Author Topic: History of Uttarakhand, Kumaon & Garhwal-उत्तराखंड का इतिहास (कुमाऊं/गढ़वाल)  (Read 174932 times)

Bhishma Kukreti

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Narendra Shah Honouring Ghana Nand Khanduri and settlement of Border disputes

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -29
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 221     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1468
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

 Ghana Nand Khanduri had good relation with the Royal family. Khanduri also diffused the border disputes with Tibet. Ghana Nand Khanduri was member of Forest Working Committee. Ghana Nand Khanduri helped many students for getting higher education. Ghana Nand Khanduri donated Rs, 35, 000 to Mukandi Lal for  visiting England for barrister degree.
In 1920, Narendra Shah honoured Ghana Nand Khanduri by offering a golden sword and a Khilat. When Ghana Nand Khanduri fell ill, King visited him for knowing his health.
Ghana Nand Khanduri expired on 28th July 1923 and King offered condolence (2)
        Border Disputes Settlements:-
There had been border disputes in West, North and North West border. There was border  dispute with Bushehar kingdom. Bhavani Datt Uniyal diffused dispute with Bushehar Kingdom. There was dispute for Dehradun border in Rishikesh. Bhavani Datt and King Narendra Shah had meeting with British officials and Kingdom agreed border up to Muni ki Reti only. Tehri lost some region to British. (1)

References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 22
2- Bhakta Darshan , 1952, Garhwal ki Divangat Vibhutiyan p 205
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Foreign  Tours by King Narendra Shah

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -30
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 222     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1469

By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

At the age of 25 , Narendra Shah suffered by rheumatism very severely in 1923. Narendra Shah consulted best doctors in India.   The advised the King for meeting European doctors. Narendra Shah toured to Europe in 1924 and got rid of rheumatism. In his absence, his grandmother Guleriya Jee used to look after the administration. In his second tour of Europe tour, Narendra Shah met England King too in 1926.
Narendra Shah again toured to Europe in 1930.
In 1935, Narendra Shah toured fourth time to Europe and attended the function of silver jubilee of King George V.
In 1937, Narendra Shah visited Europe sixth time for attending coronation of George VI.
In 1941, Narendra Shah visited Singapore and Malaysia for inspecting Garhwali Platoons.
Narendra Shah toured 7th time to foreign countries in 1949 and he visited UNO too. (1)
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 23
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Retirement of Bhavani Datt Uniyal

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -30
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 222     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1469

By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

    British political agent was not happy with Diwan Bhavani Datt Uniyal.  There were many  reasons for disputes between Bedham that  the political agent and chief minister Bhavani Datt.  Bhavani Datt Uniyal was not a hard liner imperialist as British officers. Uniyal had sympathy with nationalist thinking.  When in 1923, Congress leader Mukandi  Lal Barrister fought election for assembly election against Jodh Singh Negi,  Bhavani Datt Uniyal helped Mukandi Lal. In land settlement time in Tehri , Bhavani Datt and Jodh Singh had strong dispute.  Jodh Singh Negi was pet man of Bedham and Bedham became angry with chief minister Uniyal. It is a fact today too that people and rivals blame the big position holders in politics and organizations. There were people or rivals blaming Uniyal.(1)
  The King could never make British official angry .Therefore, Narendra Shah freed capable chief minister Bhavani Datt Uniyal  from his duties as minister in 192. However, Uniyal worked as consultant till 1926. Bhavani Datt shifted to Muni Ki Reti after retirement and died there on 6th October 1939.  Yogendra Daurgadatti created a long poetry Bhavanivilap. 
 Bhavani Datt  Uniyal had  formal education up to High school and he started his career as teacher  and reached up to Chief minister (Diwan)of Tehri  Kingdom. He had many interest as towards literature and Tantra Mantra. (2)
  The King appointed Chakradhar Juyal  as Diwan of Tehri in place of Bhavani Datt Uniyal .
 
References-
1-Govind Ram Kala, Juyal-Diwan Chakradhar Juyal  , an article pp 147-148
2-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 24

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Chakra Dhār Juyal:  a Capable Administrator

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -32
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 224     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1471

By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

  The administration sorted two candidates for the post of Diwan (Home Minister or Chief Minister) in place of Bhavani Datt Uniyal. One was Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht and Chakra Dhar Juyal. Tehri king wanted a person that can administrate the Kingdom and could have amicable relationship with British officials in United Province. Shiv Narayan Singh Bisht had been at high post in Nahan .However, Bisht did not have any experience working with British officials in Unite Province (UP) . Chakra Dhar Juyal had good experience working in United Province and had good relation with British officials. British Government honoured Chakra Dhar as Rai Bahadur too for his faithfulness.  Narendra Shah also wanted a person who could suppress the nationalist thinking from the kingdom.  Chakra Dhar Juyal was known administrator against nationalist thinking. King Narendra Shah sent a request to United Province administration for deputing Chakra Dhar Juyal for the Diwan position in Tehri Garhwal.  Chakra Dhar Juyal took charge of Tehri Diwan on 25th June 1925.
   Chakra Dhar Juyal  was born in 1876 in Jhanjhad Ganv of Sitaunsyun , Poudi Garhwal. His father Gajadhar Juyal was an astrologer and Karmkandi Brahmin. After passing B.A from Allahabad, Chakradhar Juyal was appointed Nayab Tehsildar of Almora. He was promoted first  Tehsildar and then in 1908, Juyal was promoted as Deputy Superintendent of Police . He was awarded by ‘Sword of Honour’ by government for catching dacoits. (1)
Chakradhar Juyal was not the administrator who just obeyed the King. He had his own individuality and used to cautious the King for avoiding many decisions.  Many times, Chakradhar Juyal stopped the King taking decisions.  Juyal used to give priority to the Kingdom rather than the King. (2).
References-
1-Govind Ram Kala‘s article in book ‘Diwan Chakradhar Juyal’ . p 147-48
2-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 24
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Border Dispute Diffusion with Himachal Pradesh

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -32
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 224     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1471

By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

   There had been border disputes for western Garhwal with Himachal for long. British Officers used to support  for Himachal. Chakradhar Juyal said in straight words “ There had been agreement between King (Britain) and Tehri King on paper or Sanad. Political Agent and Viceroy are servant under England King. If we are not satisfied by your decision we have freedom to take or case to the England King through secretary of state”. The British officials were not habitual of such straight language but could no go against the logic of Diwan Chakra Dhar Juyal. British officials gave decision in favour of Tehri Garhwal.(1)
     Gabbar Singh memorial House-
   Gabbar Singh martyred in the war field and British Government declared Victoria cross award for him . The VC  award was given to his wife.  The King built a memorial in the memory and bravery of Gabbar Singh Negi in Chamba in 1925. (2)
References-
1-Govind Ram Kala‘s article in book ‘Diwan Chakradhar Juyal’ . p 158 -59
2-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 26
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Narendra Shah establishing Pratinidhi Sabha (People’s Representative Council)
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -34
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 226     
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1473
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
 Narendra Shah established Rajya Pratinidhi Sabha in first year of taking charge of the kingdom.  He established Pratinidhi Sabha as per advice of Diwan Bhavani Datt Uniyal for gaining cooperation from all sects of citizens in 1923. (1). initially, there were limited objectives and rights of Pratinidhi Sabha. There were more members nominated members  from the king than  elected members by citizens in that council. The citizens those used to pay land tax annually more than Rs. 10 could elect the council members. Initially the council was a decorative body. from 1939, the King offered more rights to the people’s representative council.  The numbers of nominated members were reduced to 15 from 20   and the numbers of elected members were 20. The King was chairman of the council and Kunwar Vichitra Shah  (uncle of Narendra Shah ) was vice chairperson of the people’s representative council. (2)
   There were no rights for the members to elect chairperson of the council.  The aggressive revolutionists called that that council was mere a puppet of the King and Kingdom.  (3)

References –
1-Daurgadatti –Narendravanshakavya page e10
2- Bhakta Darshan , Garhwal ki Divangat Vibhutiyan page 192-194
3-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 27
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Tours in Indian Territory by Narendra Shah

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -35
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 227   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1474

By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

Narendra Shah travelled in India as follows (1)-
1928- Narendra Shah visited Sweta Bandhu Rameshwar and Dwarika with his both the wives.1932-Traveled to Kashmir
1933-Viisted Ganagsagar
1938-Visited ranikhet
1942- Visited Badrinath –Kedarnath
  Chakradhar Juyal killing Man-eater Tiger –
Jim Courbet killed a man eater tiger in Rudraprayag in May 1925. Within a year, another man- eater tiger started attacking people and killing them in South Tehri Garhwal.  There was terror from Dev Prayag to Kirti Nagar. Diwan Chakradhar Juyal killed that man eater tiger. People were happy and they gathered in the capital Tehri  and gifted a silver  idol of the tiger to Juyal. King Narendra Shah also appreciate Juyal.
     King  appointing Chakradhar Juyal as Diwan-
Chakradhar Juyal was disciplined administrator and always used to be ready for state growth . King was happy with him and he appointed officially Juyal as Diwan in 1929. The King offered him gold bracelet as sign of King family or state officer. (2)
 Banning liquor Production- There was custom of liquor production at each home in Jaunsar,   Jaunpur and Ravain . Due to over consumption of liquor, there were many diseases as leprosy in the regions. Chakra Dhar Juyal took bold discussion to ban liquor production. (3)
 Free from Milsara Tax-
There was a common custom in Ravain Jaunsar and Jaunpur as Milsara. In those regions, many times the divorced couples sued to reunite (Milsara) and used to pay Milsara tax for making that marriage (Reunion) legal from court. Chakradhar Juyal stopped that Milsara tax for ever.
  Cancelling Saun Seri tax-
The Saun Seri  tax was very old tax for centuries. The state  used to take tax  as half Ghnati Ghee when a cow or buffalo used to deliver . Chakradhar Juyal cancelled that tax too in 1930 (1).
References-
1-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 27-28
2-Karmabhumi 15th December 1939
3-Juyal Diwan Chakradhar Juyal book, pp 74-75
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Restlessness in Kumaon, British Garhwal and Tehri Garhwal 
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -36
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 228   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1475
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
  From Firs word war, the freedom movement was taking shape in India and by the end of 1930, the movement had taken shape in Garhwal and Kumaon too.
  At the same time, there was restlessness among people in Kumaon, British Garhwal and Tihri Garhwal about their forest rights. In the name of forest management, British Government reduced the rights of people on forest.  Tihri kings also reduced rights of people on forests. The notorious three officers - Sir John Hibet, Sir John Campbel and Sir Collectrowac   announced an order in 1883, that there would not be any rights of villages on lands that came under unmeasured land without any record  , hills, snowy land, ponds, lakes, rivers rivulets, many forests  etc.(1)
At that same time, the Government divided the forests into three categories – A, B, C. There were no any rights on A type of forests, there were very low rights on B types of forests and the C types of forests were lower density   forests near villages. In 1994, Government alos decalred Devdaru, Pine,Sal , Tun , Kahir (catechu) as protective trees and the villagers had to take permission to cut their own tress from government (1).
   The government also stopped hunting; fishing and people had to take government permission for hunting and fishing.  Government fined and jailed many persons in British Garhwal and Kumaon. (1)
 There was restlessness in British Garhwal and as well  in Tehri Garhwal too .
 
References-
1-Pandey Badridatt, Kumaon ka Itihas p 469
2-Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 39
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Restlessness in Tehri due to Forest policies

History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -37
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 229   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1476

By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)

 The Kumaon Commissioner Bidham took appropriate actions for defusing tension in Kumaon Commissionaire.
In Tehri, there was land settlement in 1927-28 and the villagers’ rights on forest were reduced. Therefore, there was acute unrest among citizens. (4).   In many villages (in Ravayi), the cow shades, village paths and Khalihan are also put under forest zones by the settlement officers. The grass lands were also taken under state forest region. (2). The Kingdom was interested in earning money from forests and was keeping eyes closed for citizen’s comforts and rights. There became shortage of grassland and when people complained to the officers about no land for grazing the animals, those cruel officers used to answer “throw the animals into valley”(2)
  The curbing on the forests rights of people created severe tension and restlessness in Tehri Garhwal as happened in British Uttarakhand.
References-
1-Settlement Report Uttarkashi
2- Karma Bhumi 26th January 1956.
3- Tehri Garhwal forest manual page 23
4 -Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page  41
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Start of Rights on Forest Movement in Ravain, Jaunpur Uttarkashi
History of Tehri King Narendra Shah -38
History of Tehri Kingdom (Tehri and Uttarkashi Garhwal) from 1815 –1948- 230   
  History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) – 1477
By: Bhishma Kukreti (History Student)
    Indian Freedom Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi:-
  The Indian Freedom Movement had been there big news and  inspiring news for Tehri Garhwal citizens. There had been freedom movement in British Garhwal and Kumaon.  The newspapers in India used to publish news along with photos about freedom fighters, people greeting freedom fighters with great enthusiasm .Newspapers also used to publish photos of people greeting freedom fighters. In Rajat a place  on the road from Chakrata  to Ravain , Shop keeper  lala ram Prasad used to call newspaper for his own reading . However, Ravain n people from nearby villages and tourists used to come there for reading news about freedom fight to the shop. The Ravain citizens   took much interest in reading freedom fight news there. Usually , one person used to read and other used  to hear the news.  The Ravain citizens got inspired by Indian freedom movement news .  A few brave citizens decided to start fight forest right movement in Ravain, They founded  Hira Singh from Nagan village  , Dayaram from Kesaru village and Baijram from Khumundi –Gaudar took responsibilities for leading the forest right movement. Lal Ram Prasad of Rajtar used to convey their news to each other (!). Ravain citizens founded ‘Azad Panchayat’. . From forest point of view, Azad Panchayat’ worked as parallel government in  Tehri Garhwal. Azad Panchayat declared that every citizen has rights on forest produces consumption. There was strong emotion among people against forest department.  People started giving position to Azad Panchayat members as King and Diwan. Hira Singh was called as ‘Panch Sarkar’ and Baijram as Teen  Sarkar.  The Ravain –Jaunpur people started opposing the government rules and started harming government forests. The forest department officers escaped away from Ravain. Azad Panchayt  made a seal of jug (Lote ka Chhap ) too.  (2).
  The people organization in Jaunpur and Ravain regions became stronger.  People decided to have people conference in Chandadokhari , Thaple of Talari.  Initially, Thokdar (landlord) too part  in movement for getting  benefits from the movement for getting more rights as land Lords.  (3). However, their desire fulfilment was not possible in people’s movement and land lords became spies for the government.  The Kingdom administration was aware of the strong feeling against the kingdom from people by that movement.  Sensing the strength of movement, the t Administration  sent ex-Prime Minister  Hari Krishna Raturi for calming down the movement.  Raturi assured them for positive decision and retaining their  forest  from the Kingdom.
   One side, there was talks and getting amicable solution from the talk by sending Raturi to Ravain. At the same , there was court case against the movement activist in the court of D.M Surendra  Datt at Rajgarhi (Ravain) .   DFO Padma Datt Raturi initiated the court case against the activists  as Dayaram, Rudrasingh, Lala Ramprasad and Jamman Singh.   S.D.M. found them guilty and gave decision of jail for those activists.   The situation in Ravain –Jaunpur was explosive.  The people were to much restless. Therefore, when the accused were being taken to Tehri court from Rajgarhim, there were policemen and Patwari with them. SDM Surendra Datt and  DFO Padma datt Raturi were also there with police party.
   When the police party along with accused reached to near Dandiyal village, the movement activists attacked on police party for releasing the so called accused.(5) There were gun firing from both the sides. DFO fired from his revolver for his defence. By his firing Gyan Singh of Nagan village was killed. It is also said that The revolver  fire by Raturi killed two persons – Joon Singh and  Ajit Singh (5).  SDM Surendra Datt was also injured.  Padma Datt Raturi ran away from the scene. Policemen also ran away from the field.
 Movement Activists captured Surendra Datt as captive. Activists took the so called accused ones  to Rajtar.
  Chakradhar Juyal decided to teach lesson to the activists and wanted to create fear in the region too. The King was on Europe Tour.  Diwan Chakra Dhar Juyal took permission to repress the movement by weapons from the United Province Governor. (4). The Chief Army staff  of Tehri state did not agree for firing on citizens. Chakradhar Juyal replaced Surendra Singh by Nathu Singh Sajwan and sent him to Ravain  for suppressing the rebellions. 
Dabral states that probably there were efforts for accord but talks failed.  (1). On 17th Jeth (May) , the army reached to Rajgarhi via Dharasu . The villagers had planning for stopping the army. However, second time, the villagers were unsuccessful. Thokdar /landlord Ranjit Singh welcomed armed force by wine and meat. That night, forces enjoyed the welcome by Ranjit Singh and Thokdar Lakhiram. Second day, soldiers caught the villagers .Both the Thokdars helped force for catching the innocent people.
  Second day, there was meeting of Aazad panchayt and people gathered at Chandadkhori. People started discussing on arrival of the force. Army surrounded people from three sides . There was a soliderAgam singh in army t from Ravain , he cautioned the people. Diwan blew the whistle and soldiers  started firing .Few people climbed on trees , afew lied down on ground and  a few jumped into Yamuna. Many were killed and injured . (Sundar Lal Bahuguna). In night, Diwan was sleeping and the injured young men cried by pain. Diwan ordered for killing them. The shop of Ramprasad at Rajtar was demolished. Next day, soldiers went to village to village and caught the people.
   As per government report, only four people were killed  and two were injured. As per that report , 194 people were caught by soldiers. (1)
As per Garhwali newspaper (12/7/1930), more than 100 people were killed and much more were caught.
As per Sundar Lal Bahuguna, 17 people were killed and soldiers fired 600 bullets.
 The king appreciated Chakradhar Juyal for his action after returning from Europe Tour. State government initiated court cases against the accused.  The Tehri government did not allow the accused for taking help of outside lawyers. The accused did lobbying for them.  Tehri Government initiated cases against 68 persons (innocent) and court decided from 1 to 20 years prisonment. 15 accused died in prison.  Police threw their dead bodies into Ganga.
    The king and other pro- Government personalities had opinions that Chakradhar Juyal took right decision for ordering gun firing and killing the activists. (6) .
 However, the people  were angry against the incidents and the people created folk song about incidents and criticizing the Killer Chakradhar Juyal. Those folk songs named Juyal as Khuni (the Killer).
              News in Media about Ravain Incident
Outside of Tehri Garhwal,  Garhwali, Hindu Sansar, Abhaya, Indian States Affairs Reformer etc., published the news about Ravain incidents.
 Hindu Sansar published articles (perhaps anonymous names) and criticized the acts of Tehri Government. Chakradhar Juyal had opinion that the writer was the editor Chandola of Garhwali. (1).
  Garhwali newspaper published news about Ravain incident on 28th  June 1930 declaring that 100 persosn died in the incidents and more than that numbers were injured.  The secretary of Tihri darbar sent reaction and that was published in Garhwali on 30th June 1930.The reaction stated that on 4 people were killed and 2 were injured. Ex Diwan Bhavani Datt Uniyal also criticized the acts of Juyal to his men.
Juyal pleaded case in the court against Chandola, Bhavani Datt  Uniyal , Sadanand Naithani etc.. (1)
 Vishwambar Datt Chandola was sent by Court to prison in Dehradun from 31st March 1933 to 3rd February 1934.
Chakradhar Juyal also took Tara Datt Gairola a intellectual and lawyer. Gairola criticized the Tehri kingdom in one conference. However, Gairola won the case and Tehri Government had to pay penalty to Gairola.

References-
1--Dabral S., Tehri Garhwal Rajya ka Itihas Bhag 2 (new edition), Veer Gatha Press, Dogadda, (1999) page 41 to 48
2-Settlement report Uttarkashi p 1
3- Sundar Lal Bahuguna ,Himkirit
4- Karmabhumi , 26 January 1956
5- Anarticle in Sarswati by Mukandi lal December 1970
6-Daurgidata , Narendravanshakavya 249-50
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