficulty. Feinberg , Pfaff, Simpson  cautions that if there are miscues and errors in the mind of audience or readers, the deadpan or satire does not make any effect and audience struggles either to understand or just reject the subject even if it has lot of humor. Harish provides full of cues through conventional symbols , images, proverbs to his audience  in his satiric poems even they are with values and preaching:
Sach ki ankhi moribund jhutha ankha chhala chhan
Burai chamkani cha chamm bhalai farai jala chhan
Baila-banja ghas peendu khaiki utana human chhan
Jaunl annai danI kamai unka giccho mwala chhan
Bakkibat: Exaggeration  creates humor and satire too provided the poet is wise using right and with words of cues:
Kukar-kakhad ek bhadlind mund kucheki dagdi parali chatna chhan bakkibat
Ichchadhari chhpodyaman hamari gaun man nai nai laguli katana chhan bakkibat
Au Rai Au : In Garhwali as in other languages, the same sentence or group of words have double meaning and the tone is the only way of differentiating of real meaning . Harish did an experiment by using “Au Rai Au’ group of words very effective to create satire with hmour:
Hamari kakhdi chwarnu chhe tu au rai au!
Sular putuk dharnu chai tu au rai au!
Kana garud t tyara human chhan yar dost
Ar hadki ghughtyon ki twadni chai tu au rai au!
Jhail: It seems as if  Stanley Lane Poole read Jhail poem of Juyal and that is why Stanley  says that satire has a power of fascination that no other written thing posses and . Jhail is perfect humorous poem without any twist and complexity. Though this poem is somehow a love poem by using  different - different figures of speech, the poem became a pure humorous poem and a Garhwali will laugh loudly after listening or reading this poem
Log bwaldan ki jwan dhung ma ag hond
Takk lagaiki ayee ar parekh jai
Parmesur :The saying of Nathaniel Hawthorne applies to the poem Parmesur, “Of a bitter satirist it might be said that the person or thing on which the satire fells shriveled up as if devil had spit on it”
Khadu lagaunlu tyara nauku jab bipakhsyun ki
Nikal delu jhiran-kiran parmesur
Matlab yoch : In Matlab ya ch , Juyal tenors soothingly rebukes the frivolous  life of rural Garhwal in his present time . This poem reminds us the poems of Pope’s Rape of the Lock (1714)
Karjpat l dabe gin bhula myara sukila din
Myar banth andhyari rat udankar ni ayee matlab ya cha
Padhan Bada : Padhan Bwada is not satire in its full sense but a sad story of aged person of villages of Garhwal whose children are migrated in plains and the aged persons spending their life in loneliness. Samlaun is also same type of poem
Gura Vandana :Dr Shantarani Says that satire is the strong weapon for showing antagonism and hate  and we may experience the odium and animosity against the social  system at the fundamental or base level  but vital rank of democracy i.e.  inhabitants   of village :
Ajanau tain katan wala tyara dant todi delu
Juyal thain dhann podalu juttu hath manija
Bhaut Badhiya: The collector of Amar Kosh, Shankar Puntambekar states that “ The satire is the razor-sharp expression for the  era for criticizing the wrong happenings in the society. The satire hits very effectively where there is injustice, inequality, abuses, exploitations,  immorality, nepotism, factionalism, corruption, classicism, hoardings, red tape, unemployment, drought, flood, food scarcity, adulteration, family dynasty ism, ..”Harish hits on the above wrongs in the society through his poem “ Bhaut Badhiya”
Butpujai: First  prime Minster of India late Jawahar Lal Nehru said about the famous cartoonist Sahnkar, “ ..a true cartoonist (satirist)  is not just a maker of fun but who sees the inner significance of an event and by a few strokes impresses on others…”  Harish Juyal has also the power of showing us the inner significances of wrong happenings in our allowing superstitious (andhvishwash)  in our society in Bhutpuja poem :
Gaudi kilai latyani cha, kilya pooj kali rat
Jagardar murga kunai, hudkya da palya le hath
Desh ka hal: Dr Alka K Dange says, “ The satire without humor becomes abuse and desiccated.”. Harish knows mixing of humor in dry subject and expertly makes such subject as entertaining as joy as in Desh ka Hal:
Jaun saanki bhakk bilki desh ka
Voo dyabta banya chhan re desh ka
Aibi Goar: Harish has gifted competence for using Garhwali words which make the satire as entertaining as bad-badan’s folk song as Issar Evan says, “ The satire becomes entertaining and tasty when it has natural humor”.
Abinda anbolya youn gorun tain dekhi dekhik
Bagh bujya putug khitgani  marana chhan
 Little Peg: M S Abrams describes satire as the literary art of diminishing or derogating a subject by making it ridiculous and evoking towards it attitudes of amusement. Harish makes the reasoning of taking alcoholic drinks as ridiculous  as top most  satiric poets  of world class poetries did in their language poems:
Little peg pen pwadal bwe ka saun, tab talak ju tvai chwadalu bwe ka saum
Yanl pet ki kidi mwardan kuch ni hondu, tyara saun ju jhoot bwalalu bwai ka saun
Kushal Kamana : It is not that Harish can not create serios and inspirational  poems, his kushal kamana is the proof that Harish is master of other branches of poetry other than humor and satire
Apan banth ku gham meel sabyun thainki
Kaunpun ni ra kwee tyaru myaru bhai tab
Choosi Ja :Dr Suresh Maheshwari says that the poet gets inspiration for writing satire when there is conflicts and struggle between idealism  and reality, thoughts and implimentative actions and it is sure that Harish got inspiration to write the poem Choosi Ja by observing many conflicting struggle, obligationlessness and deceptive nature and mannerism in the society:
Jaun thain taranai vee duban lagyan chhan
Chhal paunchhi hamthain baglike bwagan choosi ja
Daundya dancer: It seems, as far as satire poem creating is concerned,  Harish Juyal runs on the line of great poet Lord Byron who said , “Fools are my theme, let satire be my songs” and Harish creates poem criticizing the youth who are forgetting the natural etiquettes of society or arts
Myalu chati deli meri ek khanate ma , ar moch dyakho Rana pratap jan bananu chhe
Kandud chhan byanda chhan tyara dhameli chhwadin cha teri dhoti pair chuwa kyonki sharmani chai
 Dhad : Dhad poem is humorous and satirist as well and with full of conventional abuses of Garhwali are used by him in Dhad and  every Garhwali reader whether he speaks Garhwali or not that Garhwali will enjoy the poem .
Jail hamaroo banthu chorik khan bhare
Vaiki patt gand mori jan bhare
Hey Ween : Clark says that satire need have no moral lesson or didctic purpose but be aggressive or critical to situations and harish is expert of creating such satiristic poem which attacks the situation or society in Hey ween
Chauchhwadi hamari chhween var pwar he veen, ram dain log bhaut jaltmaar hey veen
Jarasi jai din bitai ham ufran baithi, sya unka mukhund jhwalu pod , hey veen
Myara Mulak: Late Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal wrote a timeless poem for describing Garhwali (myaro Gadhwal, Bharat ko Bhal…). After that the satiric poets in Garhwali, habitually, write poem to describe Garhwal this way or that way but no body could provide such a witty poem as Dandriyal could offer. Juyal also wrote the poem for description of Garhwal and he showed the respect to Dandriyaal in his Myara Mulak  poem, which again shows the effect of Dandriyal on his successors in satire verses:
Dandriyal ji ki gicchi podin aunla danee, bachyun nirbhagi maryun bhagyan myara mulak
Juyal rai santula jan cchvaun cchwan ni kaur samali ki rakh apni gicch myara mulak 
Chor Chatva : Maynard Mack says about satire, “ Satire .. Asserts validity and necessity of norms , systematic values and meaning that contained by recognized codes.” Harish Juyal proves the validity of saying of Mack in his poem where he pins point on the continuous erosion of social simplicity and increasing double standard in the society and at the same time provides the solution to check the erosion too:
Birala doodh ka jagwal karna chhan, kana dai jamana chhan, gura raudi thamik bhitryun bhitaryun chinch chhulana chhan
Golan lagan ni bisari ‘juya’ bhitar bite chital rai aunsi ki rat chor chatva tyar dwar Khulna chhan
Maya Ku Fikval: This poem is different because from just reading it you will feel it is a
love poem and aimed for an extreme love of a lover with lot of humor and wit without attacking anybody:
Chauk teer klai ai tu junyali rat ma
Bhagwan jani jun  far tidwak aige
Bandarya saloot: The specialty of Harish is to attack with humor on double standard , deceitfulness and trickiness in the society . Ravindra Ryagi a Hindi satirist says, “ Satire is the best medium for  exposing the wrongs or misconducts  in the society. If there is humor in the satire, it becomes more sharper and effective” . The poem ‘bandrya saloot ‘ of Juyal is the true witness for the saying of Tyagi
Bhair satkar karna chhan bhai log bag bhitar fitkar marna chhan log bag
Rwai rwai ka  puchhana raundan hal chal, haisi hainsik morna chhan bahi log bag
Mera Dukh : If we analyze in depth the tragedy is the mother of satire and humor . Mera Dukh and Jikudi buthyanu aige poems are the examples of inner pain, hopelessness but uses of symbols (exaggeration ) and images for creating humor :
Myara  dukh ithga jathga gaina asman ka
Riti Bhandi: Eminent Hindi and Marathi satire critic Alka Dange says that according to learned knowledgeable, there are seven elements of satire “ reality, seriousness, sensibility, mature language, intellectuality, allusiveness and neutral analysis . Riti Bhandi is  one of the examples of poems created by Harish that he fulfills the literary norms of satire creation
Khud: Harish is a insightful poet and can write tragic poem too. Khud is not satiric and humorous poem but a poem of sadness for emptiness because of something lacking in an individual. The poem  Ulyara Paran, Gani, Gijar  poems  come under this category .
Samali Jai Ho: The eminent Hindi satirist Sharad Joshi  says, “ The main element of satire is that it should be attached to struggle of life or attached to an average life. If the subject and description of literature is not attached to life, there is something wrong with the satire”. Samali ja Ho is a love poem but with wit, humor, sensibility, struggle and  liveliness of life. If Sharad Joshi would have alive he would have said that he defined satire by reading the poem Samali Jai Ho by Harish Juyal
Athgarai: When the  prominent Hindi prose satirist of India , Harishankar Parsai says, “ satire shows us life , criticizes life, wrongs, lies, heresy, humbug etc” it  means his saying is also dependent on the poem Athgari of juyal wherein he attacks on the trouble of big family and non-application of family planning devices , alcoholism, taking money from money lenders, gambling, bureaucracy, inflation, discrimination in the society and so on . Chhenja poem is also best example of such type of satire, which Parsai said
Didactic Poems by Harish : Sacha bol, bird naya sal ka are not satiric nor humorous poems, which show his capability for creating different types of poems
Meru Bachpan; Meru Bachpan  is an autobiography of an average Garhwali’s childhood and wordings, symbolic approach make this poem readable and enjoyable .
                       

               What  Harish Juyal ‘Kutz’says about his works
(this is translation of Harish’s saying “ apni bat or my words’ in this collections of poetries )
  In my opinion, to communicate the tragedy, pain, imbalances and, laughter -happiness of my own heart to the hearts of others is poetry.
 Today’s human being is not living the life but he is cursedly struggling for the life .because, these days, there is anxiety , disquiet in the life of an average human being. ….I understand that every person is under the attack of anxiety, worries, unease .
    Today, there is wrongs everywhere in religious, social, economical, ethical, political circles . The illiterates are the teachers and authority for providing the knowledge to the knowledgeable. There is dirt and bad smell in the wrongs happening in the whole society and we have to close our nose to avoid such wrongs happening in the society.
  I write poems because through, I can attack fierce fully on the bad happenings, wrong approaches, malpractices, who are busy damaging the basic norms of ethics and at the same time not understanding the good changes in the society or government administrations …..
For me, the poetry creation is also a way of being exclusive from the masses  .
Another secret is that by creating poetry I feel liberated from the tension arose because of  the bad happenings here and there and everywhere .
                       Brief About Harish Juyal
  Date of Birth: 21 September, 1969
Place of birth; Malla Tasola, Badlpur, Pauri Garhwal
Education : graduate and diploma in Education administration/teaching
Literature: writes poems in Hindi and Garhwali and is famous poet in Kavi Sammelan
Awards: he received awards
1- Aditya Ram Navani Purushkar for his book ‘Uktatat’
2- Chandra Kumwar Puraskar for hindi poems
                                           Conclusion
  Harish juyal is son of soil and he did not leave anything even the remotest of garhwal in his poetries -geography, social structure, agriculture, languages, culture, rituals, arts and so on
 Juyal is perfect and eminent gazal creator in Garhwali language . His language is pure Garhwali even in Gazals
His way of creating poems are his own and that is why he is called the exclusive poet of his time
From form and style point of view, he uses all forms and styles found in contemporary Garhwali poetic field.
In a very few words he is capable of saying big story and big meaning and this capability was with only great poet of the world Kanhaya lal Andria (Kukreti says that Dandriyal is one of topmost 200 poets of world poets) . He maintains disciplines of poetry but it does not mean Juyal does not do experiments as and when required for the benefits of Garhwali and poetic field as whole
Though he uses Badalpuria Garhwali I.e Salani or Garhwali of south Garhwal but it is going nerer to Shrinagarya and tiryali, which is good sign of completing the process of Standardization of Garhwali language .
              His uses of symbols, images, figures of speech, constructions, style, autonomy, wholeness, uses of right references , conflicts and contradiction, meanings, lucidness in the poems, shock treatments to the readers all make Harish Juyal different gene among other his contemporary  Garhwali  poets.
 His poems show that Juyal is sensitive about wrong happenings, he is knowledgeable about all fields of Garhwali . He is concerned about culture, environment, benfits of beneficiary changes taking place in the world by at the same time cautious abour wrong changes too. His deep knowledge about human psychology is always visble in his each stanza and this specific knowledge makes him great poet of India
 His choosing the right words make him the attraction of kavi sammelan and he has capacity to increase the crowd in any Garhwali kavi sammelan













 





 



         

 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Satire in  Garhwali Literature
Pani: A Satirical Long Poem (Khand Kavy) by Narendra Kathait
                Bhishma Kukreti
    Narendra Kathait is one of the important signatures for writing satirical Garhwali prose. The poetry collections of volumes Tup Tup and Pani prove that Kathit can create satirical verses with the same ease as prose.
     There is a proverb in rural Uttarakhand , “ pahad ka Naunyal ar Pani Pahad ka Kam ni And , Dui taul Deshund bhaji Jandan” meaning that the water of Uttarakhand and youth are not useful for Uttarakhand, both runs towards plains. Yes! This statement is  true that Ganges and Jamuna, Nayar, Hinwal rivers are there in Garhwal but Garhwalis can not use them and youth migrate in their early age in search of jobs or beter education. Water had been a major problem for Garhwalis for centuries. This is also a historical fact that our forefathers were having perfect knowledge of water conservation.
  Due to necessary developmental works (making motor roads etc) , the old reserviors are drying up and there is now, more and more shortage of potable water and water for irrigation in Garhwal. In such circumstances, the sensible creative can not sit idle. Narendra Kathait created fine satirical poems centering drying up of water reservoirs, dried water pipelines because of corruption in administration and political system.
   Narendra Negi took the clue from Gangavtarn and made Bhagirathi (it is said that Bhagirath brought Ganges from heaven)  the main character or hero for creating poetries of his  long poem (Khandkavy) Pani . This author call a wise thinking by Kathit  for making Bhagirath as hero of long poem Pani. Kathit created Bhagirath as a remarkable symbol as modern corrupted engineer in this long poetry.
    Kathit criticized planners, engineers, contractors, auditors, the local self governing bodies, for not taking the required care in water management in Garhwal because every body is engaged in corruption and not spending the planned money on water management in rural Garhwal.
   Beside criticizing the government agencies, contractor and political system, Kathait did  criticize the society too as they are not aware about their duties and right for correcting the system. Narendra condemns the whole society for sleeping on their past laurels and not taking stock for present and future. 
      Narendra used simple language, old symbols , proverbs, known mythological  characters , astounding imagination, day to day problems of common men in creating this long poem Pani. The wordings create humour and satire and the reader enjoys in reading the poems and at the same time Narendra Kathit becomes successful in provoking the readers too by his satire and wit.  Since, the poems are based on reality of rural Garhwal, the readers feel as the poems are their own experiences.
 Though, the poems in prose style but have amusable flow. Many dialects are  from Bangadsyun area .
  Garhwali critic Bhagwati Prasad Nautiyal states that Narendra Kathait has his own style, flow, temperament, disposition in creating Garhwali satirical poems .
Pani : Garhwali Khandkavy
By Narendra Kathit
Year of Publication 2008AD
Publisher: Abhash Yatharth C /O  Samay Saxya, Faltu Line, Dehradun
 

Bhishma Kukreti

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Satire in  Garhwali Poetry
Baagi Uppan Ki Ladai: The Poems of Freedom Fight , Worsening Happening after Independence in Symbolic Style
(Review of Long Poetry (Khand Kavy) Baagi Uppan Ki Ladai by Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal)
                       Bhishma Kukreti
              Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal had  been a great poet of Garhwali poetry world. The critics and readers call Dandriyal as ‘Maha Kavi” and there is no doubt about  his great craftsmanship, choosing subjects, using simple but effective words for narrating complex subject and on top of it doing experiments for developing Garhwali verses. Bagi Uppan ki Ladai is long poetry ( Khand Kavy ) and this poetry collection in Garhwali language is the best example of symbolic poetry apart from imagery poems narrating images of  Garhwal .
        With reference to Bagi Uppan ki Ladai , Dr Maju Dhoundiyal a Hindi literature critics, Madan Duklan (editor of Hamari chitthi), Puran Pant Pathik  in personal conversation with this writer say that Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal has same position in Garhwali literature for using symbols of animals to describe the present society as the critics appreciate William Blake, Alfred Jerry , Antoni Lange, Albert Aurier, Albert Giraud, Albert Mockel, Albert Samain,  Alexander Block, Andrie Bely, Arthur Rimbaud, Auguste Villiers de I.Adam, Caspar David Friedrich, Charles Baudelaire, Dante Gabriel, Isidore  Lautreamont, Dimcho Debelyanov, Dmitry Merezhkovsky, Eldgar Allan Poe, Emile Nelligan, Emile Verhaeren, Francis  V Griffin, Fyodor Sologub, George Bacovia , George Rodebach, Gustavo , Innokenty  gustave Flaubert , Annesky, Kahn,  Henride Regneir, Jean Moreas, Joa da Cruz Sousa, Josip M Aleksandroy, Jurgis Baltrusaitis, Jules Laforgue, Konstantin Bafmont,  Maurice Maeterlinck, Mateiu Caragiale, Maxmilian Voloshin,  Mikaloius K Ciurlionis , Otokar Brezina, Paul Adam, Paul Fort, Paul Valery , Paul Verlaine, Rachilde, Remy de Gourmont, Stanislaw K Brzozowski, Stephane Mallarme, Stuart Merril,  Tendeusz micinski , Valery Bryusov, Vyacheslay Ivanov, Zinaidia Gippius for their creating symbolic verses or literature.. Dr Nagendra Dhyani, a learned Garhwali literature critics of Garhwali literature states that Kanhya Lal Dandriyal uses animals in his long poetry successfully as Vishnu Sharma uses animals in the stories of Sanskrit classic Panchtantra .
    The story of Bagi Uppan ki Ladia is chivalry story and the plot is of Goath (when the farmers take their domestic animals in the field from May to October and look after their in the field for so many months) . There is very deep friendship among animals as bulls, buffalos, rams, he goats, goats, sheep etc.  An insect Uppan (which is a medium of  plague bacteria too) attacks to the flocks of domestic animals. The mosquitoes, bugs, and many other harmful insects are with Uppan but  take part in attack on later stage of the story . , The brave and strong buffalo (Bagi) takes the charge of his army to defend the animals of Goath and bull is always the advisor. There is ups and downs in tha fight between buffalo  with other animals and Uppan . However, after much bloody struggle, the domestic animals win the battle. After winning the battle, the fighters were thrown out of the kingdom and the corrupted culprits, evilly animals take the charge of symbolic kingdom. Even the lion asks separate nation “Sheristhan”.
  In between , the poet describes many real happenings of the contemporary society.
   In fact, with the aid of animals, the great poet of all languages, Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal narrates the story of either Freedom Movement and thereafter the worsening situation in India or struggle of Uttarakhand Movement and then worsening situation after becoming separate state Uttarakhand that who struggled for the state could not get the honour but politicians as Narayan Datt Tiwari and others,  who never supported the movement,  got all the positions in separate Uttarakhand .
  One of the greatest poets of the world language Dandriyal could narrate the story in symbolic way and he successfully create all raptures -love, bravery, pathos, laughter, smile, satire , horror, anger, abhorrence, peace, spiritual and philosophical awareness apart from every human emotions.
 There are twenty four parts in this long poem (Khand Kavy) and each part has many chapters. There are 367 chapters in this Khand Kavy - Bagi Uppan ki Ladai. All poems are Chaupaya and in the style of Bravery style (veer Rasiy Chhand) as found in Allha Uddal poetry.
 There is another poet Jai Pal Singh Rawat ‘Chhipadu dada’ (the disciple of Dandriyal) in Garhwali language  who creates symbolic poems with the aid of animals but he never created long poetry as Kanhya Lal could create .
 The symbols are easily under stable for intellectual Garhwalis and every body will appreciate the wording construction, Garhwali words of past, images of Garhwal and rural Garhwali society  and the total realism of this long poetry of late Dandriyal. Once, the intelligent reader starts reading first poem the reader can not leave reading till he finishes the whole poetry. There is magnetism in the poems of Kanhaya lal Dandriyal.
   The long poetry Bagi Uppan ki Ladai is the proof the reason behind calling Kanhaya Lal Dandriyal the Mahakavi (Great Poet)  of not only  Garhwali language but all languages of this earth.
Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti, Mumbai, India, 2010




Bhishma Kukreti

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Satire in Garhwali Prose
Satire and Fatkar
खीर मा ल़ूण (चबोड़ चखन्यौ )
                                                 गैरसैण जनता खुणि चुसणा च   
                                                     भीषम कुकरेती
                 जब बिटेन उत्तराखंड अन्दोलनै   पवाण (शुर्वात ) लग अर राज्यौ राजधानीअ छ्वीं लगी होली त गैरसैण  कु इ नाम गणे गे .
 गैरसैण राजधानी त नि बौण सौक पण कथगों खुणि  गैरसैण भौत कुछ च अर म्यार दिखण मा त हैंको जलम तक गैरसैण  सब्युं  खुणि कुछ ना कुछ त रालों इ .
उत्तराखंड क्रान्ति दलौ (उक्रांद )  कुण त गैर सैण  बिजणे  दवा च , दारु च , इंजेक्सन च . गैरसैण  उक्रान्दौ   कुण आँख उफर्ने  पाणि छींटा च  , गैरसैण उक्रान्दौ की निंद  बर्र से  बिजाळणे  बान  कंडाल़ो झुप्पा च घ्च्का च . कत्ति त बुल्दन बल गैरसैण आई सी यू  च , ज्यूंद   रौणे  एकी दवा च , गैरसैण नामै  या दवा नि ह्वाऊ त उक्रांद  कि कैदिन डंड़ोळी  सजी जांदी , .  गैरसैण उक्राँदै खुणि कृत्रिम सांसौ    बान ऑक्सीजन च .
दिवाकर भट्ट जन  नेता कुण गैरसैण अपण दगड्या , अपण बोटरूं  ,  जनता ,तै बेळमाणो  ढोल च , दमौ च, मुसक्बाज च . दिवाकर भट्ट जन नेतौं कुण  सब्युं तैं    बेवकूफ  बणाणो माध्यम च, दवा च ,
 उत्तराखंड मा  नै राजकरण्या (राजनैतिक ) पार्टी कुणि गैरसैण राजकरणि क थौळ मा आणो कुणि कंधा च , सीडी  च, खाम च ,  पुळ च , भुम्या च , भैरब च अर जनी काम निकळी गे तन्नी गैरसैण तैं गैरो  गदन मा दफनै  जालो
  जब दिल्ली या .मुंबई सरीखा जगा बिटेन उत्तराखंड  क बान नै राजकरण्या  पार्टी बणाण ह्वाऊ त गैरसैण  दगड पल्लाबंद  करण  मा शरम ल्याज क्येकी ?
उत्तराखंड का राष्ट्रीय अर प्रांतीय अखब़ारूं  कुणि गैरसैण की खबर क्वी खबर नी च , बस कखिम भितर खज्जी (खाज खुजली  ), बबासीर कि दवा क विज्ञापन नि मिलन त वीं जगा मा गैरसैण अ  खबरूं   छपे   जांद 
अड़गें  (स्थानीय, आंचलिक) अखब़ारूं  सम्पद्कुं , लिख्व्वारूं  खुणि गैरसैण बाछी क काँध च जब क्वी काम नि ह्वाऊ  त बाछी क काँध मलासी द्याओ
पहाड़ी बुद्धि जीव्युं जु पहाड़ मा ह्वावन या उत्तराखंड से दूर दिल्ली , चंडीगढ़  , मुंबई , या फार अमेरिका , कनाडा  मा ह्वावन ऊं बुद्धिजीव्युं कुण  मगज शांत करणो बान या समौ बितौणो, टैम पास करणो  बान गैरसैण तास कि गडि    च, चौपड़ च, खेल च अफु तैं अफिक  बौगाणो बान खिल्वणि च
  कांगेसी या भारतीय जनता पार्टी वलूँ कुण गैरसैण अ अवाज पहाडी जनता की अवाज नी च बलकण मा कै ख्ज्जी से त्रस्त-परेसान , लंडेर   कुकुर की अवाज च अर इन अवाज पर टक्क लगाण या ध्यान दीण राजनीती मा बेवकूफी माने जांद
जनता त राजनीती वलूं दियुं चुसणा  तैं इलै चुस्णी च बल  सैत  च ये चुसणा मा दूध हो
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